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J.UME XXVI NUMBER ONE 

JOURNAL 

of the 

SOCIETY OF MOTION 
PICTURE ENGINEERS 






JANUARY, 1936 



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JOURNAL 



OF THE SOCIETY OF 

MOTION PICTURE ENGINEERS 

Volume XXVI JANUARY, 1936 Number 1 

CONTENTS 

Page 

The Development and Use of Stereo Photography for Educa- 
tional Purposes C. KENNEDY 3 

Report of the Standards Committee 18 

Report of the Sound Committee 21 

Presidential Address H. G. TASKER 28 

Continuous Photographic Processing H. D. HINELINE 38 

Optical Printing and Technic LYNN DUNN 54 

Wide-Range Reproduction in Theaters 

J. P. MAXFIELD AND C. FLANNAGAN 67 

An Investigation of Sources of Direct Current for the Non- 
Rotating High-Intensity Reflecting Arc C. C. DASH 79 

Trends in 16-Mm. Projection, with Special Reference to Sound 
. . .A. SHAPIRO 89 

Symposium on New Motion Picture Apparatus : 

A Wide-Range Studio Spot Lamp for Use with 2000-Watt 

Filament Globes E. C. RICHARDSON 95 

An Automatic Daylight Continuous 35-Mm. Projection Ma- 
chine A.B. SCOTT 102 

The Vitachrome Diffusionlite System and Its Application . . . 
A. C. JENKING 104 

Society Announcements 107 



JOURNAL 

OF THE SOCIETY OF 

MOTION PICTURE ENGINEERS 



SYLVAN HARRIS, EDITOR 

Board of Editors 
J. I. CRABTREE, Chairman 

O. M. GLUNT A. C. HARDY L. A. JONES 

J. O. BAKER 



Subscription to non-members, $8.00 per annum; to members, $5.00 per annum, 
included in their annual membership dues; single copies, $1.00. A discount 
on subscriptions or single copies of 15 per cent is allowed to accredited agencies. 
Order from the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, Inc., 20th and Northampton 
Sts., Easton, Pa., or Hotel Pennsylvania, New York, N. Y. 

Published monthly at Easton, Pa., by the Society of Motion Picture Engineers. 

Publication Office, 20th & Northampton Sts., Easton, Pa. 
General and Editorial Office, Hotel Pennsylvania, New York, N. Y. 
Entered as second class matter January 15, 1930, at the Post Office at Easton, 
Pa., under the Act of March 3, 1879. Copyrighted, 1936, by the Society of 
Motion Picture Engineers, Inc. 

Papers appearing in this Journal may be reprinted, abstracted, or abridged 
provided credit is given to the Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers 
and to the author, or authors, of the papers in question. Exact reference as to 
the volume, number, and page of the Journal must be given. The Society is 
not responsible for statements made by authors. 



Officers of the Society 

President: HOMER G. TASKER, 4139 38th St., Long Island City, N. Y. 
Past-President: ALFRED N. GOLDSMITH, 444 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y. 
Executive Vice-President: EMERY HUSE, 6706 Santa Monica Blvd., Hollywood, 

Calif. 

Engineering Vice-President: LOYD A. JONES, Kodak Park, Rochester, N. Y. 
Editorial Vice-President: JOHN I. CRABTREE, Kodak Park, Rochester, N. Y. 
Financial Vice-President: OMER M. GLUNT, 463 West St., New York, N. Y. 
Convention Vice-President: WILLIAM C. KUNZMANN, Box 6087, Cleveland, Ohio. 
Secretary: JOHN H. KURLANDER, 2 Clearfield Ave., Bloomfield, N. J. 
Treasurer: TIMOTHY E. SHEA, 463 West St., New York, N. Y. 

Governors 

MAX C. BATSEL, Front & Market Sts., Camden, N. J. 
LAWRENCE W. DAVEE, 250 W. 57th St., New York, N. Y. 
ARTHUR S. DICKINSON, 28 W. 44th St., New York, N. Y. 
HERBERT GRIFFIN, 90 Gold St., New York, N. Y. 

ARTHUR C. HARDY, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. 
GERALD F. RACKETT, 823 N. Seward St., Hollywood, Calif. 
CARRINGTON H. STONE, 205 W. Wacker Drive, Chicago, 111. 
SIDNEY K. WOLF, 250 W. 57th St., New York, N. Y. 



THE DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF STEREO PHO- 
TOGRAPHY FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES* 



C. KENNEDY** 

Summary. Investigating the possibilities of stereo photography in connection with 
i he study of art and other subjects in schools and colleges, the various properties and the 
historical development of stereo are analyzed, and the significance of the outstanding 
steps in the development pointed out. 

After reviewing the theoretical conditions for accurate reconstruction of the binocular 
visual image, the practicability of the system using polarized anaglyphs is demon- 
strated and the advantages of stereo and its probable use in education discussed. 

The conclusions here presented embody the first results of an inves- 
tigation along practical lines made at the instance of the Carnegie 
Corporation and forming a part of the Corporation's carefully con- 
sidered program to stimulate and improve education in the fine arts. 
The writer was chosen to guide this particular project in its initial 
stages for the reason that, over a considerable number of years, in 
connection with research in the field of Italian sculpture at Smith 
College and under the auspices of that College in Italy, he had had 
the most exacting practical experience in the photography of objects 
of art, and had been active in the publication of these studies in a 
series of volumes illustrated by actual photographic prints. 

The problem in the form in which it was presented may be stated 
simply: sculpture is a three-dimensional art; for years, in fact since 
the earliest days of photography, the effective way in which the 
third dimension is reproduced by stereo photography has been em- 
phasized in theory and, under various conditions, proved in practice ; 
why, then, is its use for serious study in our colleges and secondary 
schools practically non-existent? After a period of the most exag- 
gerated popular enthusiasm for its miracle-working properties, an 
enthusiasm that reached its height not far from a century ago, the 
stereo viewer, with its battery of warped cardboard stereograms, has 
been laid upon the shelf. Every attempt to revive it in a different 

*Presented at the Fall, 1935, Meeting at Washington, D. C. 
**Smith College, Northampton, Mass. 



4 C. KENNEDY fj. S. M. P. E. 

form has been heralded by the Press as the promise of a new wonder 
of the age, but, from the point of view of general interest, has failed 
of its mark. Even very real steps in advance have been turned to 
account only for technical side issues, such as surveying, or have be- 
come the hobby of a somewhat fanatical brotherhood of camera own- 
ers who have, in their enthusiasm, gone even as far as to publish their 
own periodical, but have never succeeded in establishing stereo 
photography as a normal and basic means of presenting visual truth. 
Recent technical literature is full of mournful allusions to the beau- 
ties of stereoscopy, and the assertion that there is no sensible explana- 
tion of its failure to find its proper recognition. Yet one can not pos- 
sibly postulate apathy upon the part of the public : if we may take 
the newspapers as an indication of the attitude of the masses we can 
discern in their policy so tense an expectation that stereo is to be the 
new order of things that they rush into print with the wildest schemes 
of the crank inventor. Recognizing this, the Carnegie Corporation 
had reason to hope that the trouble lay only in the fact that the pub- 
lic had not been given solid enough food that they had outgrown 
their wonder at viewing a child with a doll through an antimacassar, 
and even the Obelisk of Luxor and it was the writer's job to make 
new stereograms providing material for more serious pursuits for 
the study of the sculptures of Donatello and of Michelangelo. It was 
in trying to do this that I became aware of factors that provided, I 
believe, a more fundamental explanation of the situation, and gave 
me faith in the importance of stereo in the future. 

These factors may be summarized under two headings, of one of 
which we are acutely aware. This is the unsocial character of all 
practical stereo viewing to date : it has remained, in a sense, a labora- 
tory phenomenon, because only one person at a time can see a given 
view; and even he must, for that moment, submit to being cut off 
from the outside world while he holds his eyes stationary before a 
piece of unfamiliar apparatus. Though that is probably the chief 
reason why stereo has remained a thing apart, it is doubtful whether 
it can alone account for the apathy of the serious student in fields 
such as the writer's. To explain such apathy we must first postulate 
a property of the intelligence that shows not in conscious theories 
but in conduct. Apathy, dissatisfaction, or an unreasoning aversion 
may be the result of an unanalytic recognition of positive faults or 
even of the lack of something essential, though the individual may be 
quite unaware of the nature or the cause of his reactions. My own 



Jan., 1936] STEREO PHOTOGRAPHY IN EDUCATION 5 

contribution to the photography of sculpture has been to insist upon 
qualities that, it is supposed, the average person can not appreciate; 
yet in this work the public has invariably responded to them quite 
spontaneously once such results had been achieved. Faults of a 
secondary order exist in all systems of stereo customarily used, and 
personally the writer is convinced that they have been responsible for 
more trouble than the small actual differences between right and wrong 
would indicate. 

It is not proposed to review again the history of stereo, but it may 
help to bear in mind the fundamental problem in its simplest form, and 
to point out the relation between the various attempted solutions. 
Fundamentally it is this : we must procure two pictures correspond- 
ing respectively to the images that the two eyes receive when per- 
forming their normal functions under the given conditions ; we must 
then place the two pictures before the observer in such a way that 
each eye again functions normally when presented with its proper 
view. Ideally, the eyes should be unable to distinguish the views 
from the images they would receive from the object itself under these 
same conditions. It is true that the most fantastic proposals pur- 
porting to disclose a short-cut to three-dimensional photography are 
repeatedly made by persons who claim that by chance or ingenuity 
they can produce a stereoscopic effect note the word effect with- 
out taking two pictures and particularly without providing adequate 
means whereby each eye sees its proper image. Thus, they either 
ignore or vainly hope to dispense with these requirements, which 
H. E. Ives has recently defined as the axioms of stereo photography 
"vainly," because when the observer looks at the three-dimensional 
world about him, the images formed upon the retina of his left and 
his right eye, respectively, are alike only in one respect, and that is 
philosophically, or conceptually; in plainer language, they are im- 
ages of the same subject. In every other respect from the point of 
view of geometry, of measurement, and of color the left and right 
eye images that we so carelessly regard as almost the same are actually 
completely different. The distances between the trees, the shapes of 
the stones, the colors of the leaves are distinctly and measurably dif- 
ferent. One of the most amazing of human faculties is the ability of 
the mind to unite the flat images upon the left and the right retinas 
into a three-dimensional composite that seems to have existence in 
space. Every serious proposal, the record of which has figured in 
the history of stereoscopy, has admitted the necessity for the two 



6 C. KENNEDY [J. S. M. p. E. 

images, and inventive energy has expended its force almost exclu- 
sively upon devising methods of presenting them separately to the 
proper eyes. If one may imagine the two photographs to be the size 
of the object itself, he can see that they will occupy their proper posi- 
tions in relation to the eye only if they are superposed ; and if the size 
be decreased they will still overlap and must be separated. Whether 
this be done by crossing the axes of vision before reaching the pic- 
tures, placed, in this case, in reverse order side by side, as Eliot pro- 
posed; or by mirrors, as Wheatstone first suggested; or by prisms, 
or lenses used in such a way as to take advantage of their prismatic 
effect when viewed off axis, as they were in the popular Brewster 
stereoscope, the parent of most of those in use today; or by making 
the positives so small that when viewed through lenses even without 
prisms they may stand unreversed side by side, as they do in von 
Rohr's doppel-verant; or by transforming them into color anaglyphs 
in all these we may recognize the preoccupation of the inventor with 
the problem of providing for the proper disposition of the two photo- 
graphs. 

Accepting, then, the principle that we must start with two dis- 
parate images, there was first the problem of choosing the most prom- 
ising of the various methods of separating the images and presenting 
each to the proper eye. It seemed reasonable to explore especially 
the methods that gave some hope of a really social procedure, which 
did not involve a temporary separation of the observer from his fel- 
lows. They are few; they reduce, in fact, to two : upon the one hand, 
those depending upon a critical angle of view, a device that was used 
by Eliot in a crude form and which is much better provided for in the 
parallax stereoscope suggested by Ives; and upon the other hand, 
those that make use of anaglyphs. In the parallax stereoscope, as in 
all the simple forms of apparatus depending upon a critical angle of 
view, the possible shift of the point of observation is limited to one- 
half the interocular distance, or somewhat less than 35 millimeters, 
so that we probably should not have thought of it as capable of a wider 
application had it not been for the amazingly complete survey of the 
possibilities of the system by Dr. Ives, a survey of which the parallax 
panoramagram now successfully used in advertising is an important 
by-product. It is the only system that asks nothing of the observer, 
and, the writer believes, will have its applications also in education. 
Dr. Ives has, however, pointed out its ultimate limitations, which, in 
the narrower field of this study, are serious. 



Jan., 1936] STEREO PHOTOGRAPHY IN EDUCATION 7 

In the past, anaglyphs have been limited, for practical purposes, 
to the use of red and green glasses with correspondingly colored im- 
ages. It might be possible, and has probably already been proposed, 
to select other colors which would at the same time give a more pleas- 
ant looking image and reduce the faults arising from color rivalry, of 
which more will be said later; but at the present moment in the his- 
tory of the industry any method of separating the images by color is 
ruled out by the simple fact that it could not be used with color pho- 
tography when we get it. It was very fortunate, then, that at this 
critical moment, the invention of sheet polarizer made possible upon 
a practical scale the differentiation of the images by polarized light, a 
method that has long been proposed, and has even been tried upon 
an experimental scale, in so far as that was possible, with a Nicol 
prism by Anderton as early as 1893. The problem that seemed so 
hopeless in the first months of the present investigation could, with 
the use of this material, be approached in the most straightforward way. 

What were the questions that remained, after this solution for the 
basic problem was accepted? It will be seen that, while those re- 
sponsible for the progress of stereo to date had been in agreement upon 
essentials, they had differed in respect to the convenience or practica- 
bility of the methods they proposed, and in the extent to which they 
provided, or failed to provide, for the fulfillment of the other condi- 
tions implicit in our statement of the problem. Sometimes the limi- 
tations seem purely arbitrary. Practically all the cameras built for 
stereo have the disadvantage, serious for the author's work, that as 
we try to photograph nearer and nearer objects the images of the ob- 
jects go farther and farther off the plate. Obviously, this condition 
can easily be rectified by giving up the attempt to keep the axes of 
the two lenses parallel and by turning the cameras as the eye would 
turn. In other cases the limitations are inherent in the method. 
Often they are not serious. For example, some systems of stereo 
viewing have not been used as commonly as they might otherwise 
have been because they require two prints large enough to be prop- 
erly viewed at a distance great enough for the eye unaided by lenses 
to focus upon them. Such is the case with the Wheatstone stereo- 
scope, using mirrors, which, in its simpler forms, requires also the re- 
versal of one or both the prints. While this has apparently militated 
against the popularity that the device might otherwise have been ex- 
pected to have had, the instrument has found its proper uses in the 
experimental laboratory where it has been extensively employed, es- 



8 C. KENNEDY [J. S. M. P. E. 

pecially for the study of the physiological properties of the eye. Many 
methods, taking advantage of the commonly accepted theory that the 
proper exercise of the physical functions of convergence and accom- 
modation is not a necessary condition of reasonable viewing, fail to 
provide for one or the other or both. Viewing two transposed pic- 
tures set side by side by crossing the axes of vision before reaching the 
plane of the pictures obviously gives a convergence that is always ex- 
aggeratedly more than what would ordinarily accompany the accom- 
modation of the lenses of the eyes looking at the plane ; and since this 
situation is so extreme, there is usually no attempt when using the 
method to match either convergence or accommodation to the original 
experience of the observer when viewing the object. Very few of the 
lens stereoscopes are built with a view to reproducing the conditions 
of convergence and accommodation; the common type seems rather 
to have been constructed on the theory that the most restful position 
of the eyes, and therefore (though this does not make sense) the de- 
sirable one, is when set for near infinity. Moreover, prisms, in most 
of the foims in which they are used, give distortions that we must 
assume in general are ignored. 

How are we to find our way among the mass of variant interpreta- 
tions of the meaning of refinements in stereoscopic presentation ? All 
these methods, as contrasted with purely visionary ones, work; and 
if they worked well enough we could learn from them how to proceed 
in our attempt to solve the purely social aspects of the problem. But, 
as used, they are not without annoying defects. In varying ways and 
in varying combinations the minor factors that they disregard take 
their revenge. Though my eye muscles are practiced in acrobatics, 
and I can get beautiful clear images by crossing my gaze to view 
transposed pictures, in a few moments I am aware of a painful eye- 
strain; and wherever a separation between the normal convergence 
and accommodation occurs, this strain develops in a proportionate 
degree. The muscles that control the two functions are accustomed 
to working in unison, and although they can be trained to operate si- 
multaneously for different distances, discomfort, if not pain, results. 

Eye-strain of a different kind, which no amount of practice will re- 
duce, comes from the struggle and uncertainty to which the two eyes 
must submit in attempting to fuse two-color anaglyphs. In viewing 
red and green images through corresponding glasses the eye is pre- 
sented with two forces working against each other. The forms, which 
we shall assume are correct, are working for fusion; the colors are 



Jan., 1936 J STEREO PHOTOGRAPHY IN EDUCATION 9 

working for disassociation. In passages where form predominates, 
as in aerial views filled with minute detail, it will win, and few per- 
sons will have difficulty in achieving the three-dimensional sensation. 
Where larger areas of unbroken color exist, as they frequently would 
in colored anaglyphs of photographs of sculptured surfaces or objects 
seen against a plain background, the red area would struggle against 
uniting with the green area, and strain would result. 

Methods that rely upon attention to fix the gaze of the observer 
upon the right one of two pictures make no provision for obliterating 
from the field the picture that is not wanted; and it remains, a dis- 
turbing image of full intensity having a ghostly existence, flat, to 
either side of the desired image in three dimensions. 

Another series of annoying phenomena are distortions resulting 
from the neglect to take into account all the factors involved in the 
reproduction of normal viewing conditions. These have been more 
studied of late and it has been pointed out that many of them could 
be eliminated by modifications of existing apparatus. The most usual 
cause of exaggeration of depth is the intentional use in stereo cameras 
of an interlens distance larger than that of the average interocular. 
The public is supposed to like it. I could not find, in New York, a 
stereo camera that could be adjusted even to my own interocular of 
62.5 millimeters. The other most common cause of depth distur- 
bance is the failure to fulfill the requirements of a proper optical sys- 
tem for the lens viewer. It is here that much work has been done, 
though still more needs to be accomplished. The basic rule, as it is 
usually put, is that the focal length of the taking lens should be 
matched by that of the viewing lens. The real difficulty results from 
the change in effective focal length of lenses used on a focusing camera ; 
the remedy most recently advocated compensates for the trouble in- 
stead of eliminating it, and only under certain conditions is this 
advisable. 

Eye-strain and depth distortion are merely the two obvious troubles 
caused by defective systems. There are others for example, the 
curious appearance that objects have of dropping back into succes- 
sive planes instead of rounding plastically. There are indications 
that this may be due fundamentally to the failure in stereo still 
cameras to turn the plate, or, in a more practical sense, each half of 
the camera to correspond with the changing convergence of the 
eye. The theory must be that they are designed to work for infinity, 
defined in terms of clarity of focus, but stereo vision is very sensitive 



10 C. KENNEDY [J. S. M. p. E. 

to changes in convergence on objects much more distant than those 
in the nearest limits of the depth of field of a lens of the short focal 
length used when the two pictures are taken side by side upon the 
same plate. Any views not taken with the proper system, even those 
of subjects other than sculpture, made with a camera of the accepted 
type, will show this defect; with time, one becomes acutely aware 
of it. The same effect results from quite different causes : bad defini- 
tion due to a poor projecting lens, or coarse grain either in the lantern 
slide or in the screen, will destroy or disturb the accurate register of 
the smaller disparities upon which our stereoscopic sense of the round- 
ing of a surface depends; and again the three-dimensional character 
of the subject is reduced to a series of receding planes. 

There remains a category of trouble that does not show in deforma- 
tions of the stereoscopic views, but makes itself felt by retarding the 
action of the eyes in achieving fusion. In the earlier phases of this 
work it was quite customary for the observer to whom the views were 
being shown to shout, excitedly, "Oh! now I've got it!" When, as 
time went on, following the indications of theory, improvements in 
quality were introduced by converging the cameras, using larger nega- 
tives, reducing screen grain, and projecting through lenses with better 
definition, even when the differences were so slight that they seemed 
imaginary, the immediacy and ease with which the observer saw the 
three-dimensional image increased by geometrical progression. In 
the demonstration accompanying this paper, if one has difficulty in 
looking at the images upon the screen, either the lack of sufficient il- 
lumination, due to the fact that the design of lantern slide projectors 
has lagged so far behind that of motion picture projectors, must be 
blamed, or the rough surface of the screen. Also it should be remem- 
bered that one person in ten may be expected not to have normal 
stereoscopic vision, and an observer who does not customarily coor- 
dinate the use of his two eyes will see no better, but, if the report of 
those who have tried it may be trusted, at least no worse than he us- 
ually does. Moreover, the ocular parallax that produces stereoscopic 
vision is effective only in the direction of the separation of the eyes ; if 
the head is inclined when viewing photographs that were taken with the 
camera on its normal horizontal bed, the effectiveness of the disparities 
will be diminished. The spectacles are so made as to discourage this.* 

*Spectacles equipped with polarizing material 1 corresponding to polarizers in 
the stereo head of a lantern slide projector were supplied to the audience, with 
which to view the stereograms projected upon the screen. 



Jan., 1936] STEREO PHOTOGRAPHY IN EDUCATION 11 

Judging, then, from the contradictions and inaccuracies in the ex- 
perimental data that had accumulated in the past, we might say that 
at the outset of this investigation, although we knew the minimum re- 
quirements, we could not trust, without testing them further, theo- 
ries that this or that additional factor was negligible; the results of 
accepted methods have not been good enough to warrant admitting 
the assumptions upon which they were based. Moreover, experi- 
ments had been difficult to perform. One of the great beauties of 
the new polarizer used in this system was that it made possible not 
only one but several new methods of viewing stereoscopic photographs 
which, between them, permitted the greatest freedom and flexibility 
of experimentation. The writer has, moreover, been fortunate in 
having been able to avail himself of the technical advice of the inven- 
tor, Mr. Land, and of his associate, Mr. Wheelwright, who have 
followed the successive stages of the development of the project 
with the closest attention. 

At the outset, it was decided that the best way of finding what a 
good stereo reproduction looked like was to reproduce faithfully, and, 
wherever it was possible, in the minutest detail, the physical experi- 
ence of vision. If I were asked what were the conditions for perfect 
stereo viewing I should not, at this moment, relax any of these pre- 
cautions. Since this is, in a sense, the crucial question, we should 
perhaps analyze the situation implied by such a statement. For per- 
fect viewing, or for orthostereoscopy, one should have two cameras or 
their equivalent; toed in for any given picture to the angle of conver- 
gence of the eyes; pivoting about an axis corresponding to the axis of 
rotation of the eye-balls, and, like that axis, the distance of the radius 
of the eye-ball behind the forward nodal point of each lens; and sepa- 
rated by the observer's interocular distance. The pictures should 
then be seen at actual size, normal to the axis of vision, and points on 
a vertical line through the intersection of the axes of vision must be 
superposed. For perfect results the observer can be in only one spot, 
exactly in front of the point upon which his attention was fastened 
(and hence upon which the cameras were focused, a point that would 
normally be the middle of the picture) and at the distance equal to 
that of the forward nodal point of the taking lenses from this point of 
the object. His convergence and accommodation then are matched 
and reduplicate those he would have used when looking at the object 
from the position of the camera. Even these highly specialized con- 
ditions can be achieved with the apparatus now available, and even 



12 C. KENNEDY [J. S. M. P. E. 

if it be not necessary to insist upon such perfection for practical pur- 
poses, it is highly desirable to be able at any time to refer to it as a 
standard of excellence. 

How far may we safely relax these restrictions in order to adapt the 
procedure to larger groups? That question the present demonstra- 
tion will answer. As it is now set, the projector marks the line back 
of which it would be undesirable to be seated for a projected picture of 
the size upon the screen.* If the audience were larger it would be 
necessary merely to increase the size of the picture proportionately. 
The desirable size, then, as computed for these pictures is approxi- 
mately what one would normally use. We accept without much 
question distortion of one kind or another in motion pictures as 
now shown. Von Rohr has pointed out that because the perspective 
of any given view was a function of the distance of the camera from 
the object at the time, there is only one spot, at any moment in the 
course of the changing conditions that the reel produces, from which 
the image upon the screen can look right. Furthermore, in far too 
many theaters the angle of projection is extreme, and although, if the 
throw is long enough, the focus at top and bottom is passable, the en- 
largement of the picture as one looks toward the bottom is pro- 
nounced. In most theaters, too, the entire screen is above the au- 
dience, so that the angle of view produces distortion even from the 
central seats, not to speak of the recognized distortions from the side. 
Stereo views are subject in much the same way to exactly the same 
destructive forces and there is no theoretical reason why the re- 
sults should be worse. This audience has undoubtedly been looking 
for distortions, and has seen them. The public, too, may be more 
aware of them at first, because of the novelty of the medium; then, 
as in the case of flat photography, they may end by ignoring them. 
It is possible that, because stereo is so much more completely a repro- 
duction of reality, it may be more difficult to make such allowances as 
we are accustomed to make for photographs and paintings, which are 
more obviously conventions. In presenting stereo to public audi- 
ences it would seem, therefore, a sound policy to avoid at least all 
causes of distortion that are unnecessary, such as the exaggerated in- 
terocular distance in the taking cameras. Those who have interocu- 
lars representing departures one way or the other from the average 
will, in general, have to suffer for it, although, if they were fussy, wide- 

*About 6 by 8 feet. 



Jan., 1936] STEREO PHOTOGRAPHY IN EDUCATION 13 

eyed people could compensate for the difference to a considerable ex- 
tent by sitting farther back and narrow-headed people by taking seats 
in front. The size of the picture should be figured, in relation to the 
average focal length of the taking camera, for the distance to a point 
somewhat nearer the front than the middle of the block of seats. The 
larger the picture and the greater its distance, the more persons could 
see it with the minimum distortion of depth as well as of the other 
two dimensions. Gigantism is no more to be feared, and no less, 
than in the two-dimensional cinema. Stereo, in fact, provides the 
only means of controlling scale, but this can be done under theater 
conditions only at the expense of comfort. Care must be taken not 
to permit a careless operator to separate the pictures by more than 
interocular distance, for he might make the audience even sea-sick; 
but a shift in the direction of convergence, if slight, would by most 
persons be followed without great discomfort; and close-ups, which 
should look smaller, would appear better if so treated. Registration 
would have to be exact, for a vertical shift in either picture as com- 
pared with the other would make fusion difficult and unstable and 
produce strain. 

The next question that will undoubtedly be raised is, "How com- 
plicated is the apparatus that would be required?" The reply that is 
most directly to the point is that the stereograms being shown in this 
demonstration are being projected from single lantern slides of regu- 
lation size by a single 500-watt projector of the usual type, burning, 
for the moment, an over-voltaged 1000- watt motion picture projection 
bulb and equipped in front of the lens with a stereo head, about 4 
inches cube, containing the two polarizers corresponding to your spec- 
tacles. The images, as may have been noticed, may separately be 
slid at will to the side to provide for changes in convergence, or up and 
and down to correct any vertical shift that may by chance be present. 
The double camera with which the sculptures were photographed had 
an interlocking converging and focusing device so that convergence 
automatically followed focus. A still simpler camera is now being 
designed, on the model of the projector. As regards the feasibility of 
using similar apparatus for the motion picture, obviously the distinc- 
tion is not a fundamental one. Whatever we have learned from the 
work already done holds equally true for motion pictures : the greater 
refinement of the equipment should lead to pictures of even better 
quality than these. 

What does one gain by the use of stereo? This question should be 



14 C. KENNEDY [J. S. M. p. E. 

put with the utmost seriousness at this time. The age-old problem 
of presentation is so nearly solved that before we embark upon an 
attempt to arrange the practical details of its use in various fields we 
should stop to make sure what it is we expect from it. When the 
Carnegie Corporation asked the writer to investigate for them the 
possibilities of the use of stereo in the schools and colleges, this un- 
doubtedly was the result of a purely spontaneous idea that occurred 
to somebody in a quite unassuming way, but there is every evidence 
that such an idea did not occur to them alone. From all sides there is 
a sudden and incomprehensible interest in stereo, even before color is 
developed to the point where we know exactly how to proceed with 
that newest of all conquests of the reproduction of the visual world. 

To the average person, stereo is synonymous with the third dimen- 
sion. We must not forget that there are factors other than stereo 
from which we get the effect of depth even in a single image upon the 
screen overlap, the shape of contours, the shape and position of re- 
flections, light, shade, cast shadow and reflected light, atmospheric 
effects, depth of focus, and the relative apparent movements of ob- 
jects when they or the camera is in motion. It is a cumulative body 
of effects that build up, even without binocular vision, a strong sen- 
sation of depth, and are important in adding to its poignancy when a 
picture is seen stereoscopically. But the stereoscopic sensation of 
depth is something of a different order, which can best be described 
by the word "reality," and there can be no hesitation in accepting the 
popular verdict that that is its most striking aspect. Most persons 
do not realize that binocular vision has other important implications 
that improve even the photograph of an object that does not have 
three dimensions. They would unquestionably believe me a quack if 
they heard the report that I proposed to photograph paintings with 
this system, or they would assume that I expected in that way to in- 
fuse them with a false stereoscopic depth. But there is another prop- 
erty of binocular vision that is even more exciting at the present mo- 
ment because it has a direct application to color. It results from the 
principle that in specular reflection the angle of incidence is equal to 
the angle of reflection. For a given light-source the direction of the 
surface of the object that would fulfill this condition must be different 
for each eye, to an extent that increases as the eyes, always a constant 
distance apart, approach nearer the object. Thus, the bright spot 
that appears in one position upon the object for the left eye will be 
seen in a different place by the right eye displaced, that is, in a way 



Jan., 1936] STEREO PHOTOGRAPHY IN EDUCATION 15 

determined by the shape of the contiguous surface. To put it in an- 
other way, the same unit of surface will appear bright for one eye and 
darker for the other. This type of retinal disparity is the most 
powerful phenomenon that gives meaning to reflection, or sheen or 
luster, which in flat photographs has been the bane of the photog- 
rapher. For the first time we have been able to make a bronze figure 
look like bronze; one can see even that the surface has been waxed! 

The significance this has for color is not self-evident, but those who 
have been confronted with new color processes challenging the under- 
standing and have looked at natural objects repeatedly through a 
spectroscopic analyzer, will already be aware of the amazing extent 
to which even the surfaces that we think of as matte are reflecting, 
with its color unchanged, the light that falls upon them. You have 
also had evidence of this in the films prepared by Mr. J. W. McFar- 
lane, 2 in which either wholly or partly, as the case may be, these re- 
flections have been removed with a polarizing sheet. In this, as in 
other physical sensations, we are not given to analyzing our impres- 
sions; we are none the less aware of any failure in reproducing them. 
The difference may be illustrated by describing an experience in mak- 
ing a Dufay stereo color picture on two 5 X 7-inch films. I was 
photographing a bronze head of Paul Robeson, by Epstein, and my 
first shock came when I had to remove the bronze from a room with a 
window opening out upon a lawn because of the vivid green reflections 
from the grass all over the bronze. A room with gray burlap walls 
proved a suitable place, but the two positives were very disappointing. 
I blamed the film especially for its failure to record the black of the 
polished marble base it was a dirty gray. Discouraged, I had little 
will to make the effort to arrange the films so that they could be 
viewed in stereo, but, to my amazement, when I did, the base went 
black! Then only did I realize how much reflected gray light had 
been coming from it, which, in the single print mingled with the black 
and became a part of it, but which, in the stereo, was recognized as a 
mere reflection, and, in a sense, disregarded, as in life. 

It follows that, even when we succeed in obtaining films that will 
truthfully reproduce the colors of nature, they will not seem true until 
we add binocular vision. Meanwhile, even imperfect color looks far 
more reasonable in stereo. Pictures with gold backgrounds have 
been the despair of critics who must lecture with an image upon the 
screen, and even the yellow of the best color photograph is pasty look- 
ing; but in these pictures we have gold! Experiments made with 



16 C. KENNEDY [J. S. M. P. E. 

paintings in tempera, and especially with those painted in oil, with 
luminous glazes by the great Venetian masters, would indicate that 
this phenomenon is still an important one in its less spectacular forms. 
The future of stereo in the educational field is clear, then. It will be 
invaluable in art, in botany, geology, mineralogy, in experimental 
psychology, in medical schools, and wherever accurate reproduction 
of the visual image is an axiomatic need. Furthermore, in this edu- 
cational program the motion picture will have an undeniable place. 

(During the presentation of Professor Kennedy's paper, spectacles fitted with polar- 
izing filters were supplied to. the audience, with which to view the polarized anaglyphs 
projected upon an aluminum screen by means of a lantern slide projector. More than 
150 such spectacles were distributed among the audience and a large number of views 
of objects of art, sculpture, etc., and outdoor scenes were seen in stereoscopic relief.} 

REFERENCES 

1 TUTTLE, F., AND McFARLANE, J. W. \ "Introduction to the Photographic Pos- 
sibilities of Polarized Light," /. Soc. Mot. PicL Eng., XXV (July, 1935), No. 1, 
p. 69. 

2 MCFARLANE, J. W. : "Demonstration of Photography by Polarized Light," 
presented at the Fall, 1935, Meeting at Washington, D. C.; to be published in a 
forthcoming issue of the JOURNAL. 

DISCUSSION 

MR. RICHARDSON: You said that the color would be different with reflected 
light. Exactly what, with two-eyed vision, would be different? 

MR. KENNEDY : In a single flat photograph the observer can not separate the 
color of the reflected light from the basic color. Consequently, we accept the 
mixture as the basic color, and the mixed color looks wrong. When we look at the 
object itself we are able, in a sense, to disregard the color that we recognize as that 
of the reflected light, and look through it, as it were, to the actual color of the sur- 
face. 

From the disparities in a stereogram we know which is the reflected color. 
We have only to remember the appearance of the best color photograph of gold or 
bronze, which are obvious and exaggerated examples of a lustrous material, to 
realize that a color film of a painting can never reproduce the effect even of an 
oil glaze unless the binocular phenomenon is taken into consideration. 

MR. GAGE : I once took two pictures of a single object with the same camera 
from points about twenty feet apart. I was able to arrange the prints so that a 
railroad trestle about a mile away stood out with annoying prominence. It seems 
to me when taking pictures of mountain scenery, it might be desirable to separate 
the eyes by an exaggerated distance, and, whether the effect of depth could be 
exaggerated or not, I believe the result would be very interesting. 

During the demonstration here, I was noticing the effect that resulted when 
only one eye was used and the polarizer rotated. With a few of the pictures, when 



Jan., 1936 J STEREO PHOTOGRAPHY IN EDUCATION 17 

they were very nearly in register, rotating the polarizing plate gave the appear- 
ance of rotating the object somewhat. 

MR. KENNEDY: If you are interested in "tricks," we have many of them. For 
instance, I can determine with accuracy about what axis the apparent movement 
of the three-dimensional image will pivot if, using both eyes, you move from side 
to side across the room. Provided your eyes are acrobatic enough to follow, I can 
also make the image come out into the room to meet you : it would then appear not 
only to exist in space a very short distance from you, but it would appear smaller 
as well. In comparison, a flat image of the same size and upon the same screen 
would look ever so much larger and farther off. 

MR. SHEA : How nearly equal in intensity must the illuminations received by 
the two eyes be? How nearly equal were they here? I was under the impression 
that there was a difference in intensity, and it detracted somewhat from the con- 
trast that might have been present had the intensities been equal. 

MR. KENNEDY: In the camera that I used for many of these pictures I used 
lenses that were taken from an old stereo camera, and I found after making a num- 
ber of exposures that the apertures were not precisely matched. The negatives 
were given the same development, and I had to compensate for the difference in 
density by a difference in printing time; obviously a correction of that kind can 
at best be approximate. 

MR. SHEA : In some of the last pictures shown I think the correction was com- 
pletely made. 

MR. KENNEDY: The degree to which it was successful was simply a question of 
the skill of the printer. Of course, except for differences in the intensity of re- 
flected lights, the two images should be of the same density, and would be when 
using a properly constructed camera. 

MR. JOY: In some colored pictures, there appears to be so much contrast be- 
tween the colors that they seem too artificial. If depth were added to the picture 
in the manner here demonstrated, would it tend to tone down such contrast and 
make the colors appear more normal with respect to each other and the rest of the 
picture? 

MR. KENNEDY: The only effect stereoscopic reproduction has upon color is 
that of which I have already spoken. In some cases a better balance might re- 
sult between the colors, because some of the defects you describe might well be 
explained by our failure to distinguish reflected lights from local color, especially 
since the two would often be in a different key. 

MR. CRABTREE: In commercial use would it be necessary to sterilize the 
spectacles after each performance? 

MR. KENNEDY: The glasses are water-proof and could be dipped into an anti- 
septic. 



REPORT OF THE STANDARDS COMMITTEE* 

The recent misunderstanding concerning the 16-mm. sound-film 
standards has emphasized the need for close cooperation with other 
standardizing bodies, especially those in Europe. Various proposals 
to that end have been made, among which were : 

(1) That the Engineering Vice-President be requested to appoint several 
European members of the SMPE to the Standards Committee, in order that they 
may establish a direct liaison between this Committee and the European Com- 
mittees. 

(2) That copies of minutes of the meetings of this Committee be sent not only 
to such foreign members, but also to the secretaries of other Societies interested in 
motion picture technology and standardization both here and abroad, and to a 
selected list of persons who might be expected to offer criticisms or suggestions. 

Thus the other standardizing groups would be acquainted with the 
plans and ideas of this Committee before they have become fully 
crystallized, and would have the advantage of discussing and com- 
paring our plans with their own before taking final steps toward 
standardization. It is, furthermore, hoped that if this Committee 
takes the initiative, other groups will follow suit ; and we may thus be 
able to consider their tentative standards before they have gone too 
far for reconsideration. 

During his recent trip to Paris to discuss the 16-mm. sound-film 
standards, Mr. G. Friedl received a number of criticisms of our Stand- 
ards Booklet which indicated that although the Booklet might be 
quite clear to American engineers, it could be made much clearer and 
more definite for those whose practices and languages differed to any 
extent. Mr. Friedl has gone over the Booklet in detail and has 
pointed out inconsistencies in the mode of presentation which the 
Committee will endeavor to clarify in the next publication. 

The items under discussion at the present time are as follows : 

Sprockets.- Sub-committees, appointed for the purpose, report 
that the manufacturers of camera and sound sprockets do not believe 
that these sprockets are as yet amenable to standardization. As most 
of the Committee was in agreement, the matter has been dropped. 

* Presented at the Fall, 1935, Meeting at Washington, B.C. 
18 



REPORT OF STANDARDS COMMITTEE 19 

Screen Brightness. The general problem of screen brightness has 
long been before the Standards Committee. The excellent work of 
the Projection Screen Brightness Committee under the chairmanship 
of C. Tuttle makes it appear that a practical solution of the problem 
is in sight. 

Photoelectric Cell Specifications. The specifications proposed by the 
British Standards Institution for photoelectric cells are under con- 
sideration by the Sound Committee, and we are awaiting their report. 

8-Mm. Sound Film. Dimensional specifications have been sub- 
mitted for the standardization of 8-mm. sound film. Since, appar- 
ently, no such film has yet been produced commercially, it seems too 
early to attempt standardization. It is felt, however, that the time 
to begin work on standards is before too many different forms of ap- 
paratus appear upon the market. 

16-Mm. Sound Test-Film. The production of a 16-mm. sound test- 
film, similar to the SMPE standard 35-mm. sound test film, is under 
way. The plan is to distort the frequency- volume curve of the nega- 
tive so that the response curve of the positive will be nearly flat up to 
5000 cycles. 

2000- Ft. Reels. The Standards Committee is preparing to act as 
soon as possible upon the recommendations of the Projection Practice 
and Exchange Practice Committees with regard to adopting the 
2000-ft. reel proposed recently for positive film by the Academy of 
Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. 

Standard Densities for Calibrating Sensitometric Instruments. A re- 
quest has been received from several of the laboratories that standard 
densities be made available for calibrating densitometers. A sub- 
committee is investigating this problem. 

16-Mm. Sound Lead. The German standard for the lead of the 
sound over the picture in 16-mm. sound film is 27 frames. The 
SMPE standard is 25 frames. A compromise proposal of 26 frames 
was made at the Paris Congress in July. The Standards Committee 
is at present in favor of agreeing to the proposal and changing the 
SMPE standard to 26 frames, but it was deemed advisable first to 
consult the various equipment and film manufacturers before formally 
adopting the change. 

Definition of Safety Film. A sub-committee is being appointed for 
the purpose of looking into the specifications of safety film stock, and 
the desirability of changing our definition to agree with that proposed 
at the International Film Congress. 



20 REPORT OF STANDARDS COMMITTEE 

E. K. CARVER, Chairman 
J. A. DUBRAY, Vice- Chairman 

M. C. BATSEL R C. HUBBARD H. RUBIN 

W. H. CARSON E. HUSE O. SANDVIK 

A. C. DOWNES C. L. LOOTENS H. B. SANTEE 

P. H. EVANS K. F. MORGAN J. L. SPENCE 

R. E. FARNHAM N. F. OAKLEY H. M. STOLLER 

C. L. FARRAND G. F. RACKETT R. C. WILLMAN 

H. GRIFFIN W. B. RAYTON A. WISE 

C. N. REIFSTECK 

DISCUSSION 

MR. MITCHELL: What, if anything, is being done about adopting the standard 
35-mm. positive perforations universally? It is necessary again to call attention 
to the problem of printing positive stock from a negative, the perforation height of 
which differs by 0.005 inch. The matter hast>een called to our attention periodi- 
cally, and it is almost impossible to get the high-quality result we require today 
unless it is straightened out. I suggest that further consideration be given to the 
possibility of using positive film having the same height of perforation as the nega- 
tive. I am sure you will find that such film can be used in existing projectors 
satisfactorily. 

MR. CARVER: Do I understand that you recommend decreasing the height of 
the positive perforation to match that of the negative? The standard adopted by 
the Society is that both the negative and the positive perforations be the same as 
the present positive perforation. So far as formal action goes, we have done all 
that we can do. The rest is a question of propaganda. It is very difficult for us 
to know just how to induce every one to change. The film is available, according 
to the standard ; all that has to be done is to order it ; but we can not make people 
order the standard film if they choose to order the other. 

MR. MITCHELL : That is exactly the point I make : a standard has been recom- 
mended that does not seem to be acceptable they have so much old negative 
that they can not treat it ; the positive film is more transitory. It might be worth 
going into the matter further to see whether the recommendation should not be 
changed to suit the existing conditions rather than the ideal. 

MR. CARVER: That point has been studied carefully, and we have found no 
instances of apparatus in which negative film that already exists will not work 
satisfactorily in conjunction with the positive film. As a matter of fact, positive 
film will work all right in the camera without change, at least, in so far as we have 
been able to find out. Most cameramen would probably like to have the posi- 
tioning pins changed were they to use the film with the larger perforations. One 
difficulty (I am sure it is not the only one) with the old type of negative perfora- 
tion is the tolerance in the present sound equipment. The sound recorders will 
not work properly with the narrow perforation if shrinkage is greater than, I 
believe, 0.36 per cent. With the positive perforation, however, the tolerance is 
considerably greater, and that alone seems to be sufficient justification for insist- 
ing upon the positive type of perforation, as we have done. 



REPORT OF THE SOUND COMMITTEE* 

As noted in the Spring report, 1 the Sound Committee has addressed 
itself to four main projects. Upon the first of these, namely, that of 
establishing Primary and Secondary Frequency Reference Standards, 
considerable work has been done, principally because the Committee 
regards this project the most important, and for that reason concen- 
trated its attention upon it. This report, therefore, will be restricted 
to that phase of the Committee's work. 

As will be recalled, the first step in the project was to establish and 
calibrate prints that would serve as Primary and Secondary Fre- 
quency Reference Standards. That has been done, and the follow- 
ing instructions concerning their use have been prepared. The data 
indicate that an accuracy of ==0.5 db. may be achieved in direct com- 
parisons between two films, and that results are reproducible at in- 
tervals to an even higher degree of accuracy. 

FREQUENCY REFERENCE STANDARD OF THE SOUND COMMITTEE 

Because of the inability of various organizations to make absolute 
measurements of the output from a given sample of sound record 
that would check, the Sound Committee decided to follow the prece- 
dent set by the Bureau of Standards in standardizing units of 
distance, weight, resistance, etc., and has adopted a Reference 
Standard as a datum plane or bench-mark, to which all other 
frequency-film measurements can be referred. To this end, a certain 
film now in the hands of the Chairman of the Committee was 
selected as a Reference Standard, and has been marked Primary 
Frequency Reference Standard VW, Print No. 1, Property of the SMPE 
Sound Committee. 

Although an effort was made to make the Primary Standard as 
nearly as possible a constant-output film, the various organizations 
that have measured the film do not agree as to its characteristic; nor 
is it important for our purposes that we know what it is. The mea- 
surements that have been made are merely for the purpose of deter- 

* Presented at the Fall, 1935, Meeting at Washington, D. C. 

21 



22 



REPORT OF SOUND COMMITTEE [J. S. M. P. E. 



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Jan., 1936] 



REPORT OF SOUND COMMITTEE 



23 



mining the variations with age and hence the stability of the film as a 
Reference Standard. Information as to these variations will be made 
available from time to time, but not as to the characteristic. 

As in the case of Reference Standards of weights and measures, it is 
neither desirable nor physically possible for every one to have direct 

TABLE II 

Data Showing Reliability of SMPE Secondary Frequency Reference Standard as a 
True Standard of Reference 



Frequency 


A 


B 


C 


D 


30 


-0.5 


-0.3 


0.0 


. . . 


50 


0.0 


+0.4 


-0.2 


0.0 


100 


-0.5 


-0.3 


+0.2 


-0.2 


250 


-0.5 


-0.3 


0.0 


. 


500 


-0.2 


-0.1 


-0.4 


. . . 


1,000 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


2,000 


+0.3 


+0.9 


+0.5 


+0.3 


3,000 


+ 1.5 


+ 1-7 


+1.5 


+1.5 


4,000 


+3.8 


+4.0 


+3.8 


+3.6 


5,000 


+2.5 


+2.7 


+2.7 


+2.7 


6,000 


+2.5 


+2.5 


+1.7 


+2.0 


7,000 


+1.5 


+1.5 


+0.5 


+0.7 


8,000 


+2.0 


+2.2 


+ 1.3 


+0.3 


9,000 


+ 1.5 


+2.2 


+ 1.0 


+ 1.0 


10,000 


+ 1.0 


+1.7 


+1.0 





Direct comparison with Primary Standard: 

(A) On System No. 1, July 12th. 

(B) On System No. 1, July 15th. 

(C) On System No. 2, Aug. 8th. 

Comparison with Primary Standard through intermediary test-film: 
(Z>) Secondary Standard on System No. 2, Aug. 8th; 

Test-film on System No. 1, July 12th; direct comparison with Primary 

Standard; 
Deviation computed from these two runs. Frequencies omitted from 

column D were not included in the test-film. 

All readings are in db., as read on a General Radio general-purpose level indica- 
tor and are deviations from the Primary Reference Standard (or No. 1 Print). 

access to the Primary Standard. The Sound Committee has, there- 
fore, followed the procedure established in the case of many other 
Reference Standards, of employing Secondary Reference Standards. 
Consequently, additional prints were made of the same frequency 
negative and were marked Secondary Frequency Reference Standard 
VW, Print No , Property of the SMPE Sound Committee. Each of 



24 REPORT OF SOUND COMMITTEE [J. S. M. p. E. 

the Secondary Standards has been calibrated in terms of the Primary 
Standard, and the deviations noted upon a label pasted inside the 
cover of the film can. These prints are the property of the Sound 
Committee, and may be borrowed by any interested organization for 
the purpose of calibrating privately owned Reference Standards or 
test-films. In order to minimize the changes with use in these 
Secondary Reference Standards, it is of great importance that they 
be used as infrequently as possible. The Sound Committee will 
check the calibration of the Secondary Standards from time to time, 
as experience indicates the necessity of so doing. 

The motive in establishing this Reference Standard has been to 
provide for the industry a tool that could be used for the study of spe- 
cific problems. Detailed instructions will be prepared and issued by 
the Sound Committee from time to time on the exact procedure to be 
followed in compiling the data for such studies. 

In order to furnish an idea of the relative uniformity of the Secon- 
dary Standards, Table I shows the calibration of each Secondary print 
in terms of the No. 1 Print, or Primary Reference Standard. Table II 
shows the consistency of measurements made at various times and 
with various machines, both by direct comparison and through an 
intermediate film or test-film. These data indicate that in direct 
comparisons an accuracy of 0.5 db. may be expected; and that 
when an intermediate film is used, this accuracy will not be less ex- 
cept at the higher frequencies. 

CALIBRATION OF PRIVATELY OWNED TEST-FILM 

Probably the first step for each interested organization of the indus- 
try is to provide itself with a reliable test-film. For accuracy of re- 
sults and ease of manipulation it is desirable that the film have an 
approximately constant output for all frequencies, although that is 
not absolutely necessary if the film is calibrated in terms of the Sound 
Committee's Primary Standard by means of a Secondary Reference 
Standard. When recording or obtaining a frequency test-film, care 
should be taken to include the frequencies that have been adopted by 
the Committee as being representative of the voice-frequency range, 
namely, 30, 50, 100, 250, 500, 1000, and every thousand up to and in- 
cluding 10,000 cps. This will permit the Sound Committee to corre- 
late the data of the various organizations in the problems it has set 
out to solve. 

When a frequency film has been obtained that appears to be satis- 



Jan., 1936 J REPORT OF SOUND COMMITTEE 25 

factory, it should be run upon a convenient reproducing machine and 
system (the better the machine and system the more reliable the re- 
sults : preferably a machine without sprocket teeth) , and the output 
at the various frequencies measured by a volume indicator or other 
suitable means. Repeat the run four or five times ; then if the results 
check within a few tenths of a decibel, immediately run the Secondary 
Reference Standard once, without making any alterations in the sys- 
tem, and note the output at the various frequencies. 

Next, to determine the deviation of the test-film at any frequency, 
take the average of the output readings of the film at that frequency 
and note the deviation between this average reading and the output 
reading of the Secondary Frequency Reference Standard. If the 
output of the film at that frequency is greater than that of the Secon- 
dary Standard, the deviation is plus; if less, the deviation is minus. 

Pasted inside the can in which the Secondary Frequency Reference 
Standard is received will be found a table showing the deviation of the 
Secondary Standard from the Primary Standard at each frequency. 
Adding this value algebraically to the deviation between the test- 
film and the Secondary Reference Standard will then furnish the 
deviation of the test-film from the Primary Reference Standard. 
As an example : 

If the test-film at 250 cps. gives an output of +2.0 db. 

And the Secondary Reference Standard under the same conditions and 

at the same frequency gives an output of +1.0 db. 

Then the deviation of the test-film from the Secondary Reference 

Standard would be +1.0 db. 

If the deviation for the Secondary Reference Standard as given in the 

table should be 2.0 db. 

Then the deviation of the test-film from the Primary Reference 

Standard would be 1.0 db. 

or, in other words, the output of the privately owned test-film would 

be 1.0 db. less than that of the Primary Reference Standard at 250 

cps. if both were played under identical conditions. 

MEASUREMENT OF RECORDING FREQUENCY CHARACTERISTIC 

One of the most important projects before the Sound Committee 
is that of achieving a greater uniformity in the frequency characteris- 
tic of sound records made in the various studios, 1 and as a first step in 
this project, the Committee desires to obtain information concerning 
the recording frequency characteristic now in use at those studios 
up to and including the release print. In order that these data may 



26 REPORT OF SOUND COMMITTEE [J. S. M. p. E. 



be directly comparable, the Committee wishes to have the results 
expressed in terms of the Primary Frequency Reference Standard; 
and in order to increase the accuracy of the results, it is desirable 
that the same method be used by every one in obtaining the data. 

The Sound Committee recommends that the regular recording cir- 
cuit as used at the present time, complete in every detail (including 
equalizer, etc.) from the microphone to the recording machine, be set 
up as for a regular ' ' take. ' ' Replace the microphone unit by a resistor 
of the same value, and in series with it apply the standard frequencies 
(30, 50, 100, 250, 500, 1000, and every thousand up to and including 
10,000 cps.) at a constant level, as read on a General Radio level 
indicator or any other level indicating device that shows no fre- 
quency discrimination. The input level should be so adjusted that 
all potentiometers and gain-controlling devices in the circuit shall be 
at normal setting and give a normal recording level on the film. 
Record about fifteen feet of film at each frequency, making certain 
that the film is up to speed when doing so. 

The film should be processed in accordance with usual production 
practice (preferably attached in the developing machine to produc- 
tion negative) and a print made in accordance with the regular pro- 
duction procedure. If it is the normal practice of the studio to use 
the original negative in making release prints this test print should 
be measured as indicated below. If, on the other hand, it is the 
normal practice of the studio to re-record all sound upon a new 
release negative, the test print should be re-recorded, using the 
same machines, circuits, and equalizers as are used for regular 
production. There-recorded negative should be given production 
development and printing, and the print made from this re-recorded 
negative should be used in making the measurements requested. In 
view of the fact that, in general, both original and re-recorded nega- 
tives are cut into the release negative, it is requested that data on 
both processes be submitted. Furthermore, in view of the fact that 
most studios use different equalization for dialog and music, it is 
requested that separate data on these two characteristics be 
submitted. 

The print should be run four or five times upon the best recording 
equipment available, and the output measured at each frequency. 
Then, without making any changes in the reproducing equipment, 
run the privately owned test-film (or borrow a Secondary Standard 
from the Sound Committee), which has already been calibrated in 



Jan., 1936] 



REPORT OF SOUND COMMITTEE 



27 



terms of the SMPE Primary Standard, and note again the readings 
at the various frequencies. 

To determine the deviation of the recording characteristic from 
that of the privately owned test-film at any frequency, subtract the 
output read on the test-film from the average of the output readings 
on the specially recorded film, taking particular notice of the algebraic 
sign. That is, if the newly recorded film gives an output at any 
frequency greater than that of the test-film, the deviation is plus; if 
the output is less, the deviation is minus. 

Next, refer to the calibration of the test-film (or Secondary Stand- 
ard) in terms of the SMPE Primary Standard; and for every fre- 
quency add the deviation of the test-film from the SMPE Primary 
Standard to the deviation of the newly recorded film from the test- 
film. These are the data desired by the Sound Committee. As an 
example : 

At 500 cycles, the newly recorded film gives an average output reading of -f-2 db. 

The test-film gives an output reading under similar conditions of +1 db. 

Therefore, the deviation of the newly recorded film from the test-film is -f-1 db. 
If the previous calibration of the test-film showed, at this frequency, a 

deviation from the SMPE Primary Standard of 3 db. 

Then the recording characteristic of the system deviates from the SMPE 

Primary Standard by 2 db. 



M. C. BATSEL 
R. M. EVANS 
L. G. GRIGNON 
E. H. HANSEN 
J. P. LIVADARY 



P. H. EVANS, Chairman 
C. DREHER, Vice- Chairman 

W. C. MILLER 
K. F. MORGAN 
W. A. MUELLER 
L. L. RYDER 



O. SANDVIK 
E. I. SPONABLE 
R. O. STROCK 
S. K. WOLF 
W. WOLF 



REFERENCE 



1 Report of the Sound Committee. /. Soc. 
No. 4, p. 353. 



Mot P*rt En?., XXV (Oct., 1935), 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS* 
H. G. TASKER 

In the motion pictures which you have just witnessed is exemplified 
the keynote of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers from the day 
of its inception, nearly twenty years ago, until today as we open this 
Thirty-Eighth Convention of the Society. Nor will the keynote change 
as the Society continues down the years in service to the industry 
and to its membership, for that keynote is "Progress." Likewise 
it is the theme of my message to the Society this morning. 

Although it is the common practice to trace the course of progress 
from some small and nearly forgotten beginning through periods of 
struggle to present accomplishment, and then to peer eagerly into the 
misty future to discern the progress yet to come, I should like to 
reverse the order and dip first into the future, after which we may, 
with some amusement, look to the present and the past to discover the 
heredity of this yet unborn future. So, ignoring the fast closing record 
of 1935, let us turn the pages of the book of time to the year 1940 and, 
carefully adjusting our spectacles, try to read the half-formed char- 
acters that are written there. 

Without much difficulty I discern that the lusty youngster, 
"Sound," whose timely, or untimely, arrival in 1926 so thoroughly 
upset the motion picture family and whose cries of babyhood and 
shouts of youth both attracted and distracted theater patrons, has 
at last come of age and now exhibits the grace and ease of early man- 
hood, seemingly a gentleman to the manner born. Not only has the 
frequency characteristic broadened, until it now, with smoothness 
and reality, embraces a range of thirty to ten thousand cycles, but 
also the disquieting and disillusioning background noises have been 
materially suppressed or controlled until the volume range of expres- 
sion is comparable with that of the orginal sources. Moreover, a 
remarkable degree of uniformity has been achieved from theater to 
theater and from studio to studio, so that no longer is the attainable 
range of variation in frequency characteristics and in volume con- 

*Presented at the Fall, 1935, Meeting at Washington, D. C. 
28 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 29 

sumed in the inaccuracies of the art but is now available for the true 
rendition of the art of director and actor. I learn also that the sound 
now emanates from whatever portion of the motion picture screen 
is most appropriate to the scene, through the full development of 
audio perspective. 

In the realm of photography even more startling changes have 
taken place. Not only has the fine artistry of 1935 been further ad- 
vanced by the aid of better lenses and much finer-grained film emul- 
sion, but those very elements have made possible a startling new 
effect, for the picture now stands out in full stereoscopic relief, yet 
sharp in all details. I see, too, that the art of process photography, 
which as early as 1935 had almost completely released the cinema 
from the fetters of time and space, has kept pace with the develop- 
ment of stereoscopic photography and has begun to overcome the 
seemingly insurmountable obstacles presented by process photog- 
raphy in three dimensions. I find that color, also, has at last attained 
its majority, and now clothes the picture like the raiment of a gentle- 
man, neither shabbily nor blatantly but in such excellent taste and 
perfection of detail as to be almost inconspicuous. 

These developments in sound and picture, it seems, have been 
accompanied and accelerated by technical advances in every branch 
of the science of motion picture making, but I am glad to say that prog- 
ress is not confined to technical matters. With a great deal of 
pleasure I learn that the technical advances have been accompanied 
by substantial improvements in the human relations of the motion 
picture industry, especially as they affect the engineer. Through the 
aid of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers and other constructive 
agencies there has come about a much more sympathetic understand- 
ing, upon the part of the engineer, of the problems that beset the 
management and the artistic side of the industry, and because of 
this better understanding the engineer has bent his efforts still more 
effectively to the solution of the industry's problems. On the other 
hand, and in large measure through the same agencies, there has come 
about, upon the part of the managements, a better realization of the 
importance of engineering in this most scientific and yet most artistic 
of all industries. The year 1940 finds the very best of engineering 
brains no longer hectically, but now happily, engaged in the solution 
of motion picture problems. 

Yet, perhaps, I may have misread in part this record of the year 
1940. Certainly no millennium has as yet arrived, and I find recorded 



30 PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS [J. S. M. p. E. 

that the progress in human relations within the industry, though 
great, still leaves much to be done ; that auditory perspective is too 
new a tool to have realized its full possibilities in the hands of the 
director and the artist; and that stereoscopic cinematography is like- 
wise in its infancy, and though technically sound, is none the less 
the cause of much embarrassment to those who are trying to realize 
its possibilities as screen entertainment. At the bottom of the page 
I find this footnote: "The motion picture industry, despite having 
made tremendous technical advances within the last half decade, 
finds itself facing a still larger number of even more difficult techni- 
cal problems than those that it faced in 1935." 

Returning now to this 21st day of October, 1935, I need scarcely 
discuss the status of the motion picture science of today, for you are 
all quite familiar with it, or will be, when the technical sessions of 
this Convention draw to a close. You are aware, also, of the fact that 
the predictions that I have just made are no idle dreams; in every 
case, whether to result in success or in failure, the fundamental re- 
searches required are already in progress. 

I am anxious, however, that you should realize that your Society, 
organized in 1916 "for the advancement in the theory and practice 
of motion picture engineering and the allied arts and sciences," has 
been, is today, and will still be in 1940, one of the great stimulating 
factors in the progress of the motion picture. It is most fitting, 
therefore, that this Society should now inaugurate an additional 
measure for stimulating the development of the art, comprising a 
Progress Medal which is to be awarded annually to some individual 
in recognition of an invention, research, or development which shall 
have resulted in a significant advance in the development of motion 
picture technology. 

A most unusual design for the proposed Progress Medal was exe- 
cuted by Mr. Alexander Murray of the Eastman Kodak Company, 
approved by the Board of Governors, and generously donated by 
Mr. Murray to the Society. Dies were made, and the medal struck; 
a Progress Award Committee was appointed, which, after months of 
careful study, selected the first recipient of the medal; and on the 
occasion of the Semi-Annual Banquet next Wednesday evening the 
first award of the Progress Medal will be made.* 



*The award was made to Dr. E. C. Wente: See "Proceedings of the Semi- 
Annual Banquet at Washington, D. C.," in the December, 1935, issue, p.467. 



Jan., 1936] PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 31 

Now the design of this medal (Fig. 1 ) is to my mind most uniquely 
symbolic of progress in the cinema. Referring to the right-hand 
side, the central series of horizontal panels afford opportunity to 
designate the name of the medalist and the purpose of the Award. 
They also carry a number of little triangular elevations, which many 
of you will recognize at once as representing bromide crystals. Above 
the inscription appears an H&D curve, symbolic of the classical 
researches of Hurter and Driffield, to whom the industry is indebted 
for clarifying the photographic basis of successful motion picture 
photography, both of sound and of scene. In curved panels to the 
left and the right appear sine waves, symbolic both of sound and 
light, which it is our modern purpose to imprison and later release 





FIG. 1. The Progress Medal, showing on its obverse Marey's photo- 
graphic images of a bird in successive phases of flight. 

for the enjoyment of the world- wide audience. An outermost circular 
panel bears the name of the Society. 

Turning to the left-hand view, we find that the central design 
is a replica of the official emblem of the Society, which, as you know, 
has its own origin in the motion picture reel. Above and around this 
emblem are embossed the words "For Progress," and below are laurel 
branches, symbolic of achievement. 

Surrounding the central portion, a circle of film perforations forms 
a decorative motif which cooperates symbolically with what, to my 
mind, is the most outstanding feature of the entire design. Mr. 
Murray drew his inspiration for this portion of the design from the 
earliest known bit of cinematography, the work of the early French 
scientist, Eugene Marey, and while many of you may be familiar 



32 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 



[J. S. M. P. E. 



with Marey's work, there are doubtless many others who, like 
myself, would find it very interesting to delve into this nearly for- 
gotten origin of the motion picture. 

In his own day (1886), even as now, Marey was credited with being 
one of the originators of cinematography. In the translator's note 
introducing an English version of Marey's work on Movement, we 
find these remarks : 

"Instantaneous photography, especially that branch of it known as 'chrono- 
photography' has already won for itself a recognized position among the methods 
of scientific research, and in the near future it is probable that it will be even more 
generally appreciated. Marey and Muybridge must undoubtedly be regarded 
as two pioneers of the method. ..." 

Marey himself was no seeker of laurels, and credits the actual 
conception of chronophotography to another. As an introduction to 
his chronophotographic method, Marey says : 

"A Mr. Janssen was the first who 
. . .thought of taking by automatic 
means a series of photographic im- 
ages to represent the successive 
phases of a phenomenon. The 
honor is due to him of having in- 
augurated what is nowadays called 
chronophotography upon a moving 
plate. It was proposed to take a 
series of photographs of the planet 
Venus as it passed across the sun's 
disk, and for this purpose our 
learned colleague constructed his 
astronomical revolver. This in- 
strument contained a circular sen- 
sitized plate, which at stated inter- 
vals rotated through a small angle, 
and at each turn received a new im- 
pression upon a fresh portion of the 
plate. 




FIG. 2. Photographs of the planet 
Venus crossing the sun's disk, taken by 
Janssen with his "astronomical revolver." 



"The photograph (Fig. 2) which was obtained by this means consisted of a 
series of images arranged in a circular fashion. Each image represented a new 
position of the planet during the period of transit, and each was separated from 
its neighbor by an interval of seventy seconds." 

Although this interval between exposures was by no means com- 
parable to the rapidity required for a photographic representation of 
the motions of every-day life, it appears that Mr. Janssen at least 



Jan., 1936 J PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 33 

made the suggestion of applying a photographic series to the study of 
animal locomotion. He states: 

"A series of photographs of any particular movement, comprising the entire 
cycle of events, would be a most valuable means of elucidating the mechanism in- 
volved. In view of our present ignorance on the subject, one could imagine the 
interest of possessing a series of photographs representing the successive positions 
of a bird's wing during the act of flight. The principal difficulty would arise from 
the sluggishness of our photographic plates, for images of this kind require the 
very shortest exposure. But, doubtless, science will overcome difficulties of this 
kind." 

It should be remembered, of course, that the representation of mo- 
tion through animation, similar to that still employed by Walt Disney 
in the exceedingly popular Mickey Mouse and Silly Symphony car- 
toons, had preceded by some years the work of Janssen and of Marey. 
Janssen undertook to point out that his proposal, in contrast to the 
synthetic representation of motion, would provide an analytical study 
of movement. 

Nevertheless, the photographic revolver by Janssen was not to be 
the first device applied to chronophotographic studies of motion. 
It remained for Mr. Muybridge, of San Francisco, to discover, by 
means of a method rather different from that of Janssen 's, the analysis 
of equine locomotion, as well as that of man and various other animals. 
In Muybridge's method a number of cameras were drawn up alongside 
a race-track. Electric wires, stretched across the track at intervals, 
communicated with electromagnets, each of which held the shutter 
of one of the cameras tightly closed. The horse, in following the track, 
broke the wires one after the other, and brought about the instan- 
taneous opening of each corresponding shutter. Each exposure 
allowed a photograph of the animal, in one or the other of its positions, 
to appear upon the plate. The resulting series of stills showing the 
successive phases of motion was admirably suited to this scientist's 
purpose, but the apparatus, as was soon discovered, was of little use 
for studying movements of birds. 

Now birds, as it happened, were a subject that greatly interested 
Mr. Marey, and after studying, with meager results, some random 
photographs of birds in flight made for him by Mr. Muybridge, Marey 
determined to invent an apparatus, 

"based upon the same principles as that of Mr. Janssen's, but capable of giving a 
series of photographs at very short intervals of time (Viz of a second instead of the 
70 seconds which separated the photographs of Janssen's astronomical revolver) 
so as to procure the successive phases of movements of the wings." 



34 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 



[J. S. M. P. E. 



This instrument, gun-like in form, made it possible to follow the 
flight of a bird by aiming at the object in the manner of Fig. 3 (a). 
Ignoring for the moment the mental reactions of the artist as 
revealed by the fantastic appearance of the gun-strap, the general 
arrangement of the "gun" may be observed in Fig. 3(6). The exten- 
sible "barrel" contains the photographic lens, and is graduated for 
ease in focusing. The circular breech contains the photographic 
plate, the rotating shutter, and the clockwork mechanism. In the 







FIG. 3. (a) Marey's design of the "photographic gun"; 
(b) general arrangement of the "gun," showing the extensible "bar- 
rel" containing the lens; (c) the 12- windowed aperture plate 
against which the photographic plate was pressed, and some of the 
mechanism for rotating the plate intermittently. 

interior view, Fig. 3(c), is shown the twelve- windowed aperture 
plate against which the photographic plate is pressed and some of 
the mechanism by which the plate is rotated in true intermittent 
fashion. In the words of the author: 

"The moment the trigger was pulled, the sensitized plate received an impres 
sion, then moved on to receive another, and so on, but always stopping each time 
that the opening of the shutter allowed the light to fall upon the plate." 



Jan., 1936] 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 



35 



In Fig. 4 we see the result, and in it the inspiration for Mr. Alex- 
ander Murray's design of the Progress Medal. Made upon a gelatin 
plate sensitized with bromide of silver, the successive photographs 
of a flying gull are shown at intervals of Vi2 second. Says Marey: 

"These little images, when enlarged by projection, furnish curious details with 
respect to the position of the wings and the torsion of the remiges by the resistance 
of the air, but in the majority of cases the images are too small to stand enlarge- 
ment." 

This most fascinating piece of research and invention was accom- 
plished with but one end in view, the scientific study of animate 
movement, and the inventor had 
no dream of the vast amusement 
industry that would some day 
grow out of his simple invention. 
It seems always thus. Scientists 
devise and discover for purely 
scientific ends, while others adapt 
to commerce or amusement the 
principles and devices that they 
have brought forth. 

In order to appreciate Marey 's 
contributions fully, we must add 
one further word regarding his 
subsequent work. He soon real- 
ized the limitations of his ingeni- 




ous apparatus and, as he stated: 



FIG. 4. Marey's bird in motion, 
the inspiration for the design of the 
SMPE Progress Medal. 



"The weak point of the photographic gun was principally that the images were 
taken upon a glass plate, the weight of which was exceedingly great. The inertia 
of such a mass, which continually had to be set in motion and brought to rest, neces- 
sarily limited the number of images. The maximum was 12 in the second, and 
these had to be very small, or else they would have required a disk of larger sur- 
face, and consequently of too large a mass. 

"These difficulties may be overcome by substituting for the glass disk a continu- 
ous film very slightly coated with gelatin and bromide of silver. This film can be 
made to pass automatically, with a rectilinear movement, across the focus of the 
lens, come to rest at each period of exposure, and again advance with a jerk. A 
series of photographs of fair size can be taken in this way. The size we chose was 
9 centimeters square, exactly the right size to fit the enlarging camera by which 
they could be magnified to convenient proportions. As the continuous film 
might be several meters in length, the number of photographs that could be taken 
was practically unlimited." 






36 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 



[J. S. M. P. E. 



"The necessary elements for taking successive images upon a continuous film 
are united in the apparatus shown in Fig. 5. The apparatus has a special com- 
partment, the photographic chamber, in which the sensitized film is carried. To 




FIG. 5. 



Marey's apparatus for taking successive images 
upon a continuous film. 



admit light there is provided an apertured admission shutter. At each illumina- 
tion the light passes through the aperture, and forms an image upon the moving 
film, which has previously been brought into focus. The film unrolls itself by a 
series of intermittent movements, by means of a special mechanical arrangement 
which enables it to pass from one bobbin to another." 




FIG. 6. Photographs taken by Marey to show that 
it was necessary to arrest the motion of the image dur- 
ing exposure: (left) film in motion during exposure; 
(right) film at rest during exposure. 

Not only did Marey clearly understand the necessity for arresting 
the motion of the photographic surface during an exposure, but he 
even engaged successfully in arguments with other scientists who 
felt this complication to be unnecessary. Said Marey : 



Jan., 1936] PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 37 

"Some people have thought that by using such a complicated apparatus as that 
which we have employed for arresting the movement of the film we have given 
ourselves unnecessary trouble, and it has been said that for very short exposures 
the movement of the film might be neglected. It would be easy to prove by cal- 
culation that during the period of the exposure, say, 1/1000 part of a second, the 
film would move enough to deprive the photographs of that clearness upon which 
their value depends. But it is simpler and perhaps more convincing to show by an 
experiment that without these periods of arrest good images are not to be ob- 
tained. By alternately suppressing and inducing an arrest of the film at the 
moment of exposure, we obtained a series of images which were alternately blurred 
and distinct. 

"Two such consecutive images are shown (Fig. 6). The different degree of 
definition is so obvious that it is useless to insist further upon the necessity of ar- 
resting the film during the period of exposure." 

After this brief review of his remarkable work I am prompted to 
propose that we bestow upon Eugene Marey, long deceased, the 
well earned title of "Father of the Motion Picture." I, for one, am 
doubly grateful to Mr. Alexander Murray, first, for giving to the Society 
a most beautiful and symbolic design for the Progress Medal, and, 
second, for affording us frequent occasion to remember the outstand- 
ing work of a pioneer upon whose accomplishments our very 
presence here depends. 



CONTINUOUS PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESSING 
H. D. HINELINE** 



Summary. -The trend of development of continuous photographic processing, 
from the beginning of the art to the more recent elaborations of equipment, is discussed 
from the point of view of the patents issued from 1886 on. An appendix contains a 
list of patents describing minor improvements and refinements in processing equipment. 

When an industry completes the stage of preliminary experiment 
and development, it is confronted with the problems that are inherent 
in quantity production. The photographic industry is no exception 
in this respect, and very early in photographic history the require- 
ment for quantity methods of production appeared. But, as is usually 
the case in the photographic field, relatively little information has 
been published in regard to commercial methods of handling and 
finishing sensitive materials in large quantities and by continuous 
processing methods, and what little published information there is 
is largely to be found in patents. The most important field of continu- 
ous photographic processing is, of course, that of the motion picture 
industry, and it is the motion picture laboratories that have devel- 
oped apparatus and methods for the continuous processing of pho- 
tographic materials to the highest stage. 

But continuous photographic processing antedates the motion 
picture by many years. The first patent dealing with continuous 
photographic processing is that of John Urie, British Patent No. 
16,237, of 1886. The patent is very interesting, indeed, for it contains 
the germ from which grew practically all the subsequent systems of 
continuous photographic processing. Urie dealt with bromide paper 
only, particularly picture postcards printed automatically upon a roll 
of paper. He fed the exposed strip of bromide paper from a reel 
into a tall narrow tank of developer, and under rolls carried upon 
movable frames. The frames each carried three rollers, so that 



* Presented at the Fall, 1935, Meeting at Washington, D. C. 
** New York, N. Y. 
38 



CONTINUOUS PROCESSING 39 

the film made four passes through the height of the tank; and the 
frames could be raised and lowered to control the depth of im- 
mersion and thereby control the length of time of development. 
Two tanks of developer are shown, each equipped with a drain valve, 
and a supply storage tank. From the developer tanks the paper was 
drawn over a constant-speed traversing roll by friction and dropped 
into a tank of rinse water, fresh rinse water being continuously supplied 
and allowed to overflow. From the rinse water tank the strip of 
prints was carried to two tanks of fixing bath, similar in form to the 
developer tank and similarly equipped with rolls, racks, and drain 
and supply storage tanks. From the fixing bath, the strip was drawn 
over another feeding roll and dropped into a tank of wash water from 
which it was later withdrawn and rolled up wet upon a reel. Urie 
does not show a drier. He does show and describe his entire system 
as being mounted in a large tray to prevent undue spillage of solution. 
He shows and stresses constant speed of travel of the material, and 
shows and stresses variation of immersion time in the solution. He 
speaks of return of the solution from a drip tank to the storage tank 
for re-use. The only important point Urie missed was that of tempera- 
ture control, but he did not need to control his temperature accurately, 
because he was able to follow the development by inspection and regu- 
late the development time accordingly. 

line's patent was followed eight years later by U. S. Patent No. 
525,849, issued September 11, 1894, to E. F. Macusick, who also 
was dealing with photographic paper rather than with cine* film. But 
the side view of his machine, as shown in his patent, is hardly distin- 
guishable from a diagrammatic side view of some of the more success- 
ful modern cine developing outfits. He drew his printed paper from 
a reel and passed it in succession through a series of tanks of solution, 
feeding and conveying rolls being provided over the partitions between 
successive tanks. He also provided carrier cords on the edges of the 
paper, as has since been suggested and patented for cine* film. 

Not alone was the need felt for quantity production in the finishing 
end of the photographic field, but also in the plants for the manu- 
facture of sensitive material. This is shown by Patent No. 358,848, 
issued to George Eastman (and another) for a machine for coating 
wide strips of nitrocellulose film, the patent showing the coating 
trough with means for producing the vertical upward movement of the 
film to drain off excess emulsion and smooth the coating, and the 
horizontal chilling section as well as the drier with a chain conveyor 



40 H. D. HINELINE [J. S. M. P. E. 

and looper bars to carry the coated film in festoons through the drier 
room. 

Another Patent, No. 588,790, issued to Blair (and another), is 
decidedly interesting because of the showing of the large coating roll 
upon which the dissolved celluloid or "dope" is spread, dried, and 
stripped off to make the film support, and then coated with silver 
emulsion and passed to the drier. 

Urie and Macusick both utilized a style of processing system that 
may be most conveniently described as the "tube" type. 

Thus it will be observed that the first workers in the field of continu- 
ous photographic processing machinery utilized deep-tank systems, 
with several passes of the strip of material in the tanks. This was prob- 
ably due to the fact that these early workers usually had their material 
in fairly wide strips, from several inches to a foot or two, as distin- 
guished from the narrow ribbon of celluloid in which the motion 
picture worker is interested. After the broad idea of continuous 
processing through a series of containers for the several successive 
solutions had been worked out and exemplified in these constructions, 
the later types of construction diverged into several typical forms, 
which included, besides the deep-tank system of the early workers, 
the shallow- tank system in which one tank of considerable length was 
provided for each solution ; the so-called tube system in which a series 
of relatively deep tubes were provided for each solution; and the 
pipe system in which one long tube containing a single bight or loop 
of film was utilized. Similarly, the method of conveying the film 
through the processing members took several divergent forms, the 
early workers using friction rollers above the tanks; which procedure 
has continued to find favor with some workers through the subsequent 
development. Other forms utilized gears, chains, or tapes of various 
kinds; and for motion picture film, various forms of sprocket gears. 
Thus we find at last the germ for substantially all the subsequently 
constructed forms of continuous processing machinery in the systems 
of the very first workers. 

Next in order of production appears to have been what may be called 
the trough type of processing system, as exemplified by Patent No. 
607,649, issued July 19, 1898, to Arthur Schwarz. This patent shows 
a series of long shallow troughs carried in a frame one above the other. 
The system dealt primarily with paper rather than with film, and fed 
the paper from a reel through a trough of developer, then through a 
trough of fixing solution, and then through two troughs of wash water 



Jan., 1936J CONTINUOUS PROCESSING 41 

to a steam-heated drier and rewind spool. It may be noted that this 
patent is the United States equivalent of a German patent, and that, 
as is usual under such circumstances, the showing is distinctly sketchy. 

However, Schwarz seems to have had difficulty with his shallow- 
trough system, because soon after his first patent he secured Patent 
No. 623,837, issued April 25, 1899, in which he utilized a tube type of 
tank with a considerable number of successive tubes of solution and 
driven feed rolls over each tube, all the rolls being driven at the same 
speed from a common line shaft. It is to be presumed that he en- 
countered difficulties with the swelling of the paper as it absorbed 
water, but his system offered no means for correcting this. 

Schwarz, however, was not the only inventor working upon this 
type of system, as is shown by British Patent No. 19,726, of 1896, 
which shows a developing system for paper, utilizing a series of tanks, 
as distinguished from tubes or troughs, with several passes of the 
material in each tank. Along the same lines is the showing of British 
Patent No. 21,679, of 1897, issued to DeKato, who shows quite an 
extensive paper developing machine with speed control, immersible 
frames, solution storage tanks, etc. 

An interesting angle of continuous processing is to be found in 
Patent No. 665,982, issued to Thornton, who built a coater for apply- 
ing a considerable number of very thin layers of emulsion upon film 
or paper, with drying ovens between each coating stage to obtain 
rapid drying. 

These patents show generally the stage of development early 
reached for the continuous processing of paper, but none of them dealt 
directly with motion picture film. This is not surprising in view of the 
fact that most of them antedated the invention of the motion picture. 
(Patent No. 493,426 to Edison is of interest as showing approximately 
the date of Edison's first motion picture invention.) 

The first occurrence in this list of publications of a patent showing 
a system for developing cine film is British Patent No. 13,315, of 1898, 
issued to Hepworth. Hepworth's apparatus consists of a plurality 
of long shallow troughs placed side by side, and having feed sprockets 
at each end and a large tank of rinse water underneath. The complete 
system is described as including a perforator for perforating the film, 
and an automatic printer from which the film was fed into the first 
or developer trough by a sprocket, drawn through the trough over a 
movable rod which controlled the length of time of immersion, and 
then dropped into the rinse tank. Thereafter, it was fed to other 



42 H. D. HINELINE [J. S. M. P. E. 

solution tanks in succession, such as the fixing and toning tanks, then 
through a final wash trough to a drier and rewind spool. Hep worth 
included even an alarm apparatus to indicate breakage of the film or 
low solution level. It does not appear that any particular means of 
temperature control was included, but he does expressly mention the 
advantages of sprockets for positive drive of the film through the 
several baths. 

A patent that is of interest, although not directly in point, is 
British Patent No. 22,614, of 1899, issued to Pollak. This patent 
shows a photostat type of machine in which the successive prints are 
impaled upon tacks on an endless belt, and carried thereby 
through the several solutions to the discharge end. Workers in the 
motion picture field have attempted to utilize conveyor chains on 
sprockets as suggested by Pollak. 

These patents dealt with the finishing of photo-material film, but Pat- 
ent No. 676,314, issued June 11, 1901, to C. E. Hearson (and British 
Patent No. 995, of 1900) dealt with a machine for coating a strip of 
film of cine width. This patent is particularly interesting because of 
the fact that it shows a drier having top and bottom rolls of con- 
siderable length over which the film is carried in a spiral path for dry- 
ing, the film being led from the coating machine over the top 
roller at one end, down to the bottom roller, back to the first roller 
at a point a short distance sidewise, and so on, until the avail- 
able space on the rollers was utilized ; then on to the other side of similar 
rollers, sufficient to complete the drying, after which the coated film 
was reeled. It may be noted that this spiral travel path kept the 
wet, sticky emulsion away from contact with its carrying means at 
all times and prevented injury to the delicate film surface. This 
appears to be the first occurrence of a machine showing the spiral 
path for handling cine film. 

United States Patent No. 703,671, issued July 1, 1902, to Schwarz, 
is substantially identical to British Patent No. 21,679, of 1897, issued 
to DeKato. 

Patent No. 720,708, issued February 17, 1903, to Latta, is of interest 
because, while it discloses a continuous developing machine for paper 
only, it shows elaborate mechanism for the recirculation of the solu- 
tions and very shallow troughs utilizing a minimum of solution. 

Patent No. 721,839, issued March 3, 1903, to Schwarz, shows still 
another form of paper processing machine with variable-speed drive, 
solution storage tanks, and a clutch member between the tank 



Jan., 1936] CONTINUOUS PROCESSING 43 

sections to permit obtaining a large loop of paper in the rinse tank. 

Patent No. 757,323, issued April 12, 1904, to Lienekampf and 
Nauck, shows a trough system for processing paper strip with an 
intake feed loop convenient for splicing a new reel of printed paper to 
an old one, as well as a variable-speed drive and a circulating pump 
for one of the solutions. 

Patent No. 830,741, issued September 11, 1906, to Prentiss, shows 
a printer station and a plurality of solution troughs with conveyor 
bands, and a conveyor chain through a long wash trough. 

It is of interest to note that up to the date of these patents none of 
them had discussed the question of temperature control. However, a 
good discussion of temperature effects is to be found in British Patent 
No. 22,456, of 1907, issued to Watkins. 

Of course, blue-printing is simple photography, but even blue- 
printers found continuous processing desirable, as is shown in Patent 
No. 891,289, issued June 23, 1908, to C. F. Pease, whose machine 
consisted of successive water tanks, rolls for carrying the paper 
through the tanks, rollers in the loops of paper in the water, and a 
drier consisting of two large, heated rolls. 

The spiral path idea reappears in Patent No. 939,350, issued to 
Thompson, who describes an elaborate multi-spiral drier for use with 
cine film. 

The coating of the original film base in the factory and the drying 
of it in large loops through a drying loft appears to have suggested 
to cine workers the possibility of handling cine film in the same man- 
ner, as is shown by Patent No. 948,731, issued to Ivatts for a con- 
veyor belt with hooks and an automatic control for attaching loops of 
cine* film thereto for convenience in carrying them through a drying 
loft. 

The first appearance of a suction means for removing excess mois- 
ture seems to be in Patent No. 953,663, issued to Hoglund, in 
whose machine the film was passed from a reel type of developing 
machine through a suction device and a single-pass drying oven to a 
take-up reel. 

Patent No. 970,972, issued to Thompson, a prolific worker in the 
field, shows a multi-spiral conveyor in combination with means for 
dampening a film slightly and applying a nitrocellulose varnish to the 
emulsion face for lengthening the film life. 

Patent No. 971,889, also issued to Hoglund, shows a vacuum- 
cleaner system for removing dust from a film, and with it a supply 



44 H. D. HlNELINE [J. S. M. P. E. 

reel, means for printing marks upon the film edges, and a rewind. 

A continuous drier that may be of some interest to workers in the 
field is shown in Patent No. 1,002,634, issued to Brandenberger for 
a machine for drying cellophane films. 

Another patent of some interest is No. 1,109,208, issued to Davis and 
McGregor, which shows a series of shallow tanks with sprocket rollers, 
hooded to keep the film upon them, in a spiral path with a similar 
drier, the hooded sprockets being roughened to keep the film in place 
and insure its travel. 

Patent No. 1,141,464, issued to Javault, shows a processing machine 
made up of several tanks, each with long top and bottom rollers to 
carry the film in a spiral path through the tanks of solution to a drier. 
The showing is not very detailed, but is of interest in connection 
with the later Gaumont patents. 

An interesting type of developing machine which may be called the 
pipe type, as distinguished from the tube type, is shown in Patent 
No. 1,143,892, issued to Ybarrondo. This patent shows a developing 
system consisting of a long pipe with a center guide down which the 
film is conveyed. The pipe is indicated as being many feet long, 
probably hundreds of feet long, since it appears to have been adapted 
to take a full camera spool of film. A not unreasonable guess might 
be that Ybarrondo was working at the Fort Lee, N. J., studio, and 
planned to run his pipe containers down the side of the hill or down 
the Palisades. If so, one wonders how good his temperature control 
would have been, even though he appears to have provided for rapid 
solution circulation through pipe manifolds, and temperature control 
means for heating, which must have been quite vital. 

Patent No. 1,150,609, issued to Marrette, shows a drier with an 
alarm signal to show film breakage, and counter-current air travel 
with two strips of film side by side. 

The first suggestion of the continuous processing of color film is to 
be found in patent No. 1,169,096, issued to Thornton. His machine 
conveyed the film through a spiral path over the carrying rollers for 
imbibition of the dye into a prepared gelatin image. 

Patent No. 1,172,074 is of interest because it shows a chain carrier 
for paper prints, with print grippers upon the chain. It shows tem- 
perature control means and all of the processing, including the drying, 
upon a single chain and clamp. 

A very interesting patent is No. 1,177,697, issued to Gaumont on 
April 4, 1916. This is one of the few patents in the list upon which 



Jan., 1936] CONTINUOUS PROCESSING 45 

there has been litigation (Cinema Patents vs. Warner Bros.). It 
shows a plurality of tanks in which are provided upper and lower 
crowned spools upon shafts affording a spiral path of travel through 
the solution, one spiral in the first tank for developing, two spirals in 
the second tank for fixing, and four spirals in a third or washing 
tank. 

The patent also shows toning or tinting tubes and a drier. This 
patent is of particular interest because of the showing of a large storage 
tank for solution with a circulating pump and a temperature control 
coil. However, in view of the large amount of prior art, as pointed out 
above, the patent was held to be of limited scope, and the claims, 
while valid, limited to the precise structure shown in the patent and, 
therefore, not infringed by the tube type of machine, against which 
suit was brought. 

An accompanying patent to the preceding is No. 1,209,096, also 
issued to Gaumont on December 26, 1916. This patent covers a 
drier for use with the previously described solution system or wet 
end. It shows similar crowned rolls and means for spiral travel of the 
film through the drier, and also shows a safety loop between the tanks 
and the drier for protection of the film against breakage between 
sections in the event that minor differences in speed occurred between 
sections. It also shows an alarm system in the drier which will stop 
the motor if the film breaks in the drier. This patent also was held to 
be of limited scope, and valid only for the precise structure shown. 

Patent No. 1,260,595, issued to Thompson, shows a processing 
system in which the spiral path is used with variously sized rollers to 
compensate for shrinkage of the film during drying. This patent 
also shows a suction device for removing excess moisture, and a 
weighted roller in a loop between the solution tank and the drier. 

Patent No. 1,261,056 likewise is of some interest because of its dis- 
closure of means for splicing the film between successive reels as they 
are fed to the processing machine, and is the first disclosure of means 
for maintaining the threading of the machine. Previous machines 
have made no suggestion of means for threading the system, nor of 
means for maintaining the threading between intervals of opera- 
tion, obviously quite important matters. 

Difficulties are, of course, encountered in the handling of film 
upon sprockets, and some workers believe that a full friction drive 
would be desirable. Such a system is shown in Patent No. 1,281,711, 
also issued to Thompson, in which the friction was maintained by 



46 H. D. HINELINE [J. S. M. P. E. 

weighted rollers. This machine likewise conveyed the film in a spiral 
path in each tank. 

Another question untreated in the previously discussed patents is 
that of the removal of dirt. Patent No. 1,299,266, also issued to 
Thompson, shows a film cleaner between the solution tanks and the 
driers, consisting of four squares of fabric upon a drum, which wipe 
the film during its passage between the tanks and the drier. 

Ybarrondo appears to have elaborated upon his pipe type of 
machine in Patent No. 1,319,026, in which he shows a number of 
pipes with rollers at the bottoms and means for feeding the film 
through them sequentially. He also shows a lamp system for viewing 
the films by transmitted light during the processing, this being the 
first detailed disclosure of a specialized examination device in a con- 
tinuous processing system. 

Patent No. 1,328,424, also issued to Thompson, shows a spiral 
type of processing machine with a gear-and-chain carrier system, the 
film being attached to the chain and carried thereon. The question 
might well be raised as to the means for accommodating the swelling 
and shrinkage of the film during processing. 

Patent No. 1,348,029 is the first occurrence of the idea of a film 
floated upon a solution surface. This patent shows a very long 
trough containing dye solution upon which the film is floated for im- 
bibition of the dye in making color prints. 

Another color process is shown in Patent No. 1,351,834, issued to 
Capstan 7 . In this device a series of rollers dip the lower portions in 
the dye solution and convey them upward to the under surface of a 
film being carried along over the rollers. This was primarily an ex- 
perimental laboratory development. 

An interesting offshoot is to be found in Patent No. 1,364,321, 
issued to Rose, which shows a developing tank and a fixing tank 
adapted to be attached directly to the camera retort to permit the 
cameraman to develop a short length of film directly from the retort 
to verify his exposures. 

An interesting device produced in the course of elaboration of the 
conveyor-chain type of machine is shown in Patent No. 1,367,435, 
issued to F. E. Smith; the machine being constructed with a double 
conveyor-chain carried in a spiral path, with the film held by its 
sprocket holes alone between the two chains while being carried 
through the successive solutions. This type of machine, in common 
with various others, may be questioned as to the means of providing 



Jan., 1936 J CONTINUOUS PROCESSING 47 

for swelling and shrinkage of the film while impaled by its sprocket 
holes upon the chain, and the question may also be raised as to the 
mechanical efficiency of a pair of chains carried in a spiral path. 

Another of the flat-tank type of machines is disclosed in Patent No. 
1,377,887, issued to Hubbard. The construction shown is of shafts 
at the ends of the shallow tanks to carry the film in a spiral path, 
the tanks being positioned one above the other. This system 
did not utilize the sprocket holes in the film for carrying purposes, 
but depended upon a friction drive between the rollers and the 
film. 

It is, of course, desirable that as little solution as possible shall be 
carried from tank to tank, and, accordingly, various means have been 
suggested for removing excess fluid, such as the form shown in Patent 
No. 1,380,279, issued to Wescott. This mechanism consists of two 
pairs of opposed air jets acting upon opposite sides of the film to re- 
move the loose moisture by air-blast. Such a mechanism is much 
less dangerous to the film and occupies much less space than the verti- 
cal rise of film required to remove the moisture by gravitational 
drainage. 

Still another of the tube type of processing machines is shown in 
Patent No. 1,385,403, issued to Sentou and Jacquet. This machine 
includes crowned rollers with guards, and the bottom roller is carried 
on cords running to the bottom of the tank. 

Another form of moisture-removing jet device is shown in Patent 
No. 1,407,543, issued to Hubbard, disclosing an elaborate system of 
two opposed flat air jets co-acting on opposite sides of the film. 

Patent No. 1,435,764 shows another form of shallow tank with the 
film floated upon the surface for imbibition of die solution in the manu- 
facture of colored film. 

A somewhat odd and unusual structure is to be found in Patent No. 
1,444,818, also issued to Wescott. This patent discloses an elaborate 
system of skewed rollers mounted both over a narrow tank and at the 
bottom of the tanks in the loops between sections. The structure is 
peculiar, and the purpose not clearly brought out. 

In any continuous processing system, there is more or less constant 
danger of injury to the film. This is particularly the case where the 
sprocket holes are utilized for carrying the film forward, and various 
workers have attempted to minimize this danger. Patent No. 1,461,- 
794, issued to DeMoos, discloses a tube type of machine, utilizing 
sprockets for conveying the film through the solutions, the sprockets 



48 H. D. HINELINE [J. S. M. P. E. 

having only one set of teeth, the purpose presumably being to re- 
duce the danger of injury to the film. 

With a given developer formula the amount of development is a 
function of the speed of travel through the machine and also of the 
depth of submersion in the solution, the development time at a given 
speed in feet per second of film being determined by the length of the 
loops of film submerged in the solution. Patent No. 1,467,106, also 
issued to DeMoos, discloses an indicator to correlate the depth of 
submersion of the film and the speed of travel of the film, so that as 
the depth of submersion increases, the speed of travel may also be 
proportionately increased. 

Not alone do the tanks, and the conveyors therein, of any kind of 
continuous processing system, take various forms, but the drier sys- 
tems likewise assume varied shapes. The earlier drying reels for batch 
processings were quite satisfactory, and it is not surprising that a 
worker should attempt to adapt the reel to continuous processing. 
Such a system is shown in Patent No. 1,473,542, issued to Chanier 
(and another) . The disclosure in this patent is distinctly sketchy, but 
it shows roughly a pair of reels, one above the other, for the film, 
which is conveyed thereover in a spiral path, the reels being set with 
the axes at a slight angle to insure travel of the film. Of course, during 
the processing of the film, a substantial amount of swelling of the film 
during immersion and processing occurs in the wet end, and this swell- 
ing largely disappears during the drying operation in the drier cabinet, 
making particularly necessary some means for compensating for the 
change in length of the film. Patent No. 1,479,453, issued to Carlton, 
shows a drier with swinging arms at the bottom to adjust the slack 
and to compensate for the drying shrinkage. 

Some workers appear to have had difficulty in the way of losing 
rollers in the bottom of a processing tank when the film breaks, and 
have regarded it necessary to provide preventive means. Such a 
structure is shown in Patent No. 1,495,678, issued to Ybarrondo. 
This patent discloses chains for carrying the bottom rollers, but ap- 
pears to be hardly a vital refinement. 

When any material is processed from rolls, it is necessary to make 
flying splices, and this need occurs in the film processing industry as 
well as in the newspaper printing field (the printer can use paste, but 
the photographer can not). Patent No. 1,540,831 shows a running 
splicer for cine" film in which, as a prior reel empties, a bail falls and hits 
a stapling machine, driving a staple through the end of the leading film 



Jan., 1936] CONTINUOUS PROCESSING 49 

and the beginning of the following film to fasten them together in 
order to carry the second film through the processing. This pro- 
cedure appears to be merely making automatic what was long prior 
manual practice with a wire stapling machine. 

Another refinement in the processing is shown in Patent No. 1,542,- 
530, issued to Salins for a system in which several spirals of film are 
carried through a single tank and means are provided for stopping the 
input of film and raising the bottom rolls to shorten the development 
time; an ingenious idea, but perhaps unnecessarily complicated in 
comparison to the simple procedure of changing the speed of film 
travel. 

Another variant is shown in Patent No. 1,555,957, also issued to 
Ybarrondo, in which the inventor suggests the use of a wide belt car- 
ried through the processing tanks with films stapled to it, the idea ap- 
parently being to process several films simultaneously. 

Still another form is shown in Patent No. 1,568,344, issued to 
Moody (and another), for a structure in which the film is carried by a 
chain with side clasp, gripping the edges of the film for conveyance 
through the processing steps. 

Shrinkage difficulties in the driers appear to have inspired various 
other workers to the production of driers with shrinkage compensa- 
tion. Still another form is shown in Patent No. 1,569,156, issued to 
Thompson, for a structure utilizing a spiral path in the drier, with suc- 
cessively smaller drive wheels toward the output end to traverse the 
film more slowly and thereby compensate for shrinkage during the 
drying operation. It may be remarked that such compensation is not 
necessary when the film is traversed over sprockets, since the number 
of sprocket holes traversed for a unit time is constant without regard 
to the shrinking or swelling of the film. 

Any continuous processing system in constant operation will ex- 
haust the strength of far more solution than can be maintained in con- 
veniently sized tanks before the solution oxidizes seriously, and it ap- 
pears that practically all the commercial processes utilize storage 
tanks for developing solution and fixing solution, from which the solu- 
tions are circulated by pumps. It is not obvious why a continuous 
processing system should be built to contain a minimum amount of 
solution unless it be for occasional brief usage, where it is desired to 
furnish the system with solutions at a minimal cost. This may be 
the case in the structure shown in Patent No. 1,570,809, issued to 
Wescott for a system utilizing flattened tubes, the film traversing a 



50 H. D. HlNELINE [J. S. M. P. E. 

spiral path so as to utilize a relatively very small quantity of solution. 

Some workers have elaborated extensively upon the mechanism by 
the provision of means for modifying the treatment of various parts of 
the same strip of film, as by variable submersion, stoppage of various 
portions of the film, etc., as shown in Patent No. 1,579,399, issued to 
Salins. 

Still another elaboration is shown in Patent No. 1,592,924, issued to 
Carbenay, the most interesting feature of which is the provision of a 
mechanical uncoupling mechanism to vary the length of the film loop 
in the tank, thereby varying the development time. 

Still another elaboration is shown in Patent No. 1,595,294, issued 
to DeMoos, disclosing a drier system in which are incorporated a 
mechanism for indicating shrinkage of the film and a stop to prevent 
undue length of film loops in the drier. 

A neat elaboration of the development time control is shown in 
Patent No. 1,603,512, issued to Carlton, disclosing a system of change- 
speed gears for the driving mechanism and minute adjustment of the 
depth of immersion of the film. 

Air for removing excess moisture must be under substantial pressure 
and compressed air is not inexpensive; nor is it easily obtained free 
from oil and dust. These difficulties apparently have led to the pro- 
posal of other means for removing moisture from the film, such as 
that shown in Patent No. 1,607,417 issued to Wescott, which discloses 
a chamois skin belt running in contact with the film to remove mois- 
ture, with a wringer roll for keeping the chamois belt in absorbent 
condition. 

The foregoing patents disclose practically all the requirements for a 
satisfactory form of continuous processing mechanism, and the 
patents listed in the appendix hereto cover only refinements, which, 
while convenient, are not essential for efficient film processing. This 
fact has been brought out by the Court holding in the case of Cinema 
Patents vs. Warner Bros. Pictures, in which suit was brought on the 
Gaumont Patents Nos. 1,177,697 and 1,209,696. These patents have 
expired since the bringing of the suit. The Court held, and was sus- 
tained upon appeal, that the patents contained claims valid for pro- 
tecting the precise structure shown in the Gaumont patents that is, 
tanks with crowned rollers therein for carrying the film in a spiral 
form in the tank, and driers with similar crowned rollers for carrying 
the film in a spiral path but that the claims were not entitled to any 
substantial breadth of equivalency because of the large amount of 



Jan., 1936] 



CONTINUOUS PROCESSING 



51 



prior art, as pointed out above. Accordingly, the Court found that 
the Warner simple type of tube machine with carrying sprockets did 
not infringe these patents. 

It, therefore, appears that the motion picture industry has devel- 
oped efficient and satisfactory continuous film processing machinery 
adapted to convenient operation, which is free of patent limitations 
and open to all who wish to utilize machinery for continuous proc- 
essing. 

. The above abstract of patents discloses most of the features for con- 
venient and efficient processing machinery, but there have been many 
minor improvements made and patented which would require undue 
space in this article if they were abstracted. However, for those who 
are directly interested in the matter, the following patent bibliography 
is offered. Any of these patents may be obtained from the United 
States Government, Commissioner of Patents, upon request, at a cost 
of ten cents per copy. 



APPENDIX 



Patents Disclosing Refinements in Continuous Processing Mechanisms 



No. 
358,848 



607,648 
630,500 
664,982 

717,021 
720,708 



939,350 
948,731 



Inventor 
G. EASTMAN, et al. 



588,790 T. H. BLAIR, et al. 



A. SCHWARZ 

J. K. GRAEME 
J. E. THORNTON 

A. POLLAK 
P. LATTA 



721,839 A. SCHWARZ 

757,323 O. LIENEKAMPF, et al. 

830,741 F. S. R. PRENTISS 

864,123 F. M. COSSITT 



F. B. THOMPSON 
E. A. IVATTS 



953,663 G. E. HOGLUND 



Title 

Apparatus for manufacturing sensitive photo- 
graphic films 

Method of and apparatus for making photo- 
graphic films 

Continuous photographic printing apparatus 

Developing apparatus 

Manufacture of photographic sensitized ma- 
terials 

Photographic developing apparatus 

Apparatus for developing, fixing, and toning 
kinematographic or other photographic 
films 

Apparatus for developing, toning, and fixing 
photographs 

Photographic developing apparatus 

Multiple printing, developing, fixing, wash- 
ing, and drying apparatus 

Method or process of coating nitrocellulose 
film 

Film-drying machine 

Apparatus for the continuous drying of per- 
forated kinematographic films 

Film drying apparatus 



52 



H. D. HlNELINE 



[J S. M. P. E. 



No. Inventor 

970,972 F. B. THOMPSON 

971,889 G. E. HOGLUND 

1,109,208 G. C. DOBBS AND 
M. MCGREGOR 

1,141,464 R. JA VAULT 

1,143,892 V. C. YBARRONDO 

1,150,609 J. MARETTE 

1,172,074 C. C. TOWNES 

1,233,664 P. D. BREWSTER 

1,260,595 F. B. THOMPSON 

1,261,056 A. J. PFOHL 

1,281,711 F. B. THOMPSON 

1,299,266 F. B. THOMPSON 

1,328,464 F. B. THOMPSON 

1,348,029 J. MASON 

1,351,834 J. G. CAPSTAFF 

1,361,555 H. WEISS 

1,403,779 F. W. HOCHSTETTER 

1,461,329 G. A. SALINS 

1,487,375 C. H. FUCHS 

1,493,866 W. PARKS 

1,527,132 F. J. M. HANSEN 

1,543,301 F. J. J. STOCK 



1,561,699 
1,569,151 

1,574,591 
1,586,710 
1,587,051 
1,591,436 
1,607,417 
1,607,440 
1,611,196 
1,615,047 



1,623,788 
1,629,097 
1,629,154 
1,631,476 
1,653,451 



V. C. YBARRONDO 
V. A. STEWART 

A. L. ADATTE 
R. W. SCOTT 

F. B. THOMPSON 

G. A. SALINS 
W. B. WESCOTT 
D. F. COMSTOCK 
R. JOHN 

J. SHAW, et al. 



1,616,642 L. T. TROLAND, et al. 



C. A. HOXIE 

V. C. YBARRONDO 

V. C. YBARRONDO 

C. DsMoos 

V. C: YBARRONDO 



Title 

Method of coating picture films 
Apparatus for preparing moving picture films 
Apparatus for successive treatment for motion 

picture films 

Apparatus for developing and washing cine- 
matographic films 
Apparatus for developing films 
Machine for drying cinematographic films and 

the like 

Photoprint developing machine 
Apparatus for treating cinematographic films 
Film treating apparatus 
Reserve feed and splicing apparatus 
Photographic film treating apparatus 
Film wiping apparatus 
Film treating apparatus 
Method and apparatus for treating films 
Apparatus for treating motion picture films 
Photographic printing apparatus 
Process and apparatus for sensitizing photo- 
graphic film and paper 
Machine for treating cinematographic films 
Wiping attachment for film drying apparatus 
Cinematograph film developing apparatus 
Apparatus for use in the treatment of photo- 
graphic film 
Method of regenerating worn cinematographic 

films 

Method and apparatus for developing films 
Process of water-proofing motion picture films 

and other gelatinous surfaces 
Multiple film guide mounting 
Film treating and handling device 
Photographic film treating apparatus 
Machine for automatic coloring of films 
Squeegee apparatus 

Cinematographic film treating apparatus 
Film drying apparatus 

Method of and apparatus for treating con- 
tinuous films 

Removal of superficial liquid from cinemato- 
graphic films 

Photographic developing apparatus 
Apparatus for handling motion picture films 
Pneumatic pulley for motion picture films 
Photographic film developing machine 
Motion picture film developing machine 



Jan., 1930] 



CONTINUOUS PROCESSING 



53 



No. 


Inventor 


1,654,723 


V. C. YBARRONDO 


1,666,999 


F. E. GARBUTT, et al. 


1,679,096 


G. POURFILLET, et al. 


1,682,943 


W. M. THOMAS 


1,690,616 


J. G. CAPSTAFF 


1,699,349 


W. B. DAILY 


1,707,709 


D. F. COMSTOCK 


1,723,950 


F. J. MUELLER 


1,734,476 


R. F. ELDER 


1,762,936 


M. W. SEYMOUR 


1,810,209 


G. HAYNES 



Title 

Film developing machine having positive drive 
Film developing machine 
Film treating apparatus 
Apparatus for treating films 
Film treating apparatus 

Method of and means for making photo- 
graphic paper, film, or the like 
Apparatus for liquid treatment of photo- 

graphic films 
Film handling apparatus 
Method of producing colored films 
Photographic reversal process 
Film treating machine 



OPTICAL PRINTING AND TECHNIC* 
LYNN DUNN** 

Summary. The subject of optical printing is discussed with particular reference 
to the problems involved and the requirements for good results. After outlining 
the requisites of a simple printer for registration printing and straight duping, the 
printer used in the Camera Effects Department at the RKO Studio is described in de- 
tail. The paper concludes with a brief description of some of the special work done 
upon this printer. 

Optical printing, or projection printing, as it is sometimes called, 
is a process of rephotographing at approximately unit magnification, 
from one motion picture film to another. The apparatus used for 
this work is almost invariably specially designed and built, and con- 
sists essentially of a standard motion picture camera fitted with a 
registration movement, facing a printer head, likewise equipped with 
a registering or pilot-pin movement, and mounted upon a rigid lathe 
bed. With the one exception of speed of operation, this method is 
by far the most satisfactory of all motion picture printing methods. 
Full control of the original film and the raw stock is possible at all 
times, and the process is subject to an almost infinite degree of 
manipulation. 

Optical printing is utilized for an endless variety of work. Dupli- 
cate negatives may be made of a positive film when the negative is 
not available or when a new negative is wanted; scenes that are un- 
satisfactory as to action or quality can often be salvaged; many 
shots formerly made in the camera such as fades, dissolves, matted 
shots, and double-exposure or "split-screen" and composite scenes 
are now made on the optical printer. Moreover, an entirely new 
range of trick effects, such as wipe-offs, trick transitions, and the like, 
have been made possible by this device. In a word, the optical 
printer is used to do almost everything in the line of trick photog- 
raphy on a duplicate negative. For that reason, it is generally re- 

* Presented at the Spring, 1935, Meeting at Hollywood, Calif. An adaptation 
by the author from the American Cinematographer. 

** Camera Effects Dept., RKO Studios, Hollywood, Calif. 

54 



OPTICAL PRINTING AND TECHNIC 55 

garded as the backbone of the Trick Camera Department. Regardless 
of whether or not a production includes any of the generally accepted 
forms of special effects camera work, it is certain to include a consid- 
erable footage of optically printed film. It might not be too much 
to say that during the past four or five years hardly a single produc- 
tion has been released that did not utilize the services of the optical 
printer to some extent. 

Laboratory manipulation plays a very important part in attaining 
first-class quality in duping. Variation in the standard of this work 
is felt more by the optical printing department than by the production 
cinematographer, due to the fact that the quality of the dupe must 
match the original. It should be remembered that where in regular 
production cinematography, the laboratory is a factor in three basic 
steps, i. e., (1) developing the original negative, (2) making the print, 
and (3) developing it ; in optical printing the laboratory is a factor in 
no less than five such steps: (1) making the duplicating positive, 
(2} developing it, (3) developing the dupe negative, (4) making 
the final print from the dupe negative, and (5) developing the latter 
print. Obviously, the margin for laboratory errors is almost doubled, 
and successful results indicate an extremely high degree of labora- 
tory cooperation. 

Every man doing optical printing has to contend with certain 
definite sources of difficulty. If he can reduce the difficulties to only 
one, and concentrate his attention upon that one, he will find that 
his results will become more and more consistently satisfactory. 
Consistency is, of course, the most important consideration in quality 
optical printing. When once a satisfactory system of duping is 
worked out to fit the conditions and equipment at hand, the con- 
sistency of the laboratory work becomes the greatest single factor in 
continuously achieving good results. Granting that the printing 
equipment itself is first-class, from the laboratory point of view, 
making the lavender duping print is of the greatest importance in 
producing good duplicate negatives. Needless to say, without a 
good master print, duplication of the original negative is next to im- 
possible. A slight variation from the proper contrast in the lavender 
print can be compensated in the exposure and development of the 
dupe negative, or by change in the duplicating raw film used. But 
this, of course, means variation from the set system which has been 
worked out, and obvious uncertainty as to the ultimate results. 

To maintain the necessary consistency in the quality of the work 



56 L. DUNN [j. s. M. p. E. 

done for a large studio, as much latitude as possible is necessary in 
the two major steps. These steps making the duping print and 
developing the dupe negative must have great latitude in order to 
accommodate any possible variations in the film, positive and nega- 
tive developer, and optical printer exposure. The last factor, how- 
ever, is of little consequence when one has proper checking facilities, 
such as a photo-cell photometer and a tachometer. It has been found 
that a duping print reproduces most consistently the best when made 
upon a soft lavender positive stock, developed normally. This print 
should be timed so that the highlights are printed through about two 
points darker than would be the case in a normal print for projection. 
This will still permit the blacks to be easily penetrated if the duping 
positive stock has the proper degree of softness. The duping nega- 
tive raw stock used should then be soft enough to permit a full normal 
development in order to duplicate the contrast of the original 
negative. 

It must be admitted that this duping formula is not the best for 
really fine-grain results ; but the problem of consistency from day to 
day, necessary in quantity studio work, seems to be of greater im- 
portance. Due to the number of fine-grain raw films available today, 
the question of grain does not seem to be of as much importance as 
that of variation in matching the original contrast in a dupe. A dupe 
can be rather excessive as to graininess, but match the original well in 
contrast, and show a much less noticeable "jump" in quality upon 
the screen than if the reverse condition were true. This discussion of 
graininess is in reference to dissolves that are "jump cut" into the 
original negative. Graininess is, of course, much more objectionable 
when the dupe is run at any length; but under normal present-day 
conditions the graininess of the average properly made dupe is gen- 
erally not noticeable to the general public. Much less difference can 
be noticed in the graininess of different duping stocks than in the re- 
sults attained with different developers. 

An interesting method of duping is from a duping print timed 
normally and developed in negative developer for about two-thirds 
the normal time. The dupe negative is then made on soft lavender 
positive stock and developed to exactly the same gamma as the 
duping print. This is an ideal system for fine grain, but is ob- 
viously much too critical to be followed without particularly care- 
ful laboratory supervision, so that strict consistency may be main- 
tained. Any slight variation in either step throws the process off 



Jan., 1936] OPTICAL PRINTING AND TECHNIC 57 

balance, due to the lack of latitude in the method. Obviously, there 
is certainly a saving in the cost of the dupe negative raw stock used 
in this method. However, another element that enters the question, 
when a radically different type of duping print such as this is used, 
is the fact that the optical printing department is very often called 
upon to dupe a stock scene received from another studio. This 
print is usually the more orthodox type of lavender, and it must 
sometimes be mixed in a series dissolve with a special type of duping 
print such as described above. Obviously in this case, one or the 
other type will suffer in reproduction. For these reasons, in studio 
optical printing it is unwise to stray very far from the generally 
accepted method of commercial quantity duping. 

The subject of equipment is a difficult matter, due to the fact that 
very little is standard except the general layout of the camera and 
the printer facing each other upon a lathe bed and driven in synchro- 
nism. From a mechanical point of view the quality of the dupe 
depends upon three factors: (1) the lens; (2} the quality and even- 
ness of the light; and (3) uniform speed. Any sharp, clean-cutting 
lens having an absolutely flat field can be used. A focal length of 
four inches is most acceptable, as that places the camera at a good 
workable distance from the printer head. The speed need not be 
faster than //4.5. Aside from the regular cine* lenses, there are on 
the market copying lenses that are excellent for use in optical printers. 
A well diffused, 1000- watt, tubular projection lamp is very satisfac- 
tory for a printing light, and is strong enough to permit the lens to be 
used well closed down, giving improved definition. The motor 
should be powerful enough to drive the printer without speed fluctua- 
tion. A voltage regulator should be in the line, and the speed 
should be controlled by a rheostat rather than by change of pulleys 
or gears. 

What has been said above gives some idea of the requisites of a 
simple printer, one that could be used for straight dupes and regis- 
tration printing. As there is no standard in optical printers, every 
one has an individual design usually a conglomeration of many ideas. 
All optical printers generally start out with the simple layout as out- 
lined above, and are added to as the money is appropriated. If the 
optical printer is properly designed from the start, the additions can 
be made easily, and will become integral parts of the machine. 
This, of course, requires close cooperation between a first-class ma- 
chinist-designer and the printer operator. 



58 L.DUNN [J. S. M. p. E. 

As a concrete example of optical printer design, the printer used 
in the Camera Effects Department at the RKO Studio may be de- 
scribed. Figs. 1 to 4 show four different views of it. With the ex- 
ception of the wipe-over device, all attachments are permanent fix- 
tures. The machine itself is one of the most modern in design, and 
is extremely efficient for all-around printing and trick work, operat- 
ing with great ease and precision. Due to the fact that at present 
RKO has but one optical printer for all types of work, this machine is 




FIG. 1. Complete view of optical printer from the operating side. 

constantly in use. Another machine, for the simpler, straight print- 
ing, is now being completed. In addition to all straight duping, spe- 
cial trick matting shots, multiple-exposure work, and all other printer 
trick work, this machine is called upon to make all the registration 
prints for process-background work. This method has been the 
ultimate means of attaining perfect registration in the process com- 
posite. The prints are made upon the RKO machine at a printing 
speed of about eighteen feet per minute. The printer can run as 
fast as forty-two feet per minute for emergency rush work. 

Fig. 1 is a complete front view of the optical printer from the oper- 
ating side. The lathe bed is six feet long, allowing for magnified shots 



Jan., 1936] 



OPTICAL PRINTING AND TECHNIC 



59 



and reduced-aperture work. The four rheostats mounted upon the 
lower right side of the printer are for controlling the light, printer 
speed, and motor rewind speed. The printer-head moves vertically, 
and the camera-head moves laterally. Both movements can be 
made by hand or motor. The camera can also be rocked mechani- 
cally. 

In Fig. 2 (right end front view) the five dials are indicators for 
calibrating the afore-mentioned movements, graduated to 0.001 inch. 




Fig. 2. Near view of the operating end of the printer. 

Another of the same type of dial (not visible in the picture) is used to 
indicate the lens focus, which is varied by the travel of the lathe 
carriage. A is the camera drive shaft with a footage counter mounted 
at the top. This shaft has a gear-change for eliminating alternate 
frames. B is the motor rewind control. Film in the printer can be 
rewound in either direction at a speed of more than ninety feet per 
minute. C and D are controls to connect or disconnect the camera 
and the printer-head independently while in motion. The printer- 
head can be run in either direction. R and F are the automatic 
geared take-ups for the printer-head. G is a switchbox for most of 
the electrical controls, including an automatic stop. This feature 



60 



L. DUNN 



[J. S. M. P. E. 



causes the printer-head to stop in synchronism at any frame pre- 
viously notched upon the edge. This is handy when certain frames 
in a scene need to be eliminated or repeated. H is the air-pressure 
control: air is piped to both sides of the movement, and just below 
the printer-head. The air is used to prevent "breathing" of old 
film, and for cleaning film entering the movement. 

/ is the eyepiece for an intercepting prism in back of the lens. 
When this prism is moved in, it throws the image upon a special 




Fig. 3. Corner view, from right end of threading side. 

ground glass showing the exact line-up of the camera aperture. This 
ground glass has mounted upon it a means for accurately registering 
a film for line-up purposes, with arrangements for moving the film 
along, frame by frame. In this way, any movement of the printer 
can be made to match a movement upon another film. // is a built-in 
film-punch, which places a notch four frames from the frame in the 
aperture. K is the mounting for two signal lights. The left light is a 
red warning light, which comes on when either camera- or printer- 
head is moved more than one-thousandth of an inch from its normal 
line-up. The other is a marker light, which comes on during a fade 
when the shutter reaches a predetermined opening. As the printer 



Jan., 1936] 



OPTICAL PRINTING AND TECHNIC 



61 



light tests are two-foot fades, this facilitates reading the correct 
shutter opening for the density chosen. This same marker light, 
manuJky operated, is used to indicate the exact frame where a dis- 
solve starts and ends, enabling the film editor to cut in his dissolves 
quickly and accurately. 

Fig. 3 (right end rear view) shows the printer from the threading 
side. The counter, L, has a large frame-indicator, which aids in re- 
making dissolves any number of times to an exact length. Crank 




FIG. 4. View of the threading side of the printer, from the left end. 

M operates the rocking of the printer-head. This feature is used for 
giving slight movement to boat and airplane interior scenes, and for 
other shots requiring such motions; and also for quickly levelling 
up certain scenes, and titles. Mounted upon rods between the two 
heads is the wipe-over device, N. Interchangeable mattes of all 
kinds mount upon this device, and wipes of any length can be made. 
Many attachments are available for making the various trick wipes 
called for. The ground glass window at the top of the lamp house is 
a handy feature for easily and accurately checking the film density. 
The lamp employed is of the 1000- watt, tubular projection type, the 
light from which is diffused by two ground glasses. The tachometer, 



62 L. DUNN [J. S. M. P. E. 

P, is for accurately checking the motor speed. At the rear end of the 
printer can be noticed a metal frame, Q. The lamp house can be 
readily removed, and upon this frame mounted a larger printing 
field which is focused upon the printer aperture. This field can be 
illuminated by a spot from behind, or by the reflected light of two 
spots from the sides, in front. Any retouching, matting, or filtering 
can be easily done, working to a large scale upon this printing field. 
Matted shots can be made in practically no more time than it takes to 
paint the matte. Shadows and highlights in stationary shots can 
be intensified or reduced with the same ease with which a retoucher 
works upon a still picture. Stationary or moving clouds can be 
doubled in scenes with great ease. 

Fig. 4 (left end rear view) illustrates how the printer-head move- 
ment is mounted. The front of the movement is flush with the 
front of the printer-head, permitting the use of hard mattes in front 
of the film. The water cell, R, helps to reduce the heat from the 
lamp on the film. Behind the water cell are mounted the light- 
diffusing screens. The flanges shown can be easily interchanged for 
reels. Hand cranks are on either side of the printer-head for con- 
venience in threading. The movement is a standard Bell & Howell 
pilot-pin movement, with the rear pressure-plate cut away. A spe- 
cial feature to be found in dupes made upon this machine is the repro- 
duction of the original key numbers, both movements having been 
altered for this feature. The advantage of these key numbers to the 
film editor in synchronizing and cutting in the dissolves can readily 
be seen. The camera lens, T, slides into and out of its mount 
smoothly and without revolving, always returning exactly to its origi- 
nal line-up. This is an advantage for quick reducing or enlarging, 
and for certain zoom up and out-of -focus dissolves. At the back of 
the lens-mount is located the intercepting prism mentioned previ- 
ously. Below the mount is the bracket holding the matte device 
rods. This bracket has vertical and horizontal adjustments, enabling 
the mattes to be slid into and out of the scene during the photo- 
graphing. Although this printer may appear somewhat complicated, 
the important feature of it is its ease of operation, due to its special 
features and the accessibility of all controls. A great quantity of 
work can be run through it in a surprisingly short time. 

It will be of interest to outline some of the special trick work done 
upon the optical printer. During the last few years tricky wipe-offs 
and intricate transitions have greatly increased in popularity. The 



Jan., 1936] OPTICAL PRINTING AND TECHNIC 63 

transition, in the sense in which it is generally referred to, is an inter- 
woven series of short impressionistic and graphic scenes. This effect 
has become a very popular means to pass over an important point in 
the story quickly and definitely, usually as a means of indicating a 
lapse of time. The transition is compiled upon the optical printer. 
A definition of the wipe-off can be "a very short mechanically effected 
transition from one time or place to another, used in lieu of the more 
conventional lap dissolve." Tricky variations of the wipe-off are 
usually found in musicals, comedies, and some action dramas. 

Trick wipe-offs are many and varied, and are usually limited only 
by the ingenuity of those who devise them and the means at hand to 
produce them. The ultimate success of such effects depends usually 
upon how appropriately they are inserted into the picture. The wipe- 
ofl is most effective when carefully adapted to the action and tempo 
of the scenes involved. One of the first pictures to utilize the trick 
wipe-off throughout was a short called So This Is Harris. Following 
this came Melody Cruise and Flying Down to Rio, all these pictures 
employing the trick wipe-off in various forms in preference to lap dis- 
solves. 

Many odd and interesting problems present themselves to the 
optical printing department of a major studio. Very often the man 
in charge of the work is called upon to salvage a scene that is unusable, 
due to some unfortunate occurrence during the filming of the pro- 
duction. The following is a typical example of how the printer can 
save the studio many dollars: In filming a recent war-aviation pic- 
ture a crashed plane was supposed to burst into flames just as the 
pilot climbed from the cockpit and reached the ground. It so hap- 
pened that the plane did not flare up until the pilot had left the cock- 
pit, reached the ground, and had crawled out of the scene. This 
way, the scene naturally lacked the "thrill," and was therefore 
counted a loss and scheduled for a retake, which involved quite an 
expenditure. The optical printer was given an opportunity to see 
what it could do to save the scene, so a test was made, dissolving to a 
split screen around the man at the moment he touched the ground. 
In this dissolve, the action of the plane was moved ahead about 
twenty feet to the point at which it burst into flames, thus eliminating 
the dead footage. However, the area that included the man's action 
continued on normally, the split screen being made with a soft blend 
that was imperceptible. 

Another example of a simple job that saved much money occurred 



64 L. DUNN [J. S. M. p. E. 

in a recent picture in which an oil-truck moving into an important 
scene had an objectionable name upon it. By means of a fine grease 
pencil mark placed upon a glass in front of the optical printer aper- 
ture, the name was slightly blurred, enough to prevent its being recog- 
nized. The glass was slid along frame by frame to match the move- 
ment of the truck. 

Jobs of this type present themselves regularly, and prove more and 
more the importance of the optical printer to modern motion picture 
making. What the future holds for this branch of trick cinematog- 
raphy is hard to predict, but as studio executives become more and 
more familiar with its limitless artistic and money-saving possibili- 
ties, as briefly outlined here, it is certain that they will take more 
interest in this branch of their Camera Effects Department. 

(A reel of film was projected, showing an assortment of optical printer effects from 
past RKO pictures, in order to afford an idea of the work that can be done on the device 
described above.) 

DISCUSSION 

MR. CRABTREE : What is the slowest printing speed that you would be willing 
to tolerate? 

MR. DUNN: The average speed is about 20 feet per minute, and the slowest 
speed we should want to tolerate would be about six feet per minute. 

MR. CRABTREE: We all know that definition greatly influences the graininess 
of the result in duping. In other words, if the image is thrown very slightly out 
of focus, the graininess is greatly diminished. I was wondering whether you de- 
liberately throw it out of focus, or whether you aim at the ultimate in definition 
in making the dupes? 

MR. DUNN: We aim at the ultimate in definition just as sharp as we can pos- 
sibly get the dupe. One of the main reasons is that if a dissolve were made slightly 
out of focus to reduce the graininess, there would be a noticeable jump when it 
was cut into the original. Definition is very important, and what definition loss 
you see is due partly to the graininess and partly to the optical system. 

MR. CRABTREE: Do you recommend making the lavender to a lower degree of 
contrast than the average positive print, or to a higher degree of contrast? 

MR. DUNN: There are different practices in Hollywood. Some studios use a 
lavender of higher than normal gamma, and some use lower. It usually depends 
a lot upon the set-up of the equipment, the quality of the lens, and the laboratory 
facilities at hand. We find that using a softer lavender and a softer negative 
duping stock affords more latitude to the duping process, and when a quantity of 
work is run through all the time, the latitude is very important. 

MR. CRABTREE: The softer you develop your lavender, of course, the greater 
must be the contrast of the negative? 

MR. DUNN: The contrast is built up by the optical printer. The light trans- 
mission builds up the contrast to a much greater degree than in contact printing. 



Jan., 1936] OPTICAL PRINTING AND TECHNIC 65 

It is built up to such a degree that really our greatest difficulty is that it generally 
varies to a higher gamma rather than a lower. 

MR. CRABTREE: Do you print from the lavender print on the optical printer? 
Also, at what stage do you put your trick stuff in when making the lavender 
print from the original negative, or when making the dupe negative from the 
lavender? 

MR. DUNN: That depends entirely upon the trick effect that is to be made. 
Some effects necessitate work upon the lavender at the time it is made from the 
original negative, and then again when the lavender is photographed, depending 
upon whether we have to work with a positive or a negative. In other words, if 
we have to block out while printing the original negative, the results naturally 
will be clear film; and if we block out while photographing the lavender, the re- 
sults will be black. So it depends upon the type of effect needed. In most cases, 
it is during the last step, photographing the lavender. 

MR. DEPUE: How was the trick effect accomplished in the demonstration reel 
when the picture folded off or folded down? 

MR. DUNN: That is an effect that we have made only once. Some of the effects 
are brainstorms, and one has to go almost into a trance to make them ; and after 
they are finished it is hard to tell just how they were done. That effect was done 
with a single frame. Although some of you might have noticed that that was a 
single frame, I do not believe that the average public would. The scene following 
the effect is blocked out to fit the first scene's frame sliding out. In other words, 
it is matted out to conform to the positions of the frame as it will slide out. Then 
that frame is put into a special holder and lined up to normal position, and slid 
out mechanically, synchronized with the previous matting. It happens, I be- 
lieve, in about a foot and a half of film, so the single frame does not seem to be 
noticeable in most cases. 

MR. CRABTREE : Assuming that you print both the lavender and the dupe nega- 
tive in the optical printer as you have indicated, you have a choice of two proce- 
dures: first, to develop the lavender to a high gamma and the negative to a rela- 
tively low gamma ; or, second, to develop the lavender to a medium gamma and 
the negative to a higher gamma than in the first case. Of those two procedures 
which do you prefer? 

MR. DUNN: We don't employ either procedure. The procedure we employ 
is not, as I said in the paper, entirely desirable, but we have to use it on account of 
the consistency and the quantity of work, and the rush with which it has to be 
gotten out. We make our lavender to a lower gamma than in an ordinary pro- 
jection print, and develop the negative to a lower gamma than normal. So it is 
really softer on both ends, the contrast being built up by the optical printer. The 
ordinary production positive gamma, we might say, as used at RKO, is about 
2.20 or 2.30, and our lavender goes to 1.70. The original negative is developed to, 
I believe, 0.68 and our dupe negative to about 0.55, so that the gamma is lower 
than normal on both ends. That is really a feature that is not entirely desirable, 
but the optical printer builds up so much contrast that it is necessary. 

MR. CRABTREE: With regard to definition, it is of extreme importance when 
making comparisons to focus the image repeatedly upon the screen. You have to 
have a telescope at the projector and continuously focus the image in order to 
make really worth-while comparisons with regard to graininess. 



66 L. DUNN 

MR. DUNN: That is right. 

MR, CRABTREE : Does the laboratory develop the lavender and the dupe nega- 
tive for you separately, or do they like to run the negative, for instance, with the 
regular run of negatives, and the lavender with the regular run of positives? 

MR. DUNN: They like to do it in the simplest way, naturally; and we find that 
the simpler we can make it for the laboratory, the less trouble we have, unless the 
laboratory is right under our control, which it is not, in our case. For consistency 
and evenness I have tried to adjust my system so that the lavender develops the 
same speed as the ordinary daily production print, and the dupe negative develops 
the same speed as the production negative. As I said in the paper, that is not 
quite desirable, but we get better general results and greater consistency. 

To do this naturally necessitated quite a lot of experimentation with various 
raw stocks in order to make them fit the conditions. As we were working to a 
certain developing time, the only factor that we could vary was the type of raw 
stock, and we have arrived at a raw stock combination that is quite satisfactory. 
It seems that we can not use any other as successfully, but I have tested other 
stocks, and have found that we were using a pretty good set-up as far as stock 
graininess is concerned. 

The only thing that would improve our graininess considerably would be to use 
a special developer, paraphenylene, for example, for negative development. 

MR. CRABTREE: That is why I asked the question as to the minimum speed 
that you would tolerate. I suppose if you could get results, probably you would 
go down to one frame a second, perhaps? 

MR. DUNN: No, we should not, because we have the studio problem to take into 
consideration. We should not be able to get the work out in time. 

MR. KIENNINGER: How close do you place the diffusion to the negative? 

MR. DUNN: About eight inches, I should say, back of the negative. It is well 
clear of the negative, so that it can be any kind of ground glass, coarse or fine. 

MR. KIENNINGER: Do you have to go back that far? 

MR. DUNN: No, we do not have to, but we have not found any reason to come 
closer, and it gives us more room to thread the printer and put in mattes. 

MR. KIENNINGER: What is your optical printer factor or gamma compared 
with the contact printer gamma? 

MR. DUNN: About the difference between 3.0 and 1.5. I should say it would 
almost double the contrast. 



WIDE-RANGE REPRODUCTION IN THEATERS* 
J. P. MAXFIELD AND C. FLANNAGAN** 

Summary. The problem of wide-range reproduction in theaters is discussed 
with reference to the amplifier output power capacity; the importance of accurate 
adjustment of equipment; special installation technic; acoustic diagnosis for posi- 
tioning of high-frequency, mid-range, and low-frequency units; volume setting; 
and diagnosis of acoustic treatment of backstage interference. 

The purpose of any sound reproducing system in a theater is to 
enable the sound portion of a talking picture to be reproduced in such 
a manner that the full dramatic effects desired may be produced 
in the audience. In the early days of sound pictures there were two 
distinct limitations that prevented the system from completely ful- 
filling this requirement: first, a limited frequency range; and, 
second, a limited loudness or volume range. While there were, of 
course, other forms of distortion present they were, in most in- 
stances, of less commercial importance than the two just mentioned. 
From an engineering standpoint these older systems might have 
been termed "restricted-range systems." 

In contrast to these are the "wide-range" systems with which this 
paper deals and in which both frequency and volume ranges have 
been very considerably increased. We feel that we now have a sys- 
tem, the range of which is adequate to reproduce all the qualities of 
the human voice and falls much less short of complete reproduction 
of an orchestra than did the older systems. 

It is obvious that an effective extension of the volume and frequency 
range provides the picture director with a tool that will greatly as- 
sist him in bringing out inflections and qualities of the voice that were 
before largely, if not entirely, lost. Likewise, the extension of the 
volume range provides him with a means for achieving dramatic 
effects which before could be only approximated. 

With reference to the extension of the frequency range, the data 

* Presented at the Spring, 1935, Meeting at Hollywood, Calif. 
** Electrical Research Products, Inc., New York, N. Y. 

67 



68 



J. P. MAXFIELD AND C. FLANNAGAN [j. s. M. p. E. 



usually presented take the form of a steady-state frequency charac- 
teristic. Attainment of a satisfactory curve of this kind is, however, 
not the only requirement, and it might be interesting to point out 
some of the factors that are important to good performance. While 
it is certainly requisite that all the components of each sound shall 
be reproduced in their correct amplitudes, it is also desirable that the 
sound shall be reproduced with the right duration. Resonant ele- 
ments introduce transients, recognized as a prolongation of some 
sounds beyond their natural duration, so that they overlap the follow- 
ing sounds, thus distorting quality. In the present advanced state 



I! 



gj 



Maximum theater volume in 1000 cu. ft. 
FIG. 1. Relation between capacity of amplifier and size of auditorium. 



of the art this is not often so in the electrical design. Such prolonga- 
tion occurs occasionally in the case of loud speakers of inadequate 
design and frequently in auditoriums where the backstage area per- 
mits marked standing-wave patterns. Such effects impair the per- 
formance of the best sound systems. 

A further requirement of the system is that there be no non-linear 
distortion, which distortion is evidenced by the introduction of com- 
ponents that are not present in the original sound. In other words, 
there must be a linear relationship between the amplitude of the in- 
put and that of the output in all parts of the system. 



Jan., 1936] WlDE- RANGE REPRODUCTION 69 

AMPLIFIER OUTPUT POWER CAPACITY 

This leads naturally to a consideration of the power output of the 
amplifier necessary to supply auditoriums of various sizes. A con- 
siderable amount of work 1 - 2 has been done along this line which makes 
it possible to set the amplifier requirements rather definitely. Fig. 1 
shows a curve, the ordinates of which represent the power output ca- 
pacity of the amplifier and the abscissas of which represent the cubical 
contents of the largest auditorium for which this amplifier is regarded 
as commercially satisfactory with the present loud speakers. 

The question of the power required for wide-range reproduction is 
rather interesting. If a system already installed be modified to per- 
mit wide-range reproduction without consideration of the amplifier 
power capacity, well recorded music will sound slightly louder than it 
does on the standard system. On the other hand, the improvement 
in naturalness, brought about by extending the range, leads one to feel 
that he is listening to the orchestra itself rather than a reproduction 
of it, and the immediate reaction is a feeling that the loudness is in- 
sufficient. It is interesting that this improvement in quality appears 
to transfer the mind of the listener from an artificial standard to the 
standard of the real original performance. In view of this effect, it 
has been found desirable to increase the power capacity available for 
the wide-range system as compared with the old standard system. 
In theaters already equipped with systems of the old type, observa- 
tions were made to determine the adequacy of existing amplifiers be- 
fore the wide-range modification. It was found desirable in many 
cases to modify or replace the amplifiers to insure conformance with 
the requirements shown in Fig. 1. In theaters not previously wired 
for sound, higher powered amplifiers than would normally be em- 
ployed in restricted-range systems were installed. 

Wide-range systems appear to have sufficient power to reproduce 
adequately anything now recorded upon, or likely to be recorded 
upon, film in the near future. Whether or not they have sufficient 
reserve to meet any future demand is, of course, impossible to foretell 
accurately. 

IMPORTANCE OF ACCURATE ADJUSTMENT OF EQUIPMENT 

In order to attain the greatest dramatic effect from this improved 
equipment, it has been necessary to develop a very definite technic of 
installation. The procedure is of importance, first, in coordinating 



70 J. P. MAXFIELD AND C. FLANNAGAN [j. s. M. p. E. 

the operation of the various parts of the equipment, one with an- 
other; and, second, in acoustically draping the backstage space to 
avoid standing-wave interferences. 

As a preliminary to the description of this procedure, a brief state- 
ment regarding the equipment may be of interest. The equipment 
consists, essentially, of the sound-head for translating the sound- 
track into electrical impulses, an amplifier system to amplify these 
weak impulses, and a loud speaker system to translate the electric 
currents back into sound. The main part of the description will deal 
with the loud speaker equipment, although it has been necessary to 
make improvements in all parts of the system in order that it may be 
capable of transmitting to the loud speakers the increased volume 
and frequency range. 

The loud speaker system differs materially from the earlier com- 
mercial theater types mainly in that there are three sets of loud 
speakers, one for the low frequencies, one for the mid-range, and one 
for the extremely high frequencies. In addition to these three sets of 
speakers, a network is necessary for splitting the output current of 
the amplifier into three frequency-bands, one for each set of loud 
speakers. The ranges covered by these three sets of loud speakers 
are approximately as follows: 

Low-frequency set Up to 300 cycles 

Mid-range set 300 to about 3000 cycles 

High-frequency set 3000 cycles and up 

It will be seen from a consideration of this type of system that a 
definite problem is found in arranging the system to avoid bad inter- 
ference within the frequency ranges in which the various sets of loud 
speakers overlap. This is particularly true because the electrical 
network that divides the amplifier output into the three frequency- 
bands is not of the sharp cut-off type, and therefore permits consid- 
erable overlapping of the various sets of speakers. The sharpness of 
this cut-off, in a commercial system, is of necessity a compromise 
between expense and effectiveness. The sharpness afforded by this 
system has been found adequate for good quality provided the 
proper installation procedure is followed. 

SPECIAL INSTALLATION TECHNIC GENERAL 

The special installation technic is carried out for the purpose of 
insuring that the various parts of the reproducing equipment co- 



Jan., 1936] WlDE-RANGE REPRODUCTION 71 

operate properly with one another. This technic has naturally 
divided itself into the following series of operations: 

(1) Acoustic diagnosis of theater auditorium. 

(2) Positioning the mid-range horns to afford best sound distribution. 

(3) Positioning and volume setting of the low-frequency units. 

(4) Diagnosis and acoustic treatment of backstage interferences. 

(5) Positioning and volume setting of high-frequency units. 

(6) Final check of system on commercial product. 

ACOUSTIC DIAGNOSIS OF THEATER AUDITORIUM 

If expense were no object, the acoustic diagnosis would be made 
with measuring instruments, many of which have been described in 
the literature. 3 However, it is frequently impracticable to make the 
necessary measurements, and under such conditions the reverbera- 
tion time and its frequency characteristic are computed from a survey 
of the size and shape of the auditorium and from the nature of the 
floor, walls, seats, hangings, etc. This reverberation time becomes 
the starting point of the theater analysis. 

In the application of the wide-range systems to the theater, there 
are other acoustic properties besides the average reverberation time 
which are of great importance. Again, for practical reasons, these 
effects have been divided into two groups : those caused by the front- 
stage sound in the auditorium and those caused by the conditions 
backstage. All discussion of the backstage troubles will be left to a 
later portion of the paper, and the present discussion will deal only 
with the frontstage effects. 

These special effects refer to concentrated reflections from large, 
flat, or curved surfaces, such as the back wall, a curved ceiling or 
dome, the front of a deep balcony, etc. As is well known, 4 the rever- 
beration time for satisfactory reproduction lies between two limits 
which are rather widely separated. In practice, very few houses, if 
any, are found to be too dead. Therefore, it has been customary to 
specify these limits as the time of reverberation for optimal reproduc- 
tion and as the maximal time of reverberation acceptable for com- 
mercially good quality. In addition to determining the reverbera- 
tion time, which is an index of general liveness, the acoustic analysis 
determines the presence of echoes, "slaps," multiple reflections, etc., 
from undamped, curved, flat surfaces. In theaters having such de- 
fects, which have not been corrected by acoustic treatment, careful 
diagnosis by ear, after the system has been installed, frequently per- 
mits positioning the loud speakers to minimize the defects. Such 



72 J. P. MAXFIELD AND C. FLANNAGAN [j. s. M. P E. 

diagnosis consists in exploring the whole audience area by ear while 
reproducing some form of speech with the loud speakers on the stage. 
It has been found possible, under these conditions, to locate the so- 
called "slap" or echo areas; and, in most cases, a visual inspection of 
the position of the sound-source, the slap area, and the geometry of 
the house leads immediately to detecting the sound path causing the 
difficulty. However, a considerable amount of skill is involved. 

POSITIONING MID-RANGE HORNS 

The next step of the procedure, therefore, is to position the mid- 
range, or horn, speakers in such a manner that their sound is distrib- 
uted to the audience area without bad interference from echoes and 
slaps. In the majority of houses, the reverberation time of which 
lies within acceptable limits, this is possible without additional acous- 
tic treatment Since the horn speakers are directional to a large de- 
gree, it is possible to direct the sound into the audience area in such a 
manner that very little direct sound from the horns reaches the trouble- 
some reflecting areas. Naturally, in the case of a curved back wall, 
it is necessary either to sacrifice good sound in some of the back seats 
or to apply acoustic treatment to the wall immediately above the 
heads of the audience. 

Since the majority of theaters have a higher reverberation time 
than optimal, and are, therefore, livelier than desirable, the technic 
of avoiding "slap" by concentrating the sound upon the audience 
area has automatically introduced an improvement, namely, an 
apparent decrease in the reverberation of the house. Because the 
ear interprets the liveness of a reproduction by the ratio of the time 
integral of the reverberant sound to the intensity of the direct sound, 5 
any means of increasing the direct sound or of decreasing the rever- 
berant sound tends to decrease the liveness. By concentrating the 
direct sound from the horns upon the audience area, a maximum of 
direct sound is attained at the listener's ear. In addition, since the 
audience usually constitutes the most effective damping in the theater, 
the reflected sound that finally reaches the livelier part of the theater, 
to become reverberation, is thereby decreased. For both these rea- 
sons, therefore, a house can be made to appear under reproducing 
conditions, deader than it would be for a real performance for which 
most of the sound sources are relatively non-directional. This is one 
of the reasons why the maximal acceptable time of reverberation is 
as high as it is for reproduced speech. 



Jan., 1936] WlDE- RANGE REPRODUCTION 73 

One interesting effect has been noticed in connection with setting 
the horns, namely, that a much more accurate setting can be ob- 
tained by so positioning them, initially, that they definitely include 
the error to be avoided. They are then angled or moved slightly un- 
til this error disappears. This implies that the ear can more accu- 
rately determine the removal of an error than the approach to it. 
Whether this would be true if the recording and its reproduction were 
perfect is not known, but it is certainly true under the present practi- 
cal conditions. 

POSITIONING AND VOLUME SETTING OF LOW-FREQUENCY UNITS 

Now that the horns have been properly set, the next step of the 
procedure is the addition of the low-frequency units. Early in the 
wide-range work a phase relationship was looked for between the 
lower-frequency and mid-range units, and an effect was found that 
was mistaken for a real phase relationship. Later work, however, 
indicated that this effect had many properties that did not agree with 
real vector phasing, and the exact nature of the effect is not com- 
pletely known. The presence of real vector phasing is audible, but 
the slight change of quality brought about by it is neither disagree- 
able nor is it noticeable to the majority of the public. On the other 
hand, the important effect, that is, the one previously mistaken for 
real phasing, produces a marked difference in quality according to the 
correctness or incorrectness of the geometrical and electrical relations 
between the mid-range and the low-frequency units. The effect of 
improper relationship is easily noticed, and is disliked by the majority 
of the public. In the so-called unphased conditions, the sound is 
distinctly disagreeable; whereas in the so-called phased position, it 
is said by the layman to be pleasing to listen to. 

It has been found that for a horn of a given length there are a series 
of fore and aft positions at which the baffle may be placed for good 
quality. This is on the assumption that the mid-range and the low- 
frequency units are electrically poled identically; that is, that the 
current supplied to them produces, in both sets of units, movements of 
the diaphragms in the same direction. If the polarity of either set of 
units be reversed, a new series of positions are found for the baffle 
half-way between the points lying upon the previously mentioned 
series. It is no wonder, therefore, that this effect was mistaken at 
first for vector phasing. 

In the early technic, loud speakers were set to reproduce correctly 



74 J. P. MAXFIELD AND C. FLANNAGAN [j. s. M. p. E. 

for a point on the floor of the house, and the balcony was regarded as 
of secondary importance. However, in several installations where 
two observers were available, one was placed in the balcony and one 
on the floor of the house. It was surprising to find that both these 
observers chose the same phasing positions in spite of the fact that 
in some cases the observer in the balcony should have been in a posi- 
tion 180 degrees out of phase with the position of the observer on the 
floor. In other words, this effect is not a real sound-vector phasing 
effect, but appears to have something to do with the diffraction pat- 
tern set up about the top edge of the baffle and the bottom edge of the 
horn. This is further corroborated by the fact that the so-called 
phasing position is independent of the vertical distance between the 
lower edge of the horn mouth and the top edge of the baffle. 

DIAGNOSIS AND ACOUSTIC TREATMENT OF BACKSTAGE INTERFERENCES 

The backstage acoustic difficulties are brought about mainly by the 
radiation from the back of the low-frequency units and by the mid- 
range sound reflected into the backstage area by the screen. This 
sound is reflected from the various walls of the backstage area, and 
some of it returns to the units in such phase relation as to add to the 
sound then being radiated. Under these conditions marked stand- 
ing-wave patterns are set up. The commonest, and usually the most 
marked, of these patterns is that existing between the low-frequency 
units and the rear stage wall. In order to minimize this pattern the 
baffle is usually inclined slightly with respect to the vertical in such a 
manner that the sound returning from the back wall and striking the 
baffle is reflected slightly upward, thereby avoiding a sharp standing- 
wave pattern between two hard, parallel surfaces. In spite of this 
precaution, a rather severe pattern is usually set up, and acoustic 
absorption material is necessary to counteract its bad effects. 

It is well known 6 that acoustic damping material is most effective 
in a standing-wave pattern at the position where the air particle ve- 
locity is greatest. This position on the wave is the position of mini- 
mal sound to the ear, since the maximal velocity position is the posi- 
tion of minimal pressure variation. 

In order to diagnose the position of this velocity maximum it is 
necessary only to move the head slowly from the back wall to the 
baffle while the system is reproducing male speech. During this pro- 
cedure the positions are noted at which the so-called "boominess" of 
the sound is least. These positions of least "boominess" are the 



Jan., 1936] WlDE-RANGE REPRODUCTION 75 

points at which damping material will be most effective. From a 
commercial standpoint it is fortunate that the minimum nearest the 
baffle is usually the sharpest one, and, therefore, constitutes the most 
effective position for the draping material. 

The draping material used is unimportant, provided that it is soft 
and flexible and has an absorption equivalent to Ozite, */4 to Vz inch 
thick. Two thicknesses of heavy velour spaced one inch apart have 
been found quite satisfactory. 

Having found the proper position for the drape, which is usually 
called the main drape, it is hung immediately. It is now necessary 
again to explore the backstage for additional standing-wave patterns 
which sometimes arise between the low-frequency units and the side- 
walls or between the low-frequency units and the ceiling. With the 
main drapes in place, it is occasionally found that the sound, as heard 
in the auditorium, either lacks "presence," that is, appears to come 
from some distance behind the screen, or that it seems as if consider- 
able non-linear distortion were present. Under these circumstances 
it is necessary to explore the backstage area, particularly the region 
between the bottom of the horn mouths and the top of the baffle, for 
the presence of patterns. This is done, as in the previous case, by 
moving the head slowly about in this area while speech is being repro- 
duced. In this case, instead of getting sharp maxima and minima of 
intensity, a condition is found in which the head moves from a region 
of badly garbled speech to one of relatively clean, clear, intelligible 
speech. As before, drapes should be hung at the position of least 
garbling; in other words, at the position of maximal clarity. 

The importance of careful backstage draping can not be too vigor- 
ously stressed, because most of the troubles of the early installations of 
wide-range systems were brought about by complicated backstage 
patterns. These troubles were mainly removed when this pattern 
was properly diagnosed and the necessary drapes hung. 

POSITIONING AND VOLUME SETTING OP HIGH-FREQUENCY UNITS 

It will be seen that up to this point the system has been operated 
without the high-frequency units, and that it is ready for commercial 
use except for the addition of these units. It has been found by ex- 
perience that the positioning technic for these is similar to that for 
the baffle with respect to the mid-range units. The positioning of the 
high-frequency units is of great importance as regards the quality 
that will be obtained from the system. The high-frequency units 



76 J. P. MAXFIELD AND C. FLANNAGAN [J. S. M. p. E. 

show a definite series of fore and aft positions, with respect to the 
mouth of the mid-range horns, at which the sound quality is pleasing. 
If the polarity of the high-frequency units be reversed, a new series of 
positions are found lying half-way between the positions of the first 
series. This is a rather startling result, because the air-path differ- 
ence to the screen from the diaphragm of the mid-range units and 
from the diaphragm of the high-frequency units is frequently as 
great as fourteen feet. This distance corresponds roughly to forty 
times the distance between the positions at which the high-frequency 
units sound good. Since the dividing network is not of the sharp cut- 
off variety, there is considerable overlap between the mid-range and 
high-frequency units and it is readily seen that this positioning effect 
can not possibly be real vector phasing. 

Having positioned the high-frequency units by ear during the re- 
production of an adequate test-film, the only remaining step is to 
regulate their intensities so that they blend properly with the rest 
of the reproduction. With this done, a final check is made with the 
commercial product available in the theater. 

RESUME OF EXPERIENCE UNDER WIDELY VARYING FIELD CONDITIONS 

Reproducing equipment designed and installed to fulfill the fore- 
going requirements has been in use in more than twelve hundred 
theaters. In some theaters it has been in operation for over two 
years. As would be expected in a theater group of such size, prac- 
tically all types of auditoriums are represented. Under these circum- 
stances the problem of attaining and maintaining optimal perform- 
ance through installation and service of the equipment has been of 
much importance. 

The equipment, as developed and installed, has proved itself very 
flexible under these varied practical conditions of field operation. 
It has been possible to use the system in houses of widely varying 
acoustic properties and to achieve in these houses the full dramatic 
possibilities of which the equipment is capable. This, of course, does 
not mean that all the houses have been found satisfactory without the 
help of acoustic treatment. On the other hand, it does mean that 
many houses, which, on the basis of the old system, were regarded as 
very difficult acoustically, have been successfully equipped with the 
wide-range system with no acoustic treatment of the auditorium. 

The adoption of this installation technic has produced in the 
theaters a quality varying between narrow limits from one theater 



Jan., 1936] WlDE-RANGE REPRODUCTION 77 

to another. This should be of material assistance to the recording 
directors who have to make products to be played in theaters through- 
out the country. 

Although the average releases do not include material that com- 
pletely shows the capabilities of wide-range systems, there are some 
that do, and a steady improvement in this respect is rapidly becom- 
ing general. As this is written, releases are being shown that can not 
be presented to full advantage on restricted-range systems. 

Exhibitors are aware of the superiority of wide-range systems as is 
evidenced by their willingness to install new equipment even in these 
times of low box-office receipts. The public is only partially aware 
of it, but is gradually appreciating those theaters that provide better 
dramatic value in their sound. This appreciation will, of course, 
be accelerated as the sound quality of the average release is improved 
and the picture director takes greater advantage of the dramatic 
possibilities available to him. 

REFERENCES 

1 WOLF, S. K., AND SETTE, W. J.: "Acoustic Power Levels in Sound Picture 
Reproduction," /. Acoust. Soc. Amer., 2 (Jan., 1931), No. 3. p. 384. 

2 FLETCHER, H.: "Auditory Perspective Basic Requirements," Electrical 
Engineering, 53 (Jan., 1934), No. 1, p. 9. 

3 STANTON, G. T., SCHMID, F. C., AND BROWN, W. J.: "Reverberation Measure- 
ments in Auditoriums," /. Acoust. Soc. Amer., 6 (Oct., 1934), No. 2, p. 95. 

4 WATSON, F. R. : "Acoustics of Buildings," Jo hn Wiley & Sons. New York ( 1923). 

6 ALBERSHEIM, W. J., AND MAXFIELD, J. P.: "An Acoustic Constant of En- 
closed Spaces Correlatable with Their Apparent Liveness," Meeting of Acoust. 
Soc. Amer. (May, 1932). 

6 SABINE, W. C.: "Collected Papers on Acoustics," Harvard Univ. Press, 1927. 



DISCUSSION 

MR. TIMMER: What is the frequency range for the three units? 

MR. MAXFIELD: The lowest frequency is about 55 cycles per second, and the 
highest one is somewhere above 10,000, so far as the horns themselves are con- 
cerned. The modern amplifiers fulfill that requirement. 

MR. SETMEIRER: In the Journal of the Acoustical Society, Eiker and Strutt 
report increases in loudness where the reproducing units have characteristics 
differing in level by as much as 12 db. Have you come across any relations simi- 
lar to that in the overlapping of the characteristics of the various horns? 

MR. MAXFIELD : No. In general, the addition of the bass has increased the 
loudness by about what would be expected on an energy-addition basis. I read 
with some interest the paper of Eiker and Strutt, and made a rough check with 



78 J. P. MAXFIELD AND C. FLANNAGAN 

some of our theater systems. We did not find the unexpected increase that they 
mentioned. However, Eiker and Strutt used loud speakers widely separated in 
space, whereas in the theater system described that is not the case. 

MR. KELLOGG: In the discussion at the Acoustical Society meeting, Dr. Strutt 
and others concluded that it was necessary that the loud speakers be separated, 
but we could find no justification for that in tests that were run at Camden. Dr. 
Fletcher cited the following example, which seemed to me to explain what Eiker 
and Strutt reported : If the entire spectrum of music or speech is cut in two, with 
low-pass and high-pass filters, at such a point that the total loudness contributed 
by each part is about equal to that of the other, then, when the two are put to- 
gether, the loudness of the combination is about 9 db. greater than that of either 
half alone. That being true, I should expect that the addition of the bass unit, 
of which Mr. Maxfield spoke, would contribute in the combination more volume 
than we should judge it would by hearing the bass alone. 

MR. MAXFIELD: As I said before, the filter or split circuit is not a sharp cut-off 
filter, nor in the old systems were the low frequencies completely missing. They 
were merely down in intensity, as compared with the higher ones. I do not be- 
lieve we are dealing here with quite the situation that applies in the Strutt paper, 
or in the experiment that Fletcher discussed. Fletcher was using sharp cut-off 
filters, and I believe that is the reason why he found a much greater effect than 
we do. I believe we have found a small difference occasionally, but we never had 
the measuring instruments with us in the theater to make a careful quantitative 
check. 

MR. BROCKWAY: Is the tendency of the recording reverberation in the film to 
cut down the optimal reverberation time in the theaters, or does that become 
noticeable at all? 

MR. MAXFIELD: That is rather a long story, but we have found in connection 
with recording reverberation that the greater the liveliness of the theater in which 
the sound is to be reproduced, the more reverberation should be recorded in the 
original sound. In other words, it is a question of making the reproduction appear 
to be an extension of the auditorium in which one is listening, and the extension 
should appear to exist immediately behind the screen, i. e., in the space that is 
imagined to be filled by the three dimensions of the picture. 

Fortunately, the "liveness" range of the houses that are acceptable from an 
intelligibility standpoint is sufficiently narrow so that a single average of record- 
ing can be made which will take care of the majority of the houses satisfactorily. 



AN INVESTIGATION OF SOURCES OF DIRECT 
CURRENT FOR THE NON-ROTATING HIGH- 
INTENSITY REFLECTING ARC* 



C. C. DASH** 

Summary. Results of investigations on sources of direct current for the non- 
rotating, high-intensity reflecting arc are presented. Data are given on the operating 
characteristics, including efficiency and power-factor. 

The introduction of the non-rotating, high-intensity reflecting 
arc has presented a problem to the electrical manufacturers in the 
production of a satisfactory source of direct current for use with this 
arc. Its operating characteristics, which have been discussed in 
earlier papers, are quite different from those of the previous types 
used in motion picture projection. The new arc is much more sus- 
ceptible to changes of voltage in the d-c. source than the old arc, and 
hence must be handled more carefully, and more precautions must be 
taken in selecting the current supply equipment. 

(A) D-c. power service from central station 

(B) A-c. to d-c. converting equipment 
( 1 ) Non-rota ting equipment : 

(a) Hot cathode tube rectifiers 
(6) Copper-oxide rectifiers 
(2} Rotating equipment : 

(a) Synchronous converters 

(b] Motor-generator sets 

(1) Generator for each lamp, drooping characteristic, no 

ballast 

(2) Generator, flat -compounded using ballast 

A. DIRECT-CURRENT LINE SERVICE 

When d-c. service is obtained from a central station the auxiliary 
equipment used with the arc need be only properly designed ballast 
rheostats having a sufficient voltage drop to limit the current to the 
proper value at the correct arc voltage. In the average theater 

* Presented at the Spring, 1935, Meeting at Hollywood, Calif. 
** Hertner Electric Co., Cleveland, Ohio. 

79 



80 C. C. DASH [j. s. M. p. E. 

installation the voltage delivered by the central station usually in- 
creases at about nine o'clock in the evening and it is necessary to 
have some easily operated regulating device upon the ballast rheostat 
so that the resistance can be changed in order to compensate for this 
increase in supply voltage. When considering the over-all efficiency 
of using direct current from a central station, it must be borne in 
mind that the cost per kilowatt hour for direct current from such a 
source is usually much higher than that paid per unit when the power 
is obtained from a-c. mains. 

For an arc voltage of 35 volts and a current of 50 amperes, the 
total power drawn from the d-c. line at 115 volts is 5750 watts, of 
which 1750 would be utilized in the lamp and 4000 consumed in the 
ballast resistance in the form of heat. The over-all efficiency, there- 
fore, is 30.4 per cent. The inrush of current when the arc is struck, 
using this form of supply, is but very little greater than the normal 
operating value, and does not exceed ten to fifteen per cent more than 
the normal operating current. 

The power equipment in the central station or in a central system 
usually consists of a multiplicity of types and sizes of generators. 
In some instances storage batteries are floated across the d-c. line, 
so that there is practically no ripple and the current is practically 
true direct current. As the noise in an arc is a function of the ripple 
in the d-c. supply, and inasmuch as there is no ripple with such an 
arrangement, there is practically no hum in the arc. 

The current through the arc is very steady, due to the large ballast 
drop, but the results attained with a meter for measuring the steadi- 
ness of the light indicate considerable variation of the luminous 
intensity upon the screen due to the fact that the arc voltage can vary 
considerably without a compensating change in the current, and 
thereby affect the light output. The operating characteristic when 
working on the d-c. power line is not important to the operator as 
long as the power source remains steady and the voltage does not 
fluctuate suddenly. 

B. A-C. TO D-C. CONVERTING EQUIPMENT 
Non-Rotating Equipment 

(a) Hot Cathode Tube Rectifier The hot cathode tube rectifier 
uses no ballast resistance between the tube and the lamp. These 
rectifiers are made to operate from three- or two-phase supplies, and 
may be operated on single phase. The over-all efficiency of a hot 



Jan., 



D-c. SOURCES FOR REFLECTING ARC 



81 



cathode tube rectifier that was tested, using an arc voltage of 35 and 
an arc current of 50 amperes, was 65.5 per cent. The power-factor 
when supplying the above-mentioned load was 65.6 per cent. The 
inrush of current when the arc was struck varied between 75 and 95 
amperes, or an average of 85 amperes for the 50-ampere arc. These 
readings were taken with an aperiodic meter. The volt-ampere per- 
formance of this type of rectifier is shown in Fig. 1. 

The ripple in the direct current produced by the rectifier has a fre- 



eo 

50 


































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X 


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x 


































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K 

-vl 



20 

10 


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i 


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? 10 20 30 40 50 eo 70 

AMPERES 



FIG. 1. Volt-ampere characteristic of the hot cathode tube 
rectifier. 

quency of 240 cycles, the transformers being connected in the open 
delta arrangement. The rms. voltage of the ripple when the rectifier 
delivers 50 amperes at 35 volts is 4.25. . When operating without load, 
the rms. voltage of the ripple is 14.5. The result is that the ripple 
produces noise in the arc of such frequency that it may cause inter- 
ference. 

The current in the arc varies between 46 and 60 amperes when the 
rectifier is adjusted to supply 50 amperes at 35 volts. Part of this 
change is due to the characteristic of the arc, but most of it is due to 
fluctuations in the a-c. line voltage. In the hot cathode tube rectifier, 
the d-c. output is magnetically connected to the a-c. input so that 



82 



C. C. DASH 



[J. S. M. p. E. 



fluctuations in the a-c. line voltage are carried directly through the 
rectifier, causing magnified fluctuations in the screen illumination. 
In the case of gradual changes of the a-c. voltage, correction can be 
made by changing the taps on the rectifier transformer; but when the 
changes occur suddenly they can not be compensated for ; and when 
the voltage increases, the tubes and the carbons become overloaded, 
resulting in decreased tube life as well as increased carbon consump- 
tion and a flare upon the screen. 

The question of tube life is very uncertain. The average esti- 
mated life is 1000 hours, so that figures applying to the operating 
cost of the hot cathode rectifier should include the tube cost in order 




10 



20 



(50 



70 



30 40 50 

AMPERES 
FIG. 2. Volt-ampere characteristic of the copper-oxide rectifier. 

that they may be on a comparable basis with the costs of other types 
of equipment. If the arc is not properly handled, a surge may occur 
and damage the tube. 

(b) Copper-Oxide Rectifier. The copper-oxide rectifier recently 
placed upon the market also operates without any ballast resistance 
between the rectifier and the arc. The over-all efficiency of a copper- 
oxide rectifier that was tested, supplying a 50-ampere arc at 35 volts, 
was 65.5 per cent, including the fan and relay losses. The power- 
factor when supplying a normal load was 93.6 per cent; and the in- 
rush of current when the arc was struck, using the same equipment 
as was used in former tests of this nature, averaged 95 amperes. 

Fig. 2 shows the volt-ampere characteristic of the copper-oxide 
rectifier. The rms. ripple voltage is 1.2 volts, the frequency in this 
case being 360 cycles. The ripple causes considerable noise in the arc, 



Jan., 1936) 



D-c. SOURCES FOR REFLECTING ARC 



83 



but it is difficult to give any comparative values of the noise with the 
two types of rectifiers. The observations showed that this arc was 
not as noisy as the arc produced by direct current supplied by the hot 
cathode rectifier. In operation, the arc current and voltage seemed 
to be steadier in that the changes were slower than the corresponding 
fluctuations in the hot cathode rectifier. This type of rectifier can not 
be operated without a ventilating system because the high tempera- 
ture that is developed is extremely detrimental to the life of the oxide 
film. The copper-oxide rectifier transmits a-c. line voltage fluctua- 
tions through to the arc just as does the other type of rectifier. 

Rotating Equipment 

(a) The Synchronous Converter. The synchronous converter does 
not lend itself readily to this application because the low voltage 
required for the non- 
rotating high-intensity 

reflecting lamp necessi- 
tates a d-c. output at 
42-45 volts and an a-c. 
input to the rectifier at 
28 volts. This presents 
a very serious problem 
in slip-ring and a-c. 
brush design in order to 
keep the cost of the 
machine within commer- 
cial limits. It is neces- 
sary also to use a static 
transformer in order to 
bring the existing line 
voltage to the 28-volt 
value required for the 
converter. We do not know of any synchronous converters being 
offered for use with this type of arc. 

(b) Motor-Generators. Motor-generator sets of various types 
have been used for supplying the direct current to the projection 
arcs since the advent of the motion picture. In the early days, a 
shunt-wound generator having a fast-drooping volt-ampere char- 
acteristic, such as shown in Fig. 3, was used. This generator was very 
successful with the old style vertical carbon arc having an arc voltage 



so 

40 
) 

^30 
j 

s 

20 
10 

o 


^ 


























r"*"*** 


^ 


^ 


























^ 


^ 


























^^ 


V 


























^> 


s s 


























\ 
















































/ 






















4 






















X 


Q 
























3 
























n 






10 20 30 40 50' 
D.C. AMPERES 



FIG. 3. Fast-drooping characteristic of early 
shunt-wound generator. 



84 C. C. DASH [j. s. M. P. E. 

of approximately 55 volts. The first of these generators was built to 
operate one lamp only; and when it was desired to make the change- 
over, the arc for the second lamp was "stolen" from the first, the two 
arcs being connected in parallel with no ballast resistance in the arc 
circuits. The instant the arc was struck on the second projector, 
the arc on the first projector would be extinguished. Such a condi- 
tion was not satisfactory from an operating standpoint, with the 
result that later developments raised the possible operating voltage 
of the generator so that two arcs could be simultaneously operated 
in series during the period of change-over. The old series arc sets 
were very efficient inasmuch as they utilized the entire copper ca- 
pacity of the generator at rated load. The magnetic circuit, how- 
ever, had to be of such proportions as to carry sufficient magnetic 
flux to produce the required open-circuit voltage ; consequently, the 
material costs of these machines were a little higher than those of 
constant- voltage machines for the same operating voltage and normal 
full-load current. The over-all efficiency from line to generator was 
high, due to the absence of ballast resistance in the projection arc 
circuit. 

When used with the non-rotating, high-intensity lamp, this type of 
generator must be designed for a lower operating voltage than was 
desirable when it was used with the old style open arc. It also has to 
be designed so that within the operating range of voltage, the current 
will tend to increase slightly with decreased arc voltage. This is 
necessary in order to assure any stability of the d-c. arc, and is one of 
the characteristics of the horizontal arcs wherein they differ from the 
vertical arcs formerly used. 

It has been found with the shunt-wound type of generator using 
no ballast resistance between the generator and the arc, that unless a 
reverse series field is used to produce the constant-current effect, 
making it differentially compound, it is difficult to attain perfect 
commutation and long life of the commutator. In order to maintain 
the current approximately constant with this type of machine without 
a reverse series field, it is necessary to shift the brushes in the direc- 
tion of rotation so that the armature reactions are demagnetizing. If 
not carried too far, this would provide a better commutating position 
than the no-load neutral point on a non-interpole machine; but to 
gain this result, the brush-shift has to be greater than is desirable to 
attain good commutation, and the coils undergoing commutation 
would then be outside the commutating field. Poor commutation 



Jan., 1936] D-C. SOURCES FOR REFLECTING ARC 85 

results also from insufficient saturation of the magnetic circuit, since 
the latter is saturated at the open-circuit voltage while at the operat- 
ing voltage the main pole flux is weak. In one type of motor-genera- 
tor set that was quite popular several years ago, the commutation was 
materially improved and made satisfactory by an adjustable interpole, 
the position of which could be shifted so that its field was directly over 
the coil undergoing commutation when the brushes were shifted to 
attain a practically constant current. 

Unsatisfactory commutation is not always evident when the 
generator is first put into operation. A burning apparently occurs 
beneath the brush, which does not cause visible sparking and does not 
manifest itself until the machine has been in service for some time, 
when the commutator begins to blacken and trouble begins. 

When the non-rotating, high-intensity reflecting arc was first pro- 
posed it was found possible to operate it directly across the terminals 
of a constant- voltage generator and obtain a steady arc. It was 
found, however, that additional stability of the arc could be gained by 
using a small ballast resistance in the arc circuit with a constant- 
voltage, d-c. source. While the arc operating directly across the 
generator was perfectly stable under laboratory conditions, it was 
soon discovered that under operating conditions, and because of the 
wide variation in ideas as to what constituted proper arc voltage, the 
operation was not so successful. 

The over-all efficiency of the series type of dual generator unit 
(using two generators driven by a single motor) built for use with the 
non-rotating, high-intensity arc, averages 60 per cent when delivering 
50 amperes at 35 volts. This presupposes that the field circuit of 
the generator that is not supplying current to the arc is open, and is 
thus not consuming power needlessly. The power-factor averages 82 
per cent on normal load. The inrush of current to the arc when 
struck is 77 amperes. The commutator ripple is a very complex 
wave, but is practically negligible, resulting in an extremely quiet arc. 
As the two generators are driven by a single motor, the first arc will 
show a diminution in light when the second arc is struck, due to the 
increased slip of the motor. When operating one arc continuously, 
the current varies from 48 to 53 amperes, the arc voltage varying 
from 35 to 38 volts when maintaining a constant arc length. 

Where shunt-wound generators having drooping characteristics 
are used to supply current in the modern theater it is customary to 
use one generator for each lamp. In some cases the two generators 



86 



C. C. DASH 



[J. S. M. P. E. 



are driven by a single motor. The connections to the lamp switches 
are made in such a manner in some cases that the field circuit of the 
generator is not energized while the arc is off; when the lamp switch 
is closed, the field is energized just before the arc is struck. The 
output voltage decreases as the temperature of the field windings 
increases, the decrease being most rapid during the first ten to fifteen 
minutes of operation. In order to minimize this effect, in occasional 
installations the field circuits of the two machines are kept closed 
even when the machine is not delivering current to the arc. The 
idle machine delivers a high open-circuit voltage, causing excessive 



40 



20 



10 



20 



30 40 50 60 70 



80 



90 100 



FIG. 4. Volt-ampere characteristic of flat-compounded generator 
of double-arc capacity. 

copper loss in the shunt field coils as well as a high iron loss, and the 
generator runs much hotter than normal. Although operating in 
this manner lessens the change that occurs in the output current and 
voltage due to the temperature changes of the field windings, it 
results in a lowering of the over-all efficiency of the set from 60 to 53.7 
per cent. 

The flat-compounded generator can be designed for the best 
operating characteristic both as regards voltage regulation and com- 
mutation. The magnetic circuit can be designed so that a fair degree 
of saturation is attained under normal operating loads. The interpole 
field can be proportioned so as to neutralize the armature reaction 
and also provide a commutating field of the proper strength for 
perfect commutation. The brush position can be regulated so that 



Jan., 1936] D-C. SOURCES FOR REFLECTING ARC 87 

it is squarely in the commutating field. This type of generator is 
generally understood by the average electrical maintenance man. 
Incidentally, it will also carry a heavy overload, should occasion arise, 
whereas the drooping characteristic unit is limited to practically its 
rated amount. 

After a long series of tests using various generator voltages with 
corresponding values of series resistance, it was found that a generator 
having a very flat volt-ampere characteristic at 42 volts, with suf- 
ficient ballast resistance to maintain the proper arc voltage of 35 volts, 
would be very stable in operation (Fig. 4). For the best results 
from a machine of this type, the design must be such that the com- 
mutator ripple is reduced to a minimum, and that the copper load- 
ing in the armature, interpole, and series field coils is very low; in 
other words, the resistance drops must be practically negligible. 
The over-all efficiency from power line to lamp of a constant-voltage 
machine of this type when delivering 50 amperes at an arc voltage 
of 35 volts is 60 per cent, including the rheostat drop. The power- 
factor in the case of single arc loading with one lamp operating is 
83 per cent. The inrush of current to the arc when struck, using 
the 42-volt generator with a suitable ballast and without auxiliary 
equipment, is 95 amperes. 

In the investigations of commutator ripple, it was found that when 
an armature was used in which the slots were parallel to the armature 
shaft, the frequency and magnitude of the ripple were practically inde- 
pendent of the number of commutator bars ; that is, an armature with 
36 slots, 72 bars, and 72 coils of three turns each gave practically 
the same amount of commutator ripple as an armature with 36 slots, 
108 bars, and 108 coils of two turns each, the frequency of the ripple 
in both cases being identical. When, however, the armature slots 
were skewed one slot pitch on the periphery of the armature, the 
commutator ripple was reduced very materially and arc noise was 
almost entirely eliminated. In fact, unless the surrounding condi- 
tions are such that there was absolute quiet, the noise of the arc could 
not be heard; whereas quite an audible sound was produced when the 
arc was supplied with current by a generator having straight armature 
slots. The ripple voltage in the skew slot armature was about one- 
eighth of that of the straight slot armature, other conditions being 
the same. A feature of the low- voltage machine is that, although the 
arc may be susceptible to variations of voltage and current, the 
variations are such that the resultant of the several factors remains 



88 C. C. DASH 

substantially constant, as is evidenced by the practically constant 
illumination of the screen. 

A-c. line voltage fluctuations have no effect upon the output of 
the motor-generator set unless the voltage drops to such a value that 
the motor slip is abnormal. This would mean a reduction in a-c. volt- 
age of probably 35 or 40 per cent before any perceptible change would 
occur. The speed of the rotating parts being maintained practically 
constant, resulting in a constant output to the projection lamps, there 
is no magnetic connection between the input and the output of the 
motor-generator set. 



TRENDS IN 16-MM. PROJECTION, WITH SPECIAL 
REFERENCE TO SOUND* 



A. SHAPIRO** 

Summary. A brief review of the development of 16-mm. sound-film projection 
and the possible progress in industrial, educational, and non-theatrical uses. 

The purpose of this paper is to review briefly the progress made in 
the development of 16-mm. projection, the effect upon it of the intro- 
duction of sound, and to determine what trends are discernible in this 
rapidly moving industry. 

Originating as a hobby for amateurs, 16-mm. films during the 
initial period of growth found their largest market in the home field 
Despite remarkable developments that projected its utility into 
35-mm. domains, in the minds of many who have not followed its prog- 
ress closely, 16-mm. motion pictures are still thought of in terms of 
imitation rather than as successor to the larger films. 

Some five years ago, in an effort to demonstrate the professional 
possibilities of 16-mm. pictures, the writer displayed a new projec- 
tor at a convention of the Society held at Washington, D. C. It was 
pointed out then that the trend of design must give consideration to 
the professional rather than to the home field. As indication of this 
trend, a picture was projected with the machine that was displayed 
that almost filled a theatrical screen 14 feet in width, using only a 250- 
watt, 20-volt standard incandescent projection lamp, the projector 
being some 70 feet from the screen. 

It is of particular interest to review the progress that has been made 
since that demonstration. Considering projection only, the most 
important improvement has been in illumination. Projection lamp 
design has made remarkable progress. Lamps of 1000-watt capacity 
are now available for 16-mm. use. Optics and film-moving mecha- 
nisms are far more efficient than formerly. Without any substantial 
increase in size or weight of equipment, the illumination today has 



* Presented at the Spring, 1935, Meeting at Hollywood, Calif. 
** Ampro Corp., Chicago, 111. 



89 



90 A. SHAPIRO [J. S. M. p. E. 

definitely reached the auditorium stage. Five years ago, it was a 
novelty to project a theatrical-size picture in an auditorium having a 
capacity of 500 persons. Today it is commonplace, and numerous 
instances can be found where the 16-mm. projector, formerly referred 
to as the "little brother of the 35," is being operated in projection 
booths in place of the larger equipment. 

With this advance in illumination, the field of usefulness of 16-mm. 
projection has rapidly increased. Industry, which had long realized 
the value of 35-mm. films for sales and business purposes, found the 
improved 16-mm. equipment much more convenient than the heavier 
and more cumbersome 35-mm. projectors. In education, where ex- 
tensive libraries of teaching films had been developed as visual aids, 
the 16-mm. equipment was quickly accepted as the more desirable in 
view of its lack of fire hazards, lighter weight, and ease of operation. 
In non-theatrical fields, such as churches, clubs, lodges, and social 
groups, the 16-mm. equipment has increasingly become the favored 
standard for auditorium projection. 

With the advent of sound, it looked at first as though the 16-mm. 
industry had found a real stumbling block. It seemed incredible 
that satisfactory sound could be photographed and reproduced on the 
16-mm. film, which operated at two-fifths the speed of the 35-mm. 
It seemed impossible that the complicated mechanism of sound re- 
production could be added in a compact and light-weight portable 
form to 16-mm. equipment and at the same time achieve comparable 
sound effects. 

A short period followed in which the industry was frankly per- 
plexed. It tried to effect a compromise by using synchronized disk 
records on an attached turntable for the sound. This did not prove 
to be a happy solution, and it was soon realized that 16-mm. sound 
reproduction would have to march in the footsteps of the 35-mm. with 
the sound on the film, just as it did in projection. 

Early work with 16-mm. sound-film had not been encouraging 
from the standpoint of sound quality. The limitations of film size 
and the slower linear speed for light-beam scanning resulted in sub- 
stantial losses in 16-mm. sound reproduction as compared to 35-mm. 
Radio had set a definite standard for sound quality, and it was gener- 
ally conceded that 16-mm. sound would not be satisfactory until it 
reached, and preferably exceeded, the quality attainable with radio 
reproducers of the best grade. 

Meanwhile the revolution that sound had created in the 35-mm. 



Jan., 193G] TRENDS IN 16-MM. PROJECTION 91 

field had its reverberations in the 16-mm. field. Insistent demands 
arose from the industrial, educational, and non-theatrical fields that 
16-mm. equipment provide the advantages of sound as well as the 
picture. Even the home field became to some extent dissatisfied 
with home movies without sound, and home talkies gave promise of 
large outlets for the industry. 

Happily for 16-mm. movies, progress in sound recording advanced 
rapidly. With the advent of high-fidelity recording, with its greatly 
enlarged range of frequencies, in combination with great advances in 
optical reduction printing, the losses of 16-mm. sound-film became of 
lesser significance. Continued improvements finally made it possible 
to provide a quality of sound with 16-mm. film comparable to the best 
reproduction on high-class radio sets. A frequency range of 50 to 
7000 cycles became possible, while output capacities of 15 watts or 
more, with negligible distortion, proved adequate for auditorium use. 

Where is 16-mm. sound-film most extensively used at the present 
time ? It is quite safe to say that industry is by far the largest user. 
Such representative large corporations as Chrysler Motors, Fire- 
stone Tire & Rubber Company, Portland Cement Company, Hormel 
Company, General Motors Corporation, and hundreds of others too 
numerous to mention, are utilizing 16-mm. sound for many pur- 
poses. It is being used as a sales medium to consumers, as a training 
medium for dealers and salesmen, and as an educational medium for 
employee instruction. The production of these industrial 16-mm. 
sound pictures has become a large industry in itself, and a constantly 
increasing supply of film for such purposes is being made. 

The educational field, which had already recognized the silent 
picture as one of the most valuable aids to visual education, recog- 
nizes in the sound picture a still more effective aid. However, the 
library of educational sound-films is still relatively small. The educa- 
tional field is only awaiting the increasing of this library to take on 
16-mm. sound in an extensive way. Even with the present small 
library, hundreds of schools are already equipped with 16-mm. sound 
projectors in the expectation that sound libraries will quickly and 
greatly increase. 

The addition of sound to 16-mm. film has given the church, the 
club, and other non- theatrical fields a great stimulus. Circulating 
libraries of 16-mm. sound-film are now operating in a number of large 
cities, and rental rates are but slightly higher than for silent films. 
About 1000 subjects of entertainment character are now available, 



92 A. SHAPIRO [J. S. M. p. E. 

and this number will undoubtedly increase rapidly. This will, in 
turn, greatly increase the demand for equipment. 

The home talkie field, likewise, is dependent to a considerable 
extent upon the further development of suitable libraries of rental 
sound-film. The introduction of a 16-mm. sound camera for ama- 
teurs has stimulated a corresponding demand for sound projectors. 
The higher cost of such equipment, however, has prevented its more 
general use. With lower costs, based upon designs particularly 
adapted for home use, this field will no doubt broaden considerably. 

We come, now, to a consideration of what lies ahead for 16-mm. 
sound. We have seen how it quickly outgrew its original limitations, 
and with its increased light power, advanced into 35-mm. territory 
for industrial, educational, and non-theatrical purposes. In these 
fields, it unquestionably has tremendous unexploited possibilities, 
but, can it not go farther? 

What about the theatrical field? Has 16-mm. projection a destiny 
in the thousands of moderate-size theaters? The answers to these 
questions seem to depend upon two factors: one, the ability of 
16-mm. equipment designers to improve their products further; the 
other, the attitude of film producers toward furnishing their releases 
on 16-mm. sound-film, so as to enlarge the available entertainment 
film library. 

The rapid progress made to date in 16-mm. equipment design and 
illumination gives every promise that the first factor will be attained. 
Already hundreds of performances are daily being given on 16-mm. 
equipment to groups up to 1000 persons, showing pictures upon large 
screens. In most cases, the audience is hardly aware that the equip- 
ment used is not 35-mm. The lamp manufacturers have for some 
time given serious consideration to improving the illumination fur- 
ther, and experimenting with such lamps will undoubtedly result in a 
tremendous gain in 16-mm. illumination. Likewise, sound improve- 
ment has already enabled 16-mm. equipment to fill the requirements of 
moderate-size theaters. 

With regard to the second factor, the producers have so far been 
apathetic to releasing prints on 16-mm. sound-film. This has not 
only retarded the 16-mm. growth in the theatrical field, but has 
hampered the growth in the non-theatrical and other fields requiring 
entertainment film. Whatever the reasons for this attitude may be, 
it is certainly not justified upon the basis of a comparison of operating 
factors between 35- and 16-mm. films. 



Jan., 1936] TRENDS IN 10-MM. PROJECTION 93 

For example, compare the factor of safety between the two films. 
While 35-mm. film of a non-inflammable type can be obtained, by far 
the greater amount used is extremely inflammable. Many cities 
recognize the fire hazard this provokes, and require fire-proofed 
booths for 35-mm. projection. All 16-mm. film is non-inflammable or 
slow burning. Its safety has been recognized, so that no restrictions 
prevent its use, even in the open. As an instance of this great ad- 
vantage, it is cited that in many schools children operate the 16-mm. 
equipment. This can hardly be said of 35-mm. film, which has a 
definite fire hazard. 

Again, the 16-mm. equipment requires no special prolonged train- 
ing for competent operation. Again citing the experience in schools, 
it is found that such equipment is generally operated by the teachers 
or by their pupils. Its small size and weight enable it to be easily 
transported, thus encouraging its use in many places. This is a defi- 
nite increase in its utility for road shows and circuit entertainments. 
Its simplicity results in substantial operating economies. 

Another factor that offers an interesting comparison is the cost of 
distribution. A 1600-ft. reel of 16-mm. film weighs 5 pounds, and 
such a reel can deliver an uninterrupted program lasting 44 minutes. 
A 1000-ft. reel of 35-mm. film weighs about 6 pounds and can deliver a. 
program lasting only 11 minutes. In other words, the weight of a 
similar program is more than four times as great on 35-mm. film as 
on 16-mm. film. What a tremendous saving in shipping alone, be- 
sides the savings in container, packaging, handling, etc. 

Finally, there is the economy of equipment. Not only is 16-mm. 
sound equipment far less expensive than 35-mm.; but, in addi- 
tion, the theater can very often get along with one 16-mm. projector, 
whereas it would require two 35-mm. equipments. Since the 1600-ft. 
reel of 16-mm. film can deliver a program equal to that of four 35-mm. 
reels, the projector need be re-threaded only once during an eight-reel 
program. This is not objectionable in the smaller houses, which, with 
35-mm. film, would require two projectors; otherwise, there would 
be seven interruptions in an eight-reel program. 

These considerations of lower costs are of vital importance to large 
numbers of the smaller theaters located in outlying sections. Their 
operating expenses have become disproportionate to their reduced in- 
comes, forcing a number to close. In spite of considerable improve- 
ment in the theater business, some 3000 small houses are still closed. 
In many cases, the lower cost of 16-mm. sound-film would enable 



94 A. SHAPIRO 

such theaters to reopen upon a profitable basis. This, in turn, would 
increase the revenue of the film producers, who are now limited as to 
the number of theaters that can profitably take their releases. 

To summarize, it would appear that the immediate expansion of 
the 16-mm. sound market lies in industry, education, and non-theatri- 
cal fields. Film sources to supply these fields are growing rapidly. 
Industrial film producers are increasing their 16-mm. sound produc- 
tions, several universities are producing 16-mm. sound educational 
pictures, and entertainment libraries are growing to supply the non- 
theatrical and home fields. 

The future trend, with regard to the smaller theaters, is problemati- 
cal. It will require producer cooperation as well as improved equip- 
ment design. With such cooperation, the smaller theaters with 
capacities of approximately 600 persons and screens about 18 feet in 
width, which represent about 70 per cent of the total theaters in this 
country, can operate upon a more profitable basis than by using 
35-mm. sound-film. 

All indications point, however, to the trend of 16-mm. sound to- 
ward professional pursuits. It has outgrown the home field as a 
major outlet. It is destined more and more to be used as a tool for 
industry, as an effective aid for education, and as a flexible medium 
for cultural and recreational activities. 



SYMPOSIUM ON NEW MOTION PICTURE APPARATUS 



A WIDE-RANGE STUDIO SPOT LAMP FOR USE WITH 2000-WATT 
FILAMENT GLOBES* 



E. C. RICHARDSON** 



During the Spring Convention at Hollywood, Calif., May 20-24, 1935, a sympo- 
sium on new motion picture apparatus was held, in which various manufacturers of 
equipment described and demonstrated their new products and developments. Some 
of this equipment is described in the following pages; the remainder will be published 
in subsequent issues of the Journal. 



In the motion picture studios there are a number of lamps that may be classified 
under the general term of "spot lamp." For the purpose of this paper, this 
classification may be divided into two groups, i. e., the condenser type and the 
reflector type. The condenser type embodies a source of illumination, the light 
from which is collected by means of a single condensing lens, usually of the plano- 
convex form, and means are provided for focusing the light-source in relation 
to the lens in order to vary the divergence of the projected beam. The ratings of 
these lamps range from 250 to 2000 watts, utilizing filament globes; and, in 
carbon arc equipment, from 35 to 115 amperes. 

In the group of lamps designated as the reflector type will be found the lamps 
embodying light-sources in combination with glass or metal reflectors, usually 
of the paraboloid form. It is the present practice of the motion picture studios 
to use lamps of the reflector type provided with incandescent globes, with re- 
flectors ranging in diameter from 18 to 36 inches. Carbon arc equipment of the 
reflector type includes the Sun arcs, the majority of which have reflectors 24 or 
36 inches in diameter, although one major studio employs several Sun arcs using 
60-inch reflectors. 

The characteristic common to both the previously mentioned groups is that they 
may be used to project a beam of light, the divergence of which may be varied 
from a narrow angle, for the "spot," to an angle sufficiently wide to "flood" a 
considerable area. By altering the angle of divergence of the projected light- 
beam, the area covered by the beam and the intensity within the beam may be 
increased or decreased according to requirements. 

In attempting to improve any product three considerations come to one's 
attention: first, the incapacity of the existing product to meet the demands im- 

* Presented at the Spring, 1935, Meeting at Hollywood, Calif. 
** Mole-Richardson, Inc., Hollywood, Calif. 

95 



96 



APPARATUS SYMPOSIUM 



[J. S. M. P. E. 



posed upon it; second, the extension of the usefulness of the product into new 
fields of use ; and, third, increasing the efficiency of the product itself. 

The lamp under consideration in this 
paper the MR Type 210 Junior Solarspot, 
shown in Fig. 1 has been designed to 
function primarily as a spot lamp for use 
in photographing motion pictures. It is 
not an adaptation of equipment used in 
another field of illumination, but embodies 
in its design characteristics for overcoming 
the inability of existing equipment to fulfill 
the demands imposed upon it and provides 
a control of the light-beam that widens the 
utility of the lamp as a tool of the cinema- 
tographer. The advantages achieved in this 
design have been largely effected by more 
efficiently utilizing the light from the 2000- 
watt G48 CIS bipost type of filament globe 
used in this equipment as the light-source. 

Spot lamps of the condenser type have the 
advantage of good control over the projected 
beam. Using a 2000-watt lamp as the 
source, the beam can be converged to an 
angle of 8 degrees and flooded out to an 
angle as great as 45 degrees, although 
at such wide divergence the intensity of 
illumination is low. The disadvantage of 
spot lamps using the tungsten filament 
globes is their inefficient utilization of the 
light. 

The power radiated by the 2000-watt globe 

is nearly 3 hp., a considerable portion of which is radiated at wavelengths lying 
below the visible range. That is to say, in other words, that the 2000-watl 
lamp radiates a lot of heat. The amount of heat radiated is such that even 




FIG. 1. MR Type 210, 
Junior Solarspot. 




FIG. 2. Construction of typical 2000-watt condenser 
type studio spot. 



Jan., 1936] 



APPARATUS SYMPOSIUM 



97 



though plano-convex lenses are made of heat-resisting glass, their size in prac- 
tical application, and to prevent excessive breakage, seems to be limited to a 
diameter of 8 inches and a focal length of 15 inches. 




TOY 



FIG. 3. Intensity distribution of condenser type spot 
lamp, with 8-inch diameter, 15-inch focus condenser; 
source: 120-volt, 2000-watt, G-48 bipost incandescent 
lamp. 

Fig. 2 illustrates the layout of a typical 2000-watt condenser type studio spot. 
Behind the globe is a spherical mirror which is used to collect the light that would 
otherwise be unprojected and to reflect it so as to form an image between the coils 
of the filament grid. Tests reveal 
that when such a mirror is used in the 
combination shown in Fig. 2, good ad- 
justment will increase the intensity of 
the beam by approximately 60-75 per 
cent above that afforded by a globe 
without such a reflector. With a beam 
divergence of 8 degrees in the spot lamp 
illustrated, it is possible to effect such 
a collection of direct and reflected light 
upon the condenser lens of only 32 de- 
grees. When such a combination is 
used for flooding, with a beam diver- 
gence of 45 degrees, the angle of the 
collected light is increased to 71 de- 
grees, but the intensity of the beam is 
so low that it is not of great photo- 
graphic use. Fig. 3 shows the angular 
distribution of candle-power from a 
2000-watt studio spot for beam divergences of 8, 18, 30, and 44 degrees. 

The inherent fault of the condenser type of spot lamp for use with high-wattage 
globes is its incapacity to collect a large proportion of the light emitted by the 




FIG. 4. Reflector type of lamp 
equipped with parabolic mirror, 
showing angles of collection for spot 
and flood positions. 



98 



APPARATUS SYMPOSIUM 



[J. S. M. p. E. 



source. Short-focus, wide-aperture condenser lenses would correct the difficulty; 
but for the plano-convex type of condenser, lenses of suitable focal length would 
be so thick as to cause great losses in transmission, and the breakage hazard, 
which is now rather objectionable, would be greatly increased due to the thickness 
of the lenses. 



ANGLE OF DIVERGENCE 

4 O 4 6 12 16 




FIG. 5. Intensity distribution of reflec- 
tor type of spot lamp, with 18-inch para- 
bolic reflector and spill ring; source: 120- 
volt, 2000-watt, G48 bipost incandescent 
lamp. 

The reflector types of lamp have the advantage over the previously described 
condenser spot lamps of collecting from the source a larger angle of light. A 
schematic drawing of a lamp equipped with a parabolic mirror 18 inches in diame- 
ter and having a focal length of 7 7 / 8 inches is shown in Fig. 4. The layout shows 
the lamp adjusted for a narrower beam of 8 degrees, in which case light within an 



Jan., 1936] 



APPARATUS SYMPOSIUM 



99 



angle of 121 degrees is collected from 
the bulb. The dotted lines show the 
position when the light is flooded to 
an angle of 24 degrees, in which case 
the angle of collection of the mirror is 
110 degrees. All the light from the 
front of the globe is lost, since, with 
the super-speed film in present use, it is 
necessary to apply spill rings to prevent 
any unprojected light from falling upon 
the set that may cause overexposure. 
This optical combination is most effec- 
tive for narrow beam divergences in the 
lamps using 2000-watt, G48 CIS globes FlQ 6 Showing angles of collec . 

as the source. tion of light in the 18-inch Sunspot 

Lamps of this type will spot down to lamp equipped with mirror, 
a divergence of 8 degrees without pro- 
jecting filament images that are seriously objectionable. When such narrow di- 




AHGLE OF DIVERGENCE 
8 4- O A 8 12 




FIG. 7. Intensity distribution of reflector type 
of spot lamp with 18-inch aplanatic metal reflector and 
spill ring; source: 120- volt, 2000-watt, CIS bipost in- 
candescent lamp. 



100 



APPARATUS SYMPOSIUM 



[J. S. M. p. E. 



vergences are required, lamps of this type are most effective; but the effective- 
ness is lost when they are flooded due to the characteristics of the parabolic reflec- 
tors. When the source is placed inside the focus of the reflector the intensity at 
and near the center of the beam drops much more rapidly than at the edges of the 
beam. This condition begins as soon as the globe is moved in from the focal point, 
and becomes more and more pronounced as the divergence increases; until, 
when the divergence is great enough, the projected light forms a "doughnut," 
which has no illuminating value in motion picture photography. Diffus- 
ing mediums can correct the bad distribution somewhat, but at the expense of 
much loss of illumination. Fig. 5 shows the intensity distribution of this type 
of equipment for divergences of 8, 16, and 20 degrees. 

To overcome this fault of the parabolic mirror when used for projecting other 
than narrow beams, there are in use in the motion picture industry stamped metal 




FIG. 8. MR 210 Junior Solarspot lamp, equipped 
with concentric plano-convex Fresnel lens. 

mirrors, the curvature of which is primarily parabolic, but having a plurality of 
facets. This type of mirror design injects an element of diffusion which im- 
proves the distribution of intensity in the projected beam. Fig. 6 shows an 18- 
inch Sun spot in which such a mirror is installed, and the angle of collection of the 
light. For the 14-degree divergence the angle of collection is 130 degrees, and 
for the 24-degree flood position it is 124 degrees. While mirrors of this design 
may be constructed from a number of small pieces of glass, a form of reflector 
frequently used in Europe, such construction is not, in our opinion, satisfactory. 
The amount of handwork involved in producing such a reflector in our country 
would make its cost prohibitive. Such reflectors have always tended to deterio- 
rate rapidly, the silver peeling at the edges of the facets. The faceted metal 
mirrors used in the Hollywood studios are finished to a high degree, and are chro- 
mium plated. Their reflectivity is, of course, limited by the reflectivity of the 
chromium-plated surface. Their particular virtue is the smoothness of distribu- 



Jan., 



APPARATUS SYMPOSIUM 



101 



lion, for divergences from 14 to 24 degrees. The angular distribution of an 18- 
inch Sun spot employing a faceted metal mirror and a 2000-watt G48 CIS Mazda 
globe is shown in Fig. 7 for angles of 14 (the narrowest divergence), 18, 24, and 30 
degrees. 

In the motion picture industry it is seldom necessary to project a spot beam 
narrower than 10 degrees, which provides a spot of light about eight feet in diame- 
ter at a distance of fifty feet. It is, however, desirable to be able to flood a lamp 
to a divergence as great as 40 degrees, provided that the projected beam at this 




FIG. 9. Intensity distribution of Junior Solarspot; 
source: 120-volt, 2000-watt, G48 CIS bipost incandes- 
cent lamp. 

wide angle is of sufficient intensity to be of photographic use. For the conditions 
under which spot lamps are used, it is desirable that the beam have its highest 
intensity at the center and that the edges be soft so as to permit overlapping 
the beams of several such lamps without building up high intensities in the areas 
overlapped. 

The MR Type 210 Junior Solarspot lamp, illustrated in Fig. 8, is supplied with a 
lens of the type known as the concentric plano-convex Fresnel. A lens of this 
type can be made quite large in diameter, of short focal length, and of relatively 



102 APPARATUS SYMPOSIUM [j. s. M. P. E. 

thin section. This lens was designed particularly to fulfill the requirements of 
the Junior Solarspot; and when used in combination with a 2000-watt G48 Cl3 
Mazda globe will project a spot beam having a divergence of 8 degrees, and a flood 
beam of 44 degrees. The lens is manufactured of a superior, heat-resisting glass 
of high mechanical strength. Referring to Fig. 8, at the rear of the globe is pro- 
vided a spherical mirror of the proper radius and aperture diameter, provided 
with two simple adjustments. This lamp utilizes a 2000-watt G48 CIS bipost 
Mazda globe. Such globes are, by their nature, virtually prefocusing; and 
when once the adjustments in the lamp are set, globes may be mounted or dis- 
mounted, and only slight readjustments of the spherical mirror are required to 
attain high efficiency of projection. The wide-aperture, short-focus lenses permit 
combined collection of the radiation from the globe and the spherical mirror 
within an angle of 74 degrees in the position for an 8-degree divergence, and of 104 
degrees when the lamp is used in its maximum flood position for a divergence of 
44 degrees. The short-focus Fresnel lens contributes to the over-all efficiency of 
the unit, but only careful attention to the design of the lens has made possible the 
excellent distribution provided by the equipment over a wide range of beam 
divergence. 

Fig. 9 shows the angular distribution of the Junior Solarspot for beam diver- 
gences of 8, 18, 24, 30, and 40 degrees. It will be noted that the wide range of 
distribution and the degree of intensity attained by this new equipment adapts it 
to a wide range of use in motion picture photography. For instance, with this 
lamp a person may be covered from head to foot at a distance of ten feet. A 
spot that can be flooded to this degree and to such an intensity makes a very use- 
ful lamp for general lighting. The fact that the projected spot at all times has 
soft diffusing edges permitting areas to be overlapped without showing rings or 
bands of lights, especially adapts it to back-lighting; and the wide range of in- 
tensity within the various beams is particularly advantageous for such purposes. 

Much experimentation has been done with an iris shutter applied to the lamp. 
By closing the iris and adjusting the focus of the lamp, a wide range of intensity 
may be attained for a given beam divergence for any type of photography de- 
manding that the spectral composition be maintained constant, as for color 
photography. Control of intensity by an iris is most desirable, in avoiding the 
use of diffusing screens which have the characteristic of absorbing certain wave- 
lengths and otherwise causing spectral imbalance. 



AN AUTOMATIC DAYLIGHT CONTINUOUS 35-MM. 
PROJECTION MACHINE* 

A. B. SCOTT** 

The S. C. K. projector (Fig. 10) is intended for continuous projection from a 
large loop of film during long periods of time. The machine is equipped with a 
single magazine into which is built the non-rewind device. Pictures may be pro- 

* Presented at the Spring, 1935, Meeting at Hollywood, Calif. 
** S. C. K. Corporation, Hollywood, Calif. 



Jan., 1936] 



APPARATUS SYMPOSIUM 



103 



jected upon a reflecting screen in the usual way or upon a translucent sand blown 
glass screen. For the latter type of projection the various elements in the sound 
reproduction system can be rearranged in thirty-five seconds. The machine is 
provided with an automatic cut-off, which, in case the film breaks, stops all mov- 
ing parts as well as the light and the sound, before the film travels eight frames. 

The average film is worn badly when it has been shown a maximum of 125 
times under ordinary projection conditions, due to three principal factors, namely 
scratches resulting from the imperceptible slippage and friction of the film, ex- 
cessive heating, and finally, wear on the perforations. In this machine, slippage 




FIG. 10. S. C. K. automatic daylight continuous, 35-mm. 
projector. 



and friction are minimized. When the machine is going at the full speed of 90 
feet per minute, it is possible to put a finger between any two layers of the film . 
Heating is lessened by a special fan which draws the heat out of the projection 
chamber and blows a cooling draft of air upon the film after it passes through the 
projection chamber and before it is rewound. Wear and tear of the perforations 
at the intermittent movement are completely eliminated, as no sprocket of any 
kind is used. These three unique patented features make it possible to keep ordi- 
nary film in excellent condition for a minimum of three thousand showings. 
This machine is manufactured with a single picture projecting head or with a 



104 APPARATUS SYMPOSIUM [j. s. M. p. E. 

triple head. This triple-head automatic machine can be used on the marquee of 
a theater for projecting trailers on three screens simultaneously, so that they are 
visible from any direction. If there is any excuse for trailers it is to have them on 
the outside of the theater to induce people to enter, and not to bore them after 
they have paid their admission. 

By another very simple device attached to the three-head machine, two trailers 
can be run, with an automatic sign telling the public which picture is being shown 
at the present time and which is the coming attraction. 



THE VITACHROME DIFFUSIONLITE SYSTEM AND ITS APPLICATION* 

A. C. JENKING** 



The "Diffusionlite system," the term applied to this form of illumination, 
was discovered more or less accidentally after repeated efforts to get away from 
the use of expensive condensers or diffusers during a long period of years of con- 
structing large projecting and enlarging cameras. It was found that by using a 
mirror at the front of the lamp and projecting all the light upon an electrolytically 
treated aluminum surface the result was excellent. The light reflected from the 
myriads of microscopic brilliant facets formed a beam of illumination that was 
uniform, well distributed, and without perceptible "spot" or "center" or figura- 
tion, yet remarkable in its brilliancy and penetration. The resulting enlarge- 
ments were more beautiful than any we had produced before. This led us to 
seek a means of employing the same principle for studio lighting. An object 
could then be photographed with a perfectly diffused light without having to 
interpose glass or silk screens and thus lose considerable brilliancy. 

Fig. 11 shows the 500-watt PS-40 lamp, which, at the proper voltage, has a life 
of 1000 hours. Upon the bulb is deposited, by evaporation, a metallic reflecting 
surface of high efficiency. The mirror-coated area is calculated to have just the 
right diameter and curvature and, owing to the thinness of the glass, is to all 
purposes a front-surface mirror, throwing directly upon the reflector uniform 
illumination without "hot-spot," rings or images of the filament. The tests of 
these mirrors show a reflection coefficient greater than 80 per cent. 

It was only after many experiments and tests that the process was brought 
to a point where the mirrors could be guaranteed to stay upon the bulbs and 
retain their full reflection characteristics for the entire life of the lamps. These 
requirements have been met even in the case of the 2-kw. lamps used in the spots. 
The brick-colored coating upon the outside surface is a refractory material, 
placed there to protect the mirror which is so thin that it can be measured only 
by optical means. 

The lamp bulb is hung in the housing so that no direct rays escape. The mir- 
ror reflects back all the forward rays, and thus all rays emitted from the filament 

*Presented at the Spring, 1935, Meeting at Hollywood, Calif. 
**Vitachrome, Inc., Los Angeles, Calif. 



Jan., 1936] APPARATUS SYMPOSIUM 105 

are diffused by reflection from the countless facets of the electrolytically treated 
bowl. The curvature of the diffusion bowl has been carefully calculated to gain 
a high degree of efficiency and to avoid entrapping any light. Tests have shown 
that excellent diffusion is attained with a loss of only 5 or 6 per cent of light. 
There is a definite improvement in the brilliancy, without glare or "burning" 
the picture. The 500- watt model has the greatest general use in all fields of 
photography as well as motion pictures, in which this size is not used for close- 




Fig. 11. 500- watt, PS-40 lamp with metallic reflecting 
surface deposited upon bulb; collapsible telescopic stand 
and angle adjustment. 

ups or key lighting. The 2000-watt lamp is designed for general lighting of larger 
sets. Both lamps are otherwise patterned alike, and have been especially designed 
and built from the base up for their purpose. 

The 500-watt model, while very sturdily built, is extremely light, weighing 
only 22 pounds. It can be disassembled very quickly by removing the telescopic 
stem from the castered tripod base. A half dozen of such lamps can then easily 
be stowed in the rear of a Ford coupe. A frictionally held joint is incorporated 
between the bottom of the hood and top of the supporting stem, permitting bend- 



106 APPARATUS SYMPOSIUM 

ing the lamp backward or forward into any position, without having to adjust 
set-screws, etc. A ten-step rheostat is constructed within the hood of each lamp. 
This dimmer eliminates the necessity of screens for reducing the light-intensity. 
It is durably built and will last indefinitely, working quietly and smoothly. 

In order to demonstrate the various properties of the lamp, it may be projected 
upon a screen. If an object is placed immediately in front of the lamp, no per- 
ceptible shadow is cast; and as the object is moved toward the screen, a very 
indefinite shadow begins to form without at any time becoming a hard shadow 
unless the object is right up against the screen. 

The lamp provides admirable modeling light, with good diffusion and softness, 
coupled with a penetrating, sparkling brilliancy that may be appreciated by look- 
ing directly into it. The light is easy on the eyes, because there is no direct ray. 



SOCIETY ANNOUNCEMENTS 
ATLANTIC COAST SECTION 



The regular monthly meeting of the Section, held on November 13th, at 
Public School No. 11, New York, N. Y., was well attended, and indicated the 
extent to which interest in motion pictures for educational purposes is being 
shown in the New York area. Miss R. Hochheimer acted as Chairlady of the 
evening, introducing as speakers Dr. J. M. Sheehan, Assistant Superintendent 
of New York Schools, Mrs. J. H. Kohan, Vice-President of the United Parents 
Association, and Dr. Albert Brand, of Cornell University. A number of pictures 
were projected illustrating the nature of the subjects used and the technic fol- 
lowed in visual instruction in the classroom. 

As the result of the recent elections, the officers of the Section for the year 
1936 will be as follows: 

L. W. DAVEE, Chairman 

D. E. HYNDMAN, Sec.-Treas. M. C. BATSEL, Manager 

H. GRIFFIN, Manager 



MID-WEST SECTION 

At a meeting held on November 21st at the Electrical Association, Chicago, 
111., Mr. H. A. DeVry presented a paper on the subject of "Science Involved in 
a Film Reel." The meeting was well attended, and after the discussion of Mr. 
DeVry's paper, the results of the election of officers of the Section for 1936 were 
announced as follows: 

C. H. STONE, Chairman 

S. A. LUKES, Sec.-Treas. O. B. DEPUE, Manager 

B. E. STECHBART, Manager 



PACIFIC COAST SECTION 

At a meeting held on October 4th at the Pathe Studio, Hollywood, a pres- 
entation on the subject of lighting equipment was given by Mr. P. Mole, fol- 
lowed by an additional paper on the same subject, but with special reference to 
the performance of incandescent lamps and their applications, by Mr. R. G. 
Linderman. Mr. E. Huse spoke on the subject of "Practical Applications of 
the New Pola Screens in Cinematography." Several reels of films shot with 
the Pola Screens by cameramen of Hollywood were projected, illustrating very 
effectively the action of the screens. 

107 



108 SOCIETY ANNOUNCEMENTS 

STANDARDS COMMITTEE 

At a meeting held at the Hotel Pennsylvania, New York, N. Y., on December 
4th, extensive consideration was given to the subject of revising the Standards 
Booklet on the basis of suggestions and criticisms made during the past six 
months or so and particularly in connection with Mr. G. Friedl's visit to Europe 
in the interest of 16-mm. sound-film standardization. 

In addition, in view of the confusion that might result from the fact that there 
will exist in commercial use two nominal lengths of film, namely, 1000 and 2000 
feet, the application of the word reel should be restricted only to the metal appli- 
ance upon which the film is wound. In other words, a reel of film should no 
longer be defined as "approximately 1000 feet of film," and the Committee 
formally took action to delete that definition from the Glossary of the Society. 

Voting ballots are being mailed to the Members of the Committee for their 
action upon this, as well as upon the question of formally adopting the 2000-ft. 
length of film as an additional standard. 

SOCIETY SUPPLIES 

Reprints of Standards of the SMPE and Recommended Practice may be obtained 
from the General Office of the Society at the price of twenty-five cents each. 

Copies of Aims and Accomplishments, an index of the Transactions from Octo- 
ber, 1916, to June, 1930, containing summaries of all the articles, and author and 
classified indexes, may be obtained from the General Office at the price of one 
dollar each. Only a limited number of copies remains. 

Certificates of Membership may be obtained from the General Office by all 
members for the price of one dollar. Lapel buttons of the Society's insignia are 
also available at the same price. 

Black fabrikoid binders, lettered in gold, designed to hold a year's supply of the 
JOURNAL, may be obtained from the General Office for two dollars each. The 
purchaser's name and the volume number may be lettered in gold upon the back- 
bone of the binder at an additional charge of fifty cents each. 

Requests for any of these supplies should be directed to the General Office of 
the Society at the Hotel Pennsylvania, New York, N. Y., accompanied by the 
appropriate remittance. 



JOURNAL 



OF THE SOCIETY OF 

MOTION PICTURE ENGINEERS 

Volume XXVI FEBRUARY, 1936 Number 2 

CONTENTS 

Page 

A New Method of Increasing the Volume Range of Talking 

Motion Pictures N. LEVINSON 111 

Mechanical Reversed-Bias Light- Valve Recording 

E. H. HANSEN AND C. W. FAULKNER 117 

The Motion Picture Theater Shape and Effective Visual Re- 
ception B. SCHLANGER 128 

Elimination of Splice Noise in Sound-Film. . . .E. I. SPONABLE 136 

Principles of Measurements of Room Acoustics. . . E. C. WENTE 145 

Servicing Sound Motion Picture Reproducing Equipment. . . . 

C. C. AIKEN 154 

Visual Accompaniment R. WOLF 158 

The Use of Films in the U. S. Army M. E. GILLETTE 173 

Motion Pictures in the Army Air Corps. . . .G. W. GODDARD 183 

Note on the Measurement of Photographic Densities with the 

Barrier Type of Photocell B. C. HIATT AND C. TUTTLE 195 

Motion Picture Film Processing Laboratories in Great Britain 
I. D. WRATTEN 204 

Spring Convention at Chicago, 111. April 27-30, 1936 216 

Society Announcements 220 



JOURNAL 

OF THE SOCIETY OF 

MOTION PICTURE ENGINEERS 



SYLVAN HARRIS, EDITOR 

Board of Editors 
J. I. CRABTREE, Chairman 

O. M. GLUNT A. C. HARDY L. A. JONES 

G. E. MATTHEWS 



Subscription to non-members, $8.00 per annum; to members, $5.00 per annum, 
included in their annual membership dues; single copies, $1.00. A discount 
on subscriptions or single copies of 15 per cent is allowed to accredited agencies. 
Order from the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, Inc., 20th and Northampton 
Sts., Easton, Pa., or Hotel Pennsylvania, New York, N. Y. 

Published monthly at Easton, Pa., by the Society of Motion Picture Engineers. 

Publication Office, 20th & Northampton Sts., Easton, Pa. 
General and Editorial Office, Hotel Pennsylvania, New York, N. Y. 
Entered as second class matter January 15, 1930, at the Post Office at Easton, 
Pa., under the Act of March 3, 1879. Copyrighted, 1936, by the Society of 
Motion Picture Engineers, Inc. 

Papers appearing in this Journal may be reprinted, abstracted, or abridged 
provided credit is given to the Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers 
and to the author, or authors, of the papers in question. Exact reference as to 
the volume, number, and page of the Journal must be given. The Society is 
not responsible for statements made by authors. 



Officers of the Society 

President: HOMER G. TASKER, 3711 Rowland Ave., Burbank, Calif. 
Past-President: ALFRED N. GOLDSMITH, 444 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y. 
Executive Vice-President: SIDNEY K. WOLF, 250 W. 57th St., New York, N. Y. 
Engineering Vice-President: LOYD A. JONES, Kodak Park, Rochester, N. Y. 
Editorial Vice-President: JOHN I. CRABTREE, Kodak Park, Rochester, N. Y. 
Financial Vice-President: OMER M. GLUNT, 463 West St., New York, N. Y. 
Convention Vice-President: WILLIAM C. KUNZMANN, Box 6087, Cleveland, Ohio. 
Secretary: JOHN H. KURLANDER, 2 Clearfield Ave., Bloomfield, N. J. 
Treasurer: TIMOTHY E. SHEA, 463 West St., New York, N. Y. 

Governors 

MAX C. BATSEL, Front & Market Sts., Camden, N. J. 
LAWRENCE W. DAVEE, 250 W. 57th St., New York, N. Y. 
ARTHUR S. DICKINSON, 28 W. 44th St., New York, N. Y. 
HERBERT GRIFFIN, 90 Gold St., New York, N. Y. 

ARTHUR C. HARDY, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. 
EMERY HUSE, 6706 Santa Monica Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. 
GERALD F. RACKETT, 823 N. Seward St., Hollywood, Calif. 
CARRINGTON H. STONE, 205 W. Wacker Drive, Chicago, 111. 



A NEW METHOD OF INCREASING THE VOLUME RANGE 
OF TALKING MOTION PICTURES* 



N. LEVINSON' 



Summary. Lack of adequate volume range is one of the greatest liandicaps to 
achieving greater realism in sound motion pictures. A method of intercutting vari- 
able-density and variable-width recordings is described which results in an 8-db. in- 
crease in effective volume range. 



One of the chief handicaps toward achieving greater realism in talk- 
ing motion pictures is the lack of an adequate volume range to repro- 
duce faithfully the wide variations that occur in dialog and music. 

The volume difference between the surface noise of the average film 
record and the maximum signal that can be reproduced from such a 
record is about 40 decibels. This range is inadequate for recording the 
gradations of volume required for dialog and is entirely inadequate 
for the proper dramatic presentation of music. 

Due to this limitation of range it is necessary to record upon film at 
a normal dialog level only 8 or 10 decibels below 100 per cent modula- 
tion of the recording device. This allows an increase of only 10 
decibels in volume for scenes in which shouting takes place, and also 
for the opening and closing title music of a picture or a high- volume 
singing sequence. If the recording level is dropped in order to gain a 
greater range for these sounds, then the film surface noise becomes ob- 
jectionable in the normal dialog recordings. 

To illustrate the point, assume a volume range of 40 decibels for a 
good film recording using 10-db. noise reduction. If the modulation 
level for normal dialog is 10 decibels below 100 per cent modulation, 
the film surface noise in the theater will be only 30 decibels below the 
dialog level. The surface noise from films recorded in this manner is 
usually not objectionable in the average theater, as it is just masked 
by the audience and the theater noise. If, however, the normal 
modulation is reduced to a level, say, 15 decibels below 100 per cent 

* Presented at the Fall, 1935, Meeting at Washington, D. C. 
** Warner Bros.-First National Studios, Burbank, Calif. 

Ill 



112 N. LEVTNSON [j. S. M. p. E. 

modulation, then the gain of the theater amplifier must be increased 
5 decibels for the same effective acoustic level of the dialog. The 
acoustic level of the surface noise is likewise increased 5 decibels so 
that it is only 25 decibels below the normal speech level. It is no 
longer masked by theater and audience noise, and becomes very ob- 
jectionable in the average theater. 

Thus the elimination of surface noise in normal speech recordings 
requires that the speech be recorded at such a high percentage of 
modulation that no leeway in volume range remains for recording 
speech and music that require additional range for the best dramatic 
effect. 

One method of increasing the apparent volume range of variable - 
density recordings is the so-called "squeeze track." In this method 
of recording, the normal dialog track is, for example, only one-half the 
maximum width allowable on the release print. Loud musical se- 
quences are released on the full width of the sound-track, with a re- 
sultant increase in level of 6 decibels. This method is very effective 
but, unfortunately, when the track is reduced to one-half the width, 
the level of the signal is reduced by 6 decibels but the film surface 
noise is reduced by only 3 decibels. This is due to the random 
nature of the film background noises which, therefore, must be 
added vectorially, with a resultant change proportional to the square- 
root of the change in width of the track. Thus we gain in this 
method of recording an effective increase in volume range of 3 
decibels, assuming that the surface noise for the normal dialog, or 
during periods of no sound, is held at a constant level. Greater 
increases in volume range are possible but this example illustrates 
the current commercial practice. 

Another method in general use of increasing the volume range of 
film recordings is that of increasing the transmission of variable- 
density sound-track during periods when high volumes are required. 
It is general practice, at present, to maintain an unmodulated visual 
diffuse print transmission for variable-density recordings of approxi- 
mately 20 per cent, this value of print transmission resulting in mini- 
mum distortion and most pleasant reproduction of the recorded 
sound. As is well known, the output level of a variable-density 
record varies with the print transmission; so if it is desired to reduce 
the output level, the print may be darkened, or if it is desired to in- 
crease the output level, the print may be lightened. Such a change 
in print transmission is accompanied by a change of quality that is 



Feb., 1936] INCREASING THE VOLUME RANGE 113 

quite small, within the limits of, say, 16 to 30 per cent transmission. 
When the print transmission is changed beyond these points, however, 
the quality begins to suffer. 

The method described above is widely used to increase the effective 
volume range of film recordings. Opening title music may be printed 
for a visual print transmission of, say, 40 per cent, with the result that 
when reproduced in the theater it is 7.8 decibels louder than the nor- 
mal dialog. Since the surface noise is objectionable only during 
periods of low modulation or no modulation, this procedure of increas- 
ing the print transmission increases the effective volume range of film 
recordings by approximately 6 decibels. Any impairment of sound 
quality that may result in order to attain the loudness required is 
more than compensated by the increased effectiveness and dramatic 
value of the sound. 

The method to be described in this paper not only achieves this in- 
crease in volume range, but it does so without the slightest impair- 
ment in quality. It is accomplished by intercutting variable-density 
recordings with variable-width recordings; variable-density record- 
ings being used when normal volume is required, and variable-width 
when high volumes are required. 

The unmodulated portion of a variable-width recording consists of 
a sound-track, one half of which is opaque and the other half trans- 
parent. Its normal unmodulated transmission, therefore, is approxi- 
mately 50 per cent, or 2*/2 times the optimal unmodulated transmis- 
sion for variable-density track. This difference in unmodulated 
transmission results in producing a variable-width track of the same 
percentage of modulation at a level approximately 8 decibels higher 
than that of the variable-density track when run on the same repro- 
ducing system with the same gain. Thus, by intercutting variable- 
density and variable- width recordings, an extension of the range of 
8 decibels is provided, without changing the fader setting, for the 
most effective and dramatic reproduction of sound. 

This idea has been found to be very practicable, and of great value 
in dramatic and musical sequences. It has been further enhanced by 
intercutting "squeeze track" and variable-width track, with a re- 
sultant 11-db. increase in maximum volume for the same noise level in 
the theater. 

The release of such prints has demonstrated that many theaters are 
equipped with power amplifiers of inadequate capacity for handling 
the increased volume range. Before the full possibilities of the sys- 



114 N. LEVINSON [J. S. M. p. E. 

tern can be realized, additional amplifier capacity must be provided in 
these theaters or more efficient loud speakers must be developed. In 
spite of the inadequacy of theater equipment, the system has shown 
itself to have great possibilities for enhancing the realism and natural- 
ness of sound pictures. 

APPENDIX 

The ratio between the output of a variable-density sound-track of 20 per cent 
visual diffuse transmission and a variable-width track of the same percentage of 
modulation, when reproduced with the same gain, is derived as follows: 

Variable-Width Recording 

Standard width of track 0.070 inch 

Diffuse density of opaque portion 1.3 

Projection density of opaque portion 1.3 X 1.3 = 1.69 

Projected transmission density of opaque portion 2.04 per cent 

Diffuse density of transparent portion 0.06 

Projection density of transparent portion 0.078 

Projected transmission density of transparent portion 83.4 per cent 

Percentage change in projected transmission for 50 per cent 

modulation: (83.4-2.04) X 0.50 40.68 

40.68 X 0.070 X K ( = Intensity of illumination X height of 

slit) 2.85K modulated 

light flux output 

Variable-Density Recording 

Standard theater reproducing aperture 0.084 inch 

Mean diffuse density of print (20 per cent transmission) 0.70 

Mean projection density of print (20 per cent transmission) 0.91 
Mean projection transmission density of print (20 per cent 

transmission) 12.3 per cent 

Variable-Density Recording 

(For 50 Per Cent Modulation) 

Maximum projected transmission of print 18.45 per cent 

Minimum projected transmission of print 6.15 per cent 

Percentage change in projected transmission for 50 per cent 12.3 per cent 

modulation: (18.45-6.16) X 0.084 X K 1.032K 

2.85 K (variable-width track output) 2.76 



1.032 K (variable-density track output) 

20 log 2.76 = ratio of loudness of variable-width track to 
variable-density track of the same percentage of modu- 
lation 8.8 decibels 



Feb., 1936] INCREASING THE VOLUME RANGE 115 

DISCUSSION 

MR. FRANK: One of the producers is releasing, or has in the past released, pic- 
tures in two different types of release print, a Class A print and a Class B print, 
one of which had an increased volume range. Do other producers, or does the 
industry as a whole, intend to release regular pictures in two different kinds of 
print, one the standard release print to be used on equipment such as we now find 
in the theaters in general, and the other only where adequate reserve power is 
available? 

CHAIRMAN FRAYNE : I believe the studio to which you refer is Metro-Gold wyn- 
Mayer, and that was in connection with the musical, Naughty Marietta. The 
studio, at the time, attempted to turn out two different prints, on a trial basis, but 
the experiment was not quite successful because of confusion at the exchanges, 
and because of the objections of some houses to receiving Class B prints. I have 
not heard of any other studio contemplating such a device at the present time, at 
least so far as getting different volume outputs from film is concerned. 

MR. FRANK: Is it the intent, then, of Warner Bros., for instance, to release 
pictures, particularly those with musical selections, under the new system, without 
regard for the theater that does not have adequate reserve power? 

PRESIDENT TASKER: I do not know whether I can speak for the West Coast 
studio, but I should imply from this paper and from conversations with Major 
Levinson that it was intended to make use of the increased volume range, whether 
or not the theater was capable of taking advantage of it. 

CHAIRMAN FRAYNE: The question as to what volume range we actually get 
from variable-density track is very much undecided. It depends a good deal upon 
who makes the measurement, and I believe in order to facilitate matters we ought 
to have a definition of what we mean by signal-to-noise, or volume range, of a film. 
If we define volume range as the difference in output between a fully modulated 
1000-cycle signal and the noise level of the unmodulated track, then actual mea 
surements indicate that a volume range of approximately 40 decibels without any 
noise reduction can be obtained from average film processing. If we refer to the 
average mixing level, assumed to be, say, 10 decibels below clash, then, of course, 
that figure drops to 30 decibels. But since recording practices vary a great deal, 
it would seem that the former definition of volume range should be given more 
weight. As to the 8-db. increase in output of the variable-width over the variable- 
density track, this is theoretically correct, based upon the average transmission of 
variable- width track and the average transmission of variable-density track. 

MR. EVANS: The question of volume range and noise level has come up before 
the Sound Committee, and attempts have been made, without much result, to 
define what was meant by volume range. There are two or three concepts that 
apparently should be noted. One assumes *hat the noise level is measured on a 
flat system, giving one result. Another is that the noise level is measured on a 
system whose characteristic is that of the ear, giving an entirely different result. 
Still another, termed effective volume range and it seemed to some members of 
the Committee that that concept should be defined concerned the ratio of the 
loudest to the lowest sounds that it was good practice to record. Volume range 
should be so defined that we can all talk the same language. So far it has not been. 

PRESIDENT TASKER: It seems highly desirable that we should arrive at a com- 
mon understanding of what is meant by volume range. Of these three proposals, 



116 N. LEVINSON 

the last is perhaps the least easily specified, and involves the most opinion and 
good judgment. The second, likewise, depends upon a factor that is easily mis- 
understood and is not easy to reproduce promptly with measuring apparatus. It 
would seem to me, therefore, that the first was the one that ought to be most 
seriously considered as a standard of reference. In any case, the definition will be 
more or less arbitrary. 

It must be realized that the third concept states what we are trying to attain 
and what we are concerned about. We are concerned with the ratio between what 
we dare to put upon the film as a maximum, and what we may put upon it as a 
minimum. Once having specified the range between the maximum recording 
signal and the surface noise under some easily specified condition, then all our 
thinking might be referred to that figure. Consequently, I should like to propose 
that the first of those be the one adopted. 

MR. EVANS: The Sound Committee, in studying the question, felt that our 
definitions should be consistent with similar definitions in the radio field. Radio 
engineers have encountered the same problem, so we are trying to determine 
what, if anything, the Institute of Radio Engineers has done in the way of defining 
such terms. 



MECHANICAL REVERSED-BIAS LIGHT-VALVE 
RECORDING* 



E. H. HANSEN AND C. W. FAULKNER** 

Summary. Many methods have been applied recently for increasing the volume 
range of recordings. Some, such as the push-pull system, require mechanical and 
electrical modification of existing apparatus in order to utilize their advantages. In 
an effort to produce prints capable of standard reproduction, with increased signal-to- 
noise ratio, the mechanical reversed-bias method has been used at the Twentieth Cen- 
tury-Fox Film Studios. Briefly, it is a method of reverse-biasing a valve so that the 
valve aperture is increased by the biasing current to a degree sufficient to prevent clash. 
Further modification provides for a combination of standard biasing up to a certain 
percentage of modulation and mechanical reverse-biasing from that point on, resulting 
in an increase of 8 to 12 decibels over the usual methods in signal-to-noise ratio. 

Recent developments of sound recording and reproduction have 
indicated a growing appreciation of the necessity for more nearly con- 
forming to the original sound level and frequency range. Wide- 
range and high-fidelity developments have sufficiently expanded the 
frequency range to improve the illusion of reality considerably, but 
no method yet in commercial use provides a volume range of the de- 
sired extent. It has been felt that a range of approximately 55 deci- 
bels from the surface noise to the peak level would provide a true 
sound volume perspective. 

Since the inception of sound pictures an attempt has been made to 
achieve expansion and compression of volume by means of the fader, 
cued by the projectionist. This means is entirely unsatisfactory, due 
to the requirements of manual cueing, and requires that the operator 
be able to give his undivided attention to his cues, be alert at every 
showing, to have a genuine interest in his work, and a sense of show- 
manship. From sad experience it has been found necessary to pro- 
duce prints containing therein all the necessary volume variations, 
and a reproducing system having a capacity sufficient to encompass 
this range of volume. With reference to the latter, much considera- 

* Presented at the Fall, 1935, Meeting at Washington, D. C. 
** Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corp., Hollywood, Calif, 

117 



118 



E. H. HANSEN AND C. W. FAULKNER [J. s. M. p. E. 



tion is being given nowadays to the fact that there are very few 
houses capable of reproducing even speech levels without some trace 
of volume distortion. There are many 1200-seat houses in which the 
maximum undistorted output is less than three watts. 

While the studio is vitally interested in reproduction, it must first 
place its own house in order and provide a negative of optimal char- 
acteristics and capacity. In studio production, we find two kinds of 
mixers: those of the first school believe in setting their own peak 
levels and allowing sounds from the source to modulate and mix them- 
selves; those of the second group have become afflicted with what is 
commonly known as the "mixer's itch." Experience has shown it to 
be possible for both kinds of mixers to achieve excellent results, al- 
though it appears that in general those of the former group turn out 
consistently better pictures. 




FIG. 1. Diagram of the noise-reduction unit. 

It is customary in production to record dialog peaks approximately 
10 decibels below clash. This is supposed to be sufficient to take care 
of dialog peak transients and the volume differential between normal 
dialog and a brass band, airplane motor, or the firing of a 16-inch gun. 
Some sounds, of course, are so loud as to be unpleasant to hear, even 
should the facilities be provided for recording and reproducing them, 
and we should not care to reproduce them in their original intensities. 
There is, however, need for a 30- to 40-db. differential between nor- 
mal dialog and peak volume. It might well be that during the repro- 



Feb., 1936] REVERSED-BlAS LlGHT- VALVE RECORDING 



119 



duction of an entire picture the peak capacity would be reached for 
only a few seconds, but the improved effectiveness of the picture as a 
whole would warrant the greater range. 

The limiting factor in standard recording is either that of over- 
shooting the oscillograph armature or the clash of valve ribbons. 
This happens before photographic and amplifier distortion occurs, and 
places a psychological handicap upon the mixer. The mixer's atti- 
tude is to play safe, and his involuntary muscular reaction is to reduce 




FIG. 2. Wiring diagram of recorder control cabinet. 

the level. The optimal arrangement would be to set the mixer at the 
normal dialog level and allow the peak sounds to reach their limits 
without restriction. With certain abnormally loud sounds the flatten- 
ing of the film response curve would be the only safety-valve provided. 
Many methods have been applied during the past two or three 
years for increasing volume range of the system. Some of these, such 
as the push-pull system, require the mechanical and electrical modi- 
fication of existing apparatus in order to utilize their advantages in 
theater reproduction. In an effort to produce prints capable of 
standard reproduction, with increased signal-to-noise ratio, the me- 
chanical reversed-bias method has been used on certain productions at 






120 



E. H. HANSEN AND C. W. FAULKNER [J. S. M. P. E. 






1.8 



the Twentieth Century-Fox Film Studios. Briefly, it is a method of 
reverse-biasing a valve so that the valve aperture is increased by the 
biasing current to a degree sufficient to prevent clash. Further modi- 
fication provides for a combination of standard biasing up to a certain 
percentage of modulation and mechanical reverse-biasing from that 
point on, resulting in an increase of 8 to 12 decibels over the usual 

methods in signal-to-noise ratio. 
In lining up a standard valve 
for recording, it might be well to 
describe briefly the circuit of the 
noise-reduction unit, as shown in 
Fig. 1 . Four amplifier tubes are 
used, the fifth tube, V-5, being 
the 1000-cycle test oscillator. An 
oscillator of the tuned-plate type 
generating a frequency of 20,000 
cycles (V-2) is used to feed the 
push-pull stage, V-3 and V-4, the 
output of the latter being recti- 
fied by the copper-oxide unit to 
produce direct biasing currents 
for the valve. The push-pull 
stage is modulated by the volt- 
age drop across R-5, which 
is derived from a second copper- 
oxide rectifier in the output 

Valve spacing as a function of c i rcmt o f V-l. V-l is merely a 
the biasing current. 

speech amplifier of the conven- 
tional transformer-coupled type. The output or biasing current from 
the copper-oxide rectifier (57M744) is approximately proportional to 
the voltage drop across R-5. It will be noticed with reference to the 
grid circuits of V-3 and V-4, that the polarity of the voltage drop 
across R-5 is opposed to that of the bias voltage applied through 
P-3; thus, as the rectified signal voltage across R-5 is increased, the 
grids become more positive until at the shoulder of the I P -E g curve 
the a-c. output of V-3 and V-4 is zero. 

After the main recording amplifiers have been properly adjusted, 
the 1000-cycle test oscillator is turned on, with a signal of approxi- 
mately 4 db. applied to the input of the valve transformer T-l 
(Fig. 2). With this signal applied to the valve, a pair of head-phones 




FIG. 3. 



Feb., 1936] REVERSED-BlAS LlGHT- VALVE RECORDING 



121 



is inserted into J-2 and the simplex resistor P-3 is adjusted until the 
tone heard is minimal. When this adjustment has been made, the 
phones are removed and an attempt is made to determine the clash 
point of the valve. This may be done in several ways, the one most 
commonly used being to listen directly to the valve. For valves of 
the permanent magnet type tuned to 10,000 cps., this has been found 



5.0 




FIG. 4. Relation of valve spacing to 
biasing current for a 6-db. margin, up to an 
applied level of +14 decibels. 

to be: for the 0.5-mil valve, +2 db.; for the 1-mil valve, +8 db.; 
for the 2-mil valve, +14 db. The noise-reduction unit is then ready 
for adjustment. 

Assume that the valve is spaced 1 mil, the desired noise-reduction 
is 8 decibels, and that the margin between signal input and valve spac- 
ing is 6 decibels. First, obtain the clash level, which will be approxi- 
mately +8 decibels. Desiring an 8-db. noise reduction, the input 
signal is decreased by 8 db., or to zero level, at which point the bias 
from the noise-reduction unit (K-l) should be turned on and in- 



122 



E. H. HANSEN AND C. W. FAULKNER [j. s. M. P. E. 



creased by means of P-3 until a second, or biased clash, results. The 
difference between the original spacing and the biased spacing will de- 
termine the reduction of noise, which in this case should be 8 decibels. 
Letting the bias current flow through the valve, provision should now 
be made for the 6-db. margin between the signal input and the valve 
spacing. The original clash level being +8 decibels, an input sig- 
nal set at +2 decibels would cancel the biasing current 6 decibels be- 
low the original level. The cancellation is done by turning on K-8 
and adjusting the gain of the noise-reduction amplifier by means of 
P-2 and P-L 




FIG. 5. Negative film characteristic. At A, with a 0.5-mil valve, the ex- 
citer lamp is adjusted for a negative density of 0.3. As the exposure at any 
step is 1.4 that of the preceding step, B represents the exposure with a 1-mil 
valve (lamp adjustment remaining unchanged), C for 2 mils, and D for 4 mils. 
For a margin of 6 decibels between valve width and signal strength, E repre- 
sents the lowest density used. 

In order to modify the noise-reduction system for operation with th^ 
reversed valve, referring to Fig. 1, changes 5, 6, and 8 were made. By 
reversing the voltage drop across R-5, making it additive to the bias 
applied through P-3, and returning the grids of V-3 and V-4 to the 
positive leg of the filament, we attain the condition of zero, or a 
slightly positive bias of the modulator stage, V-3 and V-4. Conse- 
quently, current flows in the grid circuit of V-3 and V-4, lowering the 
tube input impedance and, in turn, the impedance looking into T-4 
from the 20,000-cycle oscillator, V-2, thus causing a decrease in am- 
plitude of the oscillator output. 

When a negative voltage is applied to V-3 and V-4, the tube input 
impedance increases, causing a decrease in the reflected impedance 
into the primary circuit of T-4, and the output of the oscillator in- 
creases. We therefore have the condition that, when the maximum 



Feb., 19.36] RRVERSED-BlAS LlGHT- VALVE RECORDING 



123 



biasing current is required at the valve, the modulator stage, V-3 and 
I'-/, is supplied with a negative bias (voltage drop across R-5) of 
sufficient magnitude to work the tubes at the center of the straight - 
line portion of the I p V g curve. The impedance reflected into the 
primary of T-4 is decreased ; the amplitude of oscillation is increased ; 
and a maximum of current, limited by the carrying capacity of the 
tubes V-3 and V-4 of the modulator stage, is supplied to the valve. 
Referring to change 7, the polarity of the bias supplied to the valve 
must be such as to cause the valve to open ; hence the reversal of the 
leads of J-l, which are the light- valve simplex circuits. 



-10 



Attenuation of Film sound Record for various valve spaclnga 




-20 : S : in - 



-30 



100 



1000 



10.000 



FIG. 6. Attenuation as a function of frequency for valve spacings of 0.5, 

1.0, and 2.0 mils. 

With this arrangement, as the signal input is increased the amount 
of bias to the valve is accordingly increased, and the valve spacing 
will be approximately proportional to the signal input up to the over- 
load point of V-3 and V-4. Provision is made for the 6-db. margin 
by adjusting the gain of the noise-reduction amplifier, V-l, until for 
any given a-c. signal input to the valve, the bias supplied through the 
noise-reduction unit will be sufficient to open the valve to a spacing 
that will accommodate a signal of twice the applied voltage before 
clashing. 

Fig. 3 shows the valve spacing in mils corresponding as to the bias- 
ing current in milliamperes. Fig. 4 shows the relation of the valve 
spacing for a 6-db. margin, with applied power up to +14 decibels. 
Fig. 5 is the negative film characteristic for a 0.5-mil valve. The 
exciter lamp is set to produce a density of 0.3 on the negative 



124 



E. H. HANSEN AND C. W. FAULKNER [j. s. M. p. E. 



COIDHrSIHG 
LENS. 



2| 1 BSDDCTIOH 



OBJECTIVE 
LMS. 



EXCITING LIGHT 
PLAITS. 

FIG. 7. 



TALTB 



FILM 
PIAHE. 



Diagram of the optical leverage. 



(A , Fig. 5) . Each step is 1 .4 times the exposure of the preceding step. 
Point B represents the exposure with a 1-mil valve for the previous 
value of exciter lamp current; C and D, the exposure from a 2- and a 
4-mil valve, respectively. Using a margin of 6 decibels between the 
valve width and the signal strength, E represents the lowest density 
used. Figs. 4 and 5 have been plotted up to a level of +14 decibels. 
However, satisfactory processing is possible with higher levels, 
showing increased volume ranges over the conventional methods. 

Fig. 6 shows the attenuation as a function of the valve spacing, 
for spacings of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mils. Although the attenuation 
appears to be serious, in practice the ear does not detect the attenua- 




FIG. 8. Negative film characteristic. At A, with a 1-mil valve, the ex- 
citer lamp is adjusted for a negative density of 0.5. By means of an A- 
battery, the valve is biased for a 10-db. noise reduction (B). The bias sup- 
plied by the noise-reduction unit being opposite, and more than sufficient to 
cancel the initial bias, the valve is opened an amount wider than the initial 
spacing determined by the rectified current from the noise-reduction unit. C 
represents the exposure for a 2-mil spacing; D, 4 mils; and E represents 
the lowest density used with a margin of 6 decibels between valve width 
and signal. 



Feb., 1 <:;<; 



REVERSED-BIAS LIGHT- VALVE RECORDING 



125 



tion as would be indicated by these curves, due to the optical leverage 
shown in Fig. 7. 

It was felt that since the advantages gained through the simple 
mechanical reversed-current valve were so noticeable, a further in- 
crease might result if double biasing were used. In this arrangement 
reversed bias is reduced to a spacing of approximately 1 mil, and then 
standard biasing is applied from this spacing down to whatever value 



.0 



1.6 



1.4 




FIG. 9. Valve spacing with positive 
tive biases. 



of noise reduction is desired. It is therefore possible to achieve both 
the maximum of standard noise reduction plus the advantage of the 
reversed bias. In the operation of a double-bias valve the good fea- 
tures of both the standard and reversed bias are used. 

Referring to Fig. 1, note 8, an external battery is used to bias the 
valve for an 8-db. closure, while the polarity of the bias from the noise- 
reduction unit is opposite, so as to open the valve. Unlike the nor- 
mal or standard set-up, the valve does not retain its original opening 



126 



E. H. HANSEN AND C. W. FAULKNER [j. s. M. p. E. 



once it has attained it, with clash occurring when the higher signal is 
applied; rather, the bias increases with the signal strength up to the 
overload point of V-3 and V-4, permitting the valve to accommodate 
a signal of greater amplitude. 

Referring to Fig. 8, it will be seen from the negative H&D curve 
that film distortion will not occur until the valve has been opened to 
approximately 2 l /z mils and fully modulated. This is a typical nega- 




CO 100 ISO 200 280 900 

FIG. 10. Valve spacing with negative and positive biases 
for 6-db. margin, up to an applied level of +14 decibels. 

tive H&D curve for double biasing. Using a valve spacing of 1 mil, 
the exciter lamp is set to produce a density of 0.5 on the negative 
(A, Fig. 8). By means of an external or system A -battery the valve 
is biased for a noise reduction of 10 decibels (B, Fig. 8). The bias 
applied by the noise-reduction unit being opposite in polarity and 
more than sufficient to cancel the initial bias, the valve is opened 
wider than the original spacing. This spacing will be determined by 
the amount of rectifier current from the noise-reduction unit. C, 
Fig. 8, represents the exposure from a valve spaced 2 mils; D, the ex- 



Feb., 1936] REVERSED-BlAS LlGHT- VALVE RECORDING 127 

posure from a valve spaced 4 mils ; and E, the lowest density used with 
a margin of 6 decibels between valve width and signal. 

Fig. 9 shows the valve spacing in mils when positive and negative 
biases are applied. The normal spacing in this case is 1 mil. Fig. 
10 shows the valve spacing in mils plotted against applied power 
levels up to +14 decibels. In the search for methods of achieving 
greater levels it must always be borne in mind that an increase in 
noise reduction is equivalent to a corresponding increase in the load- 
carrying value of the negative. 

In general, the following are the advantages of the double-biased 
valve : 

(1) Approximately 10 decibels' higher level on the film than with the standard 
valve. 

(2) Less attentuation at the high frequencies for the same modulation of the 
negative, as compared with that of the reversed valve. 

(5) Less power necessary than with the reversed valve, for the same value of 
modulation of the negative. 

(4) Less distortion from valve bowing, for a given modulation of the negative. 



THE MOTION PICTURE THEATER SHAPE AND EFFEC- 
TIVE VISUAL RECEPTION* 

B. SCHLANGER** 



Summary. The shape of the motion picture theater should be determined both 
in the horizontal and vertical sense, chiefly by certain basic factors of the physiology 
of the eye and the laws of visual reception. Recognition of these factors in designing 
the theater produces a theater form of minimal depth, concentrating the seating as 
much as possible with the vertical dimension. Visual acuity and the subtended 
angles of the viewed image are analyzed as they affect the theater form. 

One of the valuable features of the motion picture lies in the fact 
that the spectator can, at will, be placed exceedingly close to, or at 
any desired position in relation to the action upon, the screen, thus 
transplanting him from the theater to the actual time and locale of 
the story that is unfolding. This effect is not fully achieved at the 
present time because of the prevalent forms of the motion picture 
theater. If the spectator were at the actual scene, the position of the 
objects in view would be vividly impressed upon him by means of 
the amount of detail discernible and by the large proportion of the 
field of view occupied by the object. The spectator in the theater 
must experience an equally vivid impression. But in the theater the 
image upon the screen from most viewing points occupies a compara- 
tively smaller portion of the area of the spectator's field of view, less 
detail is discernible, and, thereby, the original force of the particular 
scene as the director envisioned it is diminished. 

The view of the screen from any seat in the theater should, as 
nearly as possible, transmit to the retina of the spectator's eye the 
same picture recorded upon the retina of his eye as though he were 
at the actual scene, with his eye occupying the same position as the 
camera lens. The physiology of the eye should be studied to deter- 
mine whether such correspondence of visual reception be possible, 
if not from all, at least from almost all, the seats in the theater. In 

* Presented at the Fall, 1935, Meeting at Washington, D. C. 
** New York, N. Y. 

128 



THEATER SHAPE AND VISUAL RECEPTION 129 

the present theater form, such desirable reception is experienced from 
a comparatively small number of seats. 

More specifically, visual acuity, the geometry of optics, and an 
analysis of the distinct and indistinct fields of view must be considered 
in this problem. Lack of recognition of the fundamental physiological 
aspects of vision in motion picture theater design has resulted in 
structures in which a major portion of the seating capacity is un- 
suitable for effective visual reception. Many other factors of second- 
ary importance, such as acoustics and projection, have been recog- 
nized and studied with fair success. Yet the more important physio- 
logical elements of visual reception have been largely neglected. 

It is known that if one sits too far to one side of the screen, the 
picture becomes distorted. This fault has been apparent, and an 
effort has been made to avoid such viewing positions when designing 
the theaters. The factors dealt with in this paper relate more speci- 
fically to the ratio of the screen size to the viewing distances. The 
thesis here will be that too many seats are located too far from the 
screen for a given size of screen. 

The disadvantages of excessive viewing distances are not as ap- 
parent to the viewer as is side-seat distortion, except in that the viewer 
usually tries to find a seat at a distance from the screen that is satis- 
factory to him; and repeatedly, on subsequent visits, he seeks the 
same point of view. A chart made to record the locations of the seats 
chosen by the first half of the audience attending each show, averaged 
over a number of theaters and a number of shows, would provide an 
indication of the limits of the viewing distances within which the 
most satisfactory reception occurs. Such an area can be accurately 
plotted now that the physiology of the instrument of reception, 
namely, the eye, is well understood. 

To set the limits of the distance, it is necessary first to determine 
the maximal size of the audience, which must be determined by the 
maximal size of screen, which, in turn, is determined by the pres- 
ent width of film. If the visual acuity, apparent screen size, and 
distortion are properly considered in motion picture theater design, 
the seating capacity, using 35-mm. film, should not exceed much 
more than 2000 chairs. It might be noted that an increase in the 
width of the film would not necessarily warrant greater seating 
capacity, because such increase might be made more for improving 
the proportions of the picture making it wider than for increasing 
the size of the elements in the screen image. The height of the picture, 



130 



B. SCHLANGER 



[J. S. M. P. E. 



and therefore the size of its elements, could be and would be the same 
as it is now. The need of a screen and a width of film to accommodate 
many more than 2000 seats may be disregarded, as recent statistics 
on seating capacities have indicated. 

The limit of seating capacity is determined by the maximal view- 
ing distance for a given size of screen. As the size of the screen 
increases, to accommodate increasing viewing distances, the magnifica- 
tion finally causes graininess to appear in the image, and the distor- 
tion of the picture seen from areas near the screen becomes worse. 
The limits of the 35-mm. film are thus determined. It is therefore 
obvious that it becomes necessary to reduce the viewing distance 
and the screen size, and endeavor to place the greatest number of 
seats within the viewing distance so limited. Such an arrangement 
would minimize the graininess of the image and the side-seat distor- 




FIG. 1. Longitudinal section of auditorium, showing seating arrangements 
for (.4) limited viewing distance, approximately 3*/2 times the screen width ; and 
(B) usual arrangement in existing auditoriums, with viewing distances up to 5 
times the screen width. 

tion of the theater. Fig. 1 is a longitudinal section of an auditorium, 
indicating one method of achieving this. 

An investigation was made for the purpose of establishing a proper 
ratio of maximal viewing distance to screen size, of which the visual 
acuity of the viewer and the apparent size of the screen image to him 
are the determining factors. This ratio in nearly all existing motion 
picture theaters ranges from 5 to 7 times the screen width. A ratio 
of 3 x /2 to 4 was chosen in constructing Fig. 1. 

Visual acuity is the ability to distinguish fine detail, and is measured 
in terms of the angle of vision at which the detail in question becomes 
indiscernible. Helmholtz observed that under best conditions this 
angle is about one minute and four seconds. Weber fixed it at one 
minute and thirteen seconds to two minutes and thirty-three seconds, 
subject to the intricacy of the pattern. More recently, Luckiesh and 
Moss, and Freeman have made extensive tests taking into considera- 



Feb., 1936] THEATER SHAPE AND VISUAL RECEPTION 131 

tion the exposure time, the viewing distance, and the relative con- 
trasts. In one of Luckiesh's tests, one minute and fifteen seconds 
was the limiting angle for a test-object placed at a distance of 320 
centimeters from the eye. 

The ratios 3*/2 and 4 correspond to limiting angles of 3 minutes, 
15 seconds and 2 minutes, 45 seconds, respectively. The angle was 
determined by selecting very small important details in a number of 
motion picture scenes and measuring the sizes of such details upon 
the screen and the distances at which they could still be seen clearly. 

It is recommended that a certain margin be allowed for extreme 
distances, low contrast in the image, and rapid exposures. In such 
cases the visual acuity angle has to be as great as four minutes. 
Actual auditorium tests should be made to establish the margin more 
exactly. 

It might be argued that close-up shots in cinematography cir- 
cumvent the need for great acuity with more distant shots. That 
is not so, because with the increase in size of the close-up, there is a 
corresponding increase in the number of details to be discerned. The 
need for a larger margin for the acuity angle, and correspondingly 
shorter viewing distances, becomes more evident when it is realized 
that many important details upon the screen have contrast values 
of 25 to 50 per cent, and sometimes less. Smaller contrast values, 
with shorter viewing distances, are far more desirable than unnatural, 
sharp contrasts used to make longer viewing distances possible. 

Ideal visual reception of motion pictures is not achieved merely 
by limiting the viewing distance for visual acuity only. The visual 
angle for the viewer, subtended by an image upon the screen, and the 
"visual" angle for the camera lens, subtended by the object being 
photographed, should, under ideal conditions, be the same. The 
field of view in each case must be similarly occupied, so that the 
proportion of the field of view occupied by the object of interest will 
be the same when viewing the image of the object upon the screen 
as it would be if the object were viewed from the lens of the camera. 

To achieve such an effect, the viewing distance would have to be 
limited to an impracticable extent, unless a multiple-screen theater 
were feasible. Note in Fig. 2, showing horizontal viewing angles, 
that A, at a distance of 3 times the width of the screen, subtends a 
horizontal angle of 20 degrees, and a proportionate (3:4) vertical 
angle of 15 degrees. This makes it necessary for the camera lens to 
encompass an angle of no more than 15 degrees for an image of full 



132 



B. SCHLANGER 



[J. S. M. P. E. 



screen height, if the viewing distance (in the theater) is about three 
times the screen width. If the camera is placed closer to the object 
than that, as it quite often is, the full effect of the close-up is not 
realized in the theater because of the limited visual angle of the spec- 
tator. Although it might be impracticable to duplicate in the theater 
the angle subtended by the lens of the camera, it becomes necessary 
to limit the viewing distance to at least that determined by the 
proposed ratios, as a practicable compromise. 

What form of theater would be best adapted to the physical re- 
quirements of effective visual reception? Fig. 1 presents a possible 
method of locating the viewing points within the more desirable 
limits. One of the aims of this design is to place as many seats as 
possible in the vertical plane at the particular viewing distance most 




FIG. 2. Plan of viewing angles, showing difference in proportion of screen 
image subtended from points distant from the screen by (^4) 3 times the screen 
width and (B) four times the screen width. 

satisfactory for visual reception. The vertical limits were fixed by 
placing the highest spectator so that his eye would subtend an angle of 
20 degrees, as a maximum, between a line from the eye drawn to the' 
bottom of the screen and a line projected horizontally from the eye. 
Likewise, the spectator placed lowest in the auditorium was so located 
that an angle of 20 degrees would be subtended to the top of the 
screen. These limits are determined by the posture assumed by the 
spectator in order to enjoy reasonable comfort in viewing the screen. 
To increase the height within which seats may be placed, the size of 
the screen, and, correspondingly, the viewing distance, must be 
increased. The limit, as stated before, is determined by the maximal 
permissible magnification of the 35-mm. film. 

The theater form described here can be translated into a feasible 
structural design. The upper levels of seating are conveniently 
accessible to the street grade. The highest level of seating occurs 



Feb., 1936] THEATER SHAPE AND VISUAL RECEPTION 133 

where the front portion of the first balcony is usually found. This 
vertical disposition is made possible by making the orchestra 
level sufficiently low and yet within the limits of comfortable upward 
vision. 

On the longitudinal section (Fig. 1), the light lines indicate the usual 
theater form, the depth of which is most unsuitable for proper visual 
reception. A great many theaters have viewing distances greater 
than that illustrated in Fig. 1 . In the present usual theater, the spec- 
tators occupying distant viewing points are forced to become audience- 
conscious, because a large part of their field of vision is shared by 
the heads and shoulders of spectators seated in front of them. The 
improved form shown here is broken into smaller, intimate groups of 
seats, making the spectator less audience-conscious and permitting 
the screen to predominate in his field of vision, all of which assists 
decidedly in creating the desired illusion. 

DISCUSSION 

MR. CRABTREE : Has the lower floor a reverse slope, in conformance with your 
previous recommendations, or a half reverse slope? 

MR. SCHLANGER: It is an improved, moderately pitched, reversed slope. A 
number of theaters have been built employing the principle of the reversed slope 
and have given quite satisfactory results. A slight modification of the origi- 
nal design has been made to correct for the neck-strain experienced in the first few 
rows. 

In the original design, the screen was placed somewhat higher than was later 
found necessary. A choice had to be made between a high screen, causing up- 
ward-looking and neck-strain in the first few rows, completely without obstruc- 
tion ; and a compromise design of a lower screen, eliminating neck-strain, but with 
a tolerable amount of obstruction. Upon investigating a great number of theaters 
having the ordinary floor slope, I found that the comparatively low screen level 
and an intolerable amount of obstruction prevailed. 

Two methods of approach can be followed in designing the floor. One is to pro- 
vide a clear view for each person over the heads of those in front of him ; the other 
is to disregard the need for a clear view and depend upon seeing the screen occa- 
sionally between the heads of those in front. The ordinary theater floor is based 
entirely upon the latter arrangement and, as a result, the view of one-third to the 
entire height of the screen is obstructed by preceding heads. 

The reversed floor described here is designed so that, in the worst instance, no 
more than one-fourth of the screen would be obstructed by the heads, a degree 
of obstruction that proves to be tolerable. The pitch is more moderate than that 
of the usual floor, making walking upon it less difficult. The reversed floor not 
only reduces the degree of obstruction, but helps to bring more seats within the 
desirable seating area by making possible desirable upper levels of seating within 
correct viewing distances. 



134 B. SCHLANGER [J. S. M. P. E. 

With limited viewing distances, the ability to obtain a clear view of the screen 
increases; that is, the greater the viewing distance, the greater the obstruction, 
as can be demonstrated by holding a finger in front of the eye. As the finger is 
moved nearer the eye, it obstructs more and more of the view. 

With limited viewing distances and the obstruction lessened, the orchestra floor 
can be rather flat. The rise of the floor as we approach the screen brings those in 
the front rows nearer the high point of the screen. The ordinary theater floor, 
starting at a low point and changing direction as we move away from the screen, 
immediately rises upward, infringing upon the valuable vertical plane of seating. 
It rises so rapidly that the upper levels of seating are forced upward too rapidly 
and, as a result, into levels in the vertical plane that are no longer useful. In 
the proposed plan advantage is taken of space below the ordinary orchestra level, 
leaving greater upper areas for additional desirable seats. 

The suggestion of using this low area is based on the fact that the farther we 
move from the plane of an object to be viewed, the higher we can see upon the 
plane without raising the head or using other mechanical means. We just natu- 
rally see higher when we move farther away. We can place our seats in the or- 
chestra at points distant from the screen at lower levels than we find in the usual 
orchestra and yet enjoy an upward vision of the screen that is comfortable. 
Moving toward the screen the upward vision becomes restricted, and the floor, 
therefore, must turn upward to compensate for the loss. 

At least five or six theaters have been built with reversed floors. The latest is 
the Fix Theater, at White Plains, N. Y. The first theaters so designed, the Button 
and the Thalia Theaters in New York, and one in Mexico, which latter I have not 
personally had the pleasure of seeing, have proved quite successful. 

MR. CRABTREE: As I understand, you have so arranged the geometry of the 
theater that a line perpendicular to the screen would lie midway between the 
upper and the lower floors, dividing the distortion equally between the two levels. 

MR. SCHLANGER: Yes. The last head on the orchestra floor subtends an 
angle to the screen of twenty degrees, chosen as the maximum for comfortable 
upward vision. The visual angle in the last row of the balcony is such that the 
spectator can view the picture while his back rests comfortably against the back 
of the chair. He will not have to bend forward to see downward. In the inter- 
mediate level we have practically an ideal condition. We can look straight ahead 
without the least adjustment of the body. 

MR. CRABTREE: What is the extent of the picture distortion in the two po- 
sitions? 

MR. SCHLANGER: The picture distortion in both positions is far less than what 
is known to be tolerable. 

MR. CRABTREE: Also, you have shortened the depth of each balcony as com- 
pared with the average theater. 

MR. SCHLANGER: Yes. The balconies are at such a distance from the screen 
as to be within the area recommended in this paper. If they were deepened, they 
would extend beyond that area. There are therefore two upper levels instead of 
one, and just so many more seats within the proper viewing limits. The usual 
upper level in existing theaters is a great deal higher, and should not be compared 
with this design. 

In the usual theater, shown superimposed in Fig. 1 over the proposed design, 



Feb., 1936] THEATER SHAPE AND VISUAL RECEPTION 135 

the seating capacity is approximately the same. In other words, I have succeeded 
in placing the same number of seats within the shorter, desirable viewing distance, 
which was the object of this work. The seating capacity is limited only by the 
properties of the 35-mm. film. 

MR. CRABTREE : Is all this calculated upon the assumption that the height of a 
person above his seat is fixed? I seem always to be unfortunate enough to find a 
giant seated ahead of me; and when I move to another seat, I find another giant. 
Would it not be possible, perhaps, to make the seats adjustable so that in such a 
case a lever could be pulled and the seat raised? It is a very annoying situation. 

MR. SCHLANGER: Originally I considered the idea of being able to look over 
the head of the person in front, and I found a number of disadvantages which I 
have mentioned before. A certain tolerance has been allowed so that the person 
ahead would not occupy more than one-fourth of the height of the screen. In 
most present theaters the whole screen is blotted out completely from the rear 
rows. In some of the largest theaters in New York having the ordinary type of 
floor, spectators in the last fifteen or twenty rows can not see the screen without 
having to keep shifting to see between heads. 

MR. CRABTREE: Yes, the public is being cheated if there is any obstruction. 

MR. SCHLANGER: I agree. It is a tremendously difficult problem to eliminate 
obstruction completely on the orchestra floor without resorting to some means of 
individual chair adjustment, and there is always a practical objection to anything 
of that sort. In the original reverse type of floor full clearance was possible pro- 
vided the chairs were built with head-rests to take care of neck-strain, but that was 
impracticable. 



ELIMINATION OF SPLICE NOISE IN SOUND-FILM 



E. I. SPONABLE** 



Summary. Various methods of eliminating splice noise in sound-films are dis- 
cussed. A new machine is described that operates upon the punch-press principle, 
utilizing an opaque cellulose acetate adhesive tape to mask out sound splices. 

The necessity of doing something to eliminate splice noises was 
realized very early in the practical development of the sound-on-film 
system. In one of the notebooks of the Case Research Laboratory, 
dated February 13, 1926, the following appears: 

"Mr. Case has observed and been bothered for some time by the click produced 
when splices go through our projection machine. Not only does the positive splice 
make a click but the negative splice sounds when printed through on to the posi- 
tive. In order to correct this trouble Mr. Case suggests a graded splice; that is, a 
splice occupying possibly more length, or at least grading in density up to a maxi- 
mum, and then grading down gradually so as not to give 
the complete change which will produce a click. 

"The same trouble could be avoided by having a shutter 
operated by the film which would close before a splice 
passed the slit. This could also be accomplished by having 
a control on the light itself. 

"Mr. Case believes that these suggestions are very im- 
portant, and will be especially so in sound picture pro- 
duction where it is necessary to put together a large 
number of scenes. He intends to apply for a patent 
covering these ideas." 



n n n n n 


ft n n n i* 


A 






FIG. 1. Paint- 
out: (A) Correct 
method, quiet; (B) 
too short, will click ; 
(C) too long, keeps 
sound off. 



In Case's first experiments he used India ink 
applied to the gelatin side of the film to produce 
a gradual change of density at the splice. This 
was not entirely satisfactory due to the time required for drying 
after the gelatin was wetted by the ink, and to the ink cracking after 
it had dried. 

A short time later it was found that a quick-drying black lacquer, 



* Presented at the Fall, 1935, Meeting at Washington, D. C. 
** 20th Century-Fox Film Corp., New York, N. Y. 
136 



ELIMINATION OF SPLICE NOISE 



137 



which softened the film base slightly, could be used to paint out 
splices by applying it with a small brush to the celluloid side of the 
film in the manner shown in Fig. 1. This method, which was de- 
scribed in the Fox-Case Corporation's Movietone Bulletin of January, 
1928, is still in use today, although its execution in some of the com- 
mercial laboratories leaves much to be desired. Fig. 2 shows clearly 
the defects of such a method more noise is frequently introduced by 





FIG. 2. Good and poor commercial paint-outs. 





FIG. 3. Punch-out and resulting print- through. 

poor painting-out than would occur with an unpainted splice. Vari- 
ous opaquing materials, and all sorts of stencils, rollers, stamps, and 
other means for applying such materials have been tried from time to 
time, but none has worked practically, largely due to uneven covering, 
or running- under effects. 

In the early part of 1928 (U. S. Patent No. 1,785,215) a method of 
handling negative sound splices was devised which consisted in punch- 
ing out a triangularly shaped portion of the sound-track at the splice 






138 



E. I. SPONABLE 



[J. S. M. p. E. 



(Fig. 3) . When the negative was printed the punch-out would allow 
sufficient exposure of the print to form a black image, of such shape as 
to eliminate noise when the film was reproduced. This method has 
proved very practicable and is still in regular use 
today although the dimensions of the hole vary 
somewhat, as shown in Fig. 3. The hole in the 
negative represents a narrow-based triangular 
punch; .the print was made from one having a 
longer base. A typical tool for making the 
punch-outs is shown in Fig. 4, and consists of a 
punch and die arrangement mounted in a con- 
venient manner for hand operation. 

In addition to the variations in the dimensions 
of the triangular hole (Fig. 5), several other 
shapes of holes are in use at the present time 
(Fig. 6), all affording fairly satisfactory results 
when the tools are perfectly sharp and in good 
adjustment so as to punch cut-outs free from 
ragged edges. This method of punching out splices has the dis- 
advantage of weakening the film and making it susceptible to tearing 
or breaking in the printers. Also, as a result of extending the fre- 
quency range of the reproducers, the length of the blooped section 
is not sufficient to suppress the noise entirely unless it is used in con- 
junction with some sort of cut-off in the low-frequency range. 

Another method of handling negative when only sound-track is in- 





FIG. 5. Dimensions of punch-outs. 

volved is to use a modified splicer that makes a patch at an appreciable 
angle to the direction of film travel (Fig. 7) . Obviously, the length of 
the oblique section in the sample shown at the right of Fig. 7 is not 



Feb., 1936] 



ELIMINATION OF SPLICE NOISE 



139 



sufficient to be of any great practical value. In the case of a film hav- 
ing both sound and picture, a special patch, shown at the left, has been 
tried, which runs across the film between the picture frames, then 
travels obliquely across the sound-track, and again perpendicularly 
to the edge of the film at the sprocket holes. Such a patch requires 
a special splicer, is difficult to make properly, and hence is not en- 
tirely practicable. 
Another method of treating splices wg,s worked out several years 






FIG. 6. Three print-through shapes. 





FIG. 7. Angle splices. 



ago, the general arrangement of which is shown in Fig. 8. A special 
gate was provided containing a small lamp behind an aperture so 
positioned that when the light was flashed on, the positive stock 
would be exposed, through the celluloid, over the sound-track area. 
The sound negative was notched near the splice, this notch operating 
a contact switch that lighted the small lamp behind the special printer 
gate, as well as serving to control the exposure in the sound printing 
aperture. This type of device produced a variable-density mask such 



140 



E. I. SPONABLE 



[J. S. M. p. E. 




FIG. 8. Patch-flashing gate. 

as is shown in Fig. 9. The masking could be controlled both as to 
position and density as well as length of exposure, by properly choos- 
ing the location and the length of the control notch. The procedure, 
of course, solved only the problem of handling negative patches. 
Later, as a result of the practice of re-recording practically all original 
sound into a final negative free from patches, the method was aban- 
doned. 

A very satisfactory way of blocking out positive patches was de- 
veloped and described by Crabtree and Ives, l utilizing a special form 
of opaque patch, shown at the top of Fig. 10, which could be cemented 
over a film splice by means of the special registering clamp block 








FIG. 9. Variable-density mask produced by patch-flash- 
ing gate. 



Feb., 1936] 



ELIMINATION OF SPLICE NOISE 



141 



shown. Crabtree and Ives thoroughly investigated the require- 
ments and design of the blooping patch and recommended a patch 
about one inch in length, shaped as shown. Such a patch was found 
to be practically inaudible above 25 cycles. The main disadvantage 
of the method is the time required to apply the patches. 

Recently, with the availability of opaque cellophane adhesives, it 
was decided to try to find a way to use this material in some form of 
punch and die machine. The problem was discussed with T. J. 
Walsh of the National Cine* Laboratories, New York, N. Y., who had 




FIG. 10. (Upper) Patch with and without finger tab. (Lower) Regi- 
stration block, showing film and patch in position on pins. 

also been considering the problem, and who built the model machine 
shown in Fig. 11. The machine is operated by means of a hand lever 
which, upon being depressed, feeds a section of the adhesive material 
into position, cuts the patch by means of a very accurate punch and 
die, and finally presses the cut-out portion directly into intimate con- 
tact with the spliced film, which has been inserted and registered in 
position at the base of the machine. The opaque adhesive material 
is carried upon a perforated paper support in such a manner that the 
adhesive tape is left free to be cut out by the punch (Fig. 12), the per- 



142 



E. I. SPONABLE 



[J. S. M. P. E. 




FIG. 11. Machine for utilizing opaque cellophane adhesive. 

forated paper preventing successive layers of the tape from stick- 
ing, and providing an accurate feeding method. The resultant block- 
ing-out patch adheres firmly to the film (Fig. 13) and, when a sharp 
punch is used, has smooth, clean edges. The hardened punch and die 
should maintain their cutting edges, since the material to be cut is 
thin cellophane or cellulose acetate. It was found that a patch about 
1.125 inches long and 3 mils in thickness affords most satisfactory 




FIG. 12. 



Paper support used in new 
machine. 



Feb., HM<;| 



ELIMINATION OF SPLICE NOISE 



143 




FIG. 13. Sample of cello- 
phane patch. 



results, and seems to eliminate splice noises of frequency higher than 
20 cps. 

Tests made in both the East and the West Coast Fox studios indi- 
cate that the device will prove practicable 
and comparatively fast in operation. Plans 
are being made to produce the machine in 
quantities and to make it available to the 
industry. 

REFERENCE 

1 CRABTREE, J. I., AND IVES, C. E.: "A New 
Method of Blocking Out Splices in Sound-Film," 
J. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., XIV (March, 1930), No. 3. 
p. 349. 

DISCUSSION 

MR. CRABTREE: Is the patch cemented with a 
regulation cement, or with an adhesive such as is 
used on surgical plaster? 

MR. SPONABLE : An adhesive tape fairly new on the market, under the name of 
Scotch Tissue, uses a special cement, the composition of which the manufacturer 
. does not care to disclose. The tape is very adhesive, and is quite satisfactory for 
re-recordings. It is possible to strip the patch off with a knife, even after it has 
set for a considerable time. The cement and the opaque material are all self- 
contained in the carrier roll mounted upon the machine. The thickness of the 
patch is about 3 mils. 

MR. STROCK: In the flashing arrangement, do you rely upon the speed of the 
film and the resistance of the lamp to provide the gradation? 

MR. SPONABLE: Yes. 

MR. LESHING: Flashing in the printer would seem quite satisfactory if the 
possibility of broken splices were eliminated ; but the moment the splice breaks, 
due to the fact that the flashing mechanism is actuated by the notch at the splice, 
the point of the flash is changed automatically, perhaps to the extent of one per- 
foration hole, or two, or three. For that reason I believe that an adhesive ma- 
terial such as the Scotch Tissue, which can be applied easily, is superior from a 
practical standpoint to flashing by the notch. The new tissue is being applied as 
splicing material to keep the film patches from separating during processing. 

MR. SPONABLE: Mr. Leshing's criticism of the flashing printer probably has 
some justification. We felt that with properly made patches, the chances of 
breaking would be small. Even though a break did occur, the flashed patch was 
wide enough to cover at least one splicing. 

MR. SMITH: Are the patches used on release prints for theaters, or only in the 
studio at the present time? 

MR. SPONABLE: At the present time our principal interest in building the 
machine was for use in studio re-recording. Undoubtedly it could be very useful 
in the film exchanges. Incidentally, the main precaution to be taken in using the 
machine is not to press the lever down when there is no film in it: the patch will 






144 E. I. SPONABLE 

be stuck upon the aperture plate and will have to be cleaned off before the ma- 
chine can be used again. 

MR. SMITH: In many prints from exchanges, especially second-runs, the 
patches are very bad: they are inaccurate, and cause a distinct splice click. In 
the theater there is no means of getting rid of the click except by lacquering, and in 
many cases the projectionist has not the time to lacquer so many patches. If the 
exchanges would use something of this kind, it would be a great assistance. 

MR. SPONABLE: I believe it would be satisfactory for that purpose. 

MR. CRABTREE: I wish to congratulate Mr. Sponable on revealing this 
mechanism, with the thought that probably every one here has some equally 
valuable gadget which could be described for the benefit of the members. 



PRINCIPLES OF MEASUREMENTS OF ROOM ACOUSTICS 

E. C. WENTE** 



Summary. The acoustic characteristics of a room can in great part be evaluated 
from a knowledge of the rate with which sound in the room dies down when emission 
from the source ceases. The physical principles underlying the relationship are 
briefly discussed. It is shown by specific examples that we can obtain valuable ad- 
ditional information about acoustics of a room by recording the sound level at one or 
more points in the room when the frequency of the sound is continuously varied. 

The function of a motion picture sound system is to transmit an 
acoustic facsimile of sound generated in a studio to an audience in a 
theater. This transmission occurs over a series of acoustical, mechani- 
cal, optical, and electrical paths, distortion along any one of which 
will impair the quality of the received sound. The distortion along 
any part of the route, except those from the source to the microphone 
and from the loud speaker to the listener, can be determined from a 
measurement of the transmission efficiency at a number of discrete 
frequencies distributed throughout the audio-frequency range. 
Transmission along the acoustic paths is of such a totally different 
character that here a measurement of such type is of no practical 
value. For the proper adjustment of the acoustical paths reliance 
has been placed principally upon aural judgments. We can tell 
something about the character of sound transmission within a room 
if we know its reverberation time,f or, what is equivalent, the rate 
of decay of the transient tone when a steady tone is interrupted at the 
source. But whatever the reverberation time may be, the quality 
and level of the sound at different parts of a room may vary between 
quite wide limits. The determination of the acoustics of a room 
by measurement of the reverberation time is analogous to the deter- 
mination of the characteristics of an electrical transmission line by 

* Presented at the Spring, 1935, Meeting at Hollywood, Calif. ; re-presented 
at the Fall, 1935, Meeting at Washington, D. C. 

** Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., New York, N. Y. 

f This is the time required for the average sound energy initially in a steady 
state to decrease to one-millionth of its initial value. 

145 



146 



E. C. WENTE 



[J. S. M.P. E. 



measurement of the transient current at the receiving end when a 
voltage is interrupted at the sending end, a method sometimes used 
before convenient electrical audio -frequency oscillators became avail- 
able, but which is not nearly so satisfactory as a measurement of the 
transmission vs. frequency characteristic. 

Transmission of signals over an ordinary electrical line differs from 
the transmission of sound between points in a room in two important 
respects: the transients are of much longer duration and, because 
of the fact that the air in a room is capable of oscillating at an ex- 
ceedingly large number of different resonant modes within the audio- 
frequency range, the transient oscillations have practically the same 
frequency as the steady-state tone. It is for these reasons that mea- 
surements of transient oscillations have, on the whole, been of more 
practical value in the study of the acoustics of rooms than in the study 



SOUND LEVEL 
IN DECIBELS 
rv> * 01 

O O 


















^r* 


J\^^ 














V 




^^jf 




*""V-*, 


^^ -v> 




















^v^ 
















A 



















62.5 250 500 1000 2000 4000 6000 8000 9500 

FREQUENCY IN CYCLES PER SECOND 

FIG. 1. Recorded frequency characteristic of sound transmission in a room 
when the frequency is varied rapidly. 

of the characteristics of electrical systems. Since data on transient 
oscillations have only a limited value even in the case of sound in 
rooms, while a measurement of the transmission vs. frequency char- 
acteristic has been found to be a convenient and accurate method of 
evaluating the practical performance of an electrical system, it is 
worth while to investigate the possibilities of determining the char- 
acter of sound transmission between points in a room by a more 
direct method. 

A few measurements will convince any one that, in general, no 
useful information can be obtained from measurement of the trans- 
mission at a number of discrete frequencies, for the values will be 
found to vary by many decibels with only a slight shift in the fre- 
quency. More practical results are obtained if the instantaneous 
pressure levels are recorded while the frequency of the source is varied 
continuously. The high-speed level recorder, previously described, 
is particularly suitable for making such records. The method of 



Feb., 1936] 



MEASUREMENT OF ROOM ACOUSTICS 



147 



procedure in these measurements is to generate at one point in a room 
a tone of constant strength, but varying continuously in frequency, 
and record at a second point the sound pressure level by means of a 
microphone and the level recorder. When the recorder is set to 
operate at low speed, the readings represent the levels of the power 
averaged over a relatively long time-interval. If, then, the frequency 
is changed rather rapidly during the recording, the readings will 
represent levels of power averaged over a relatively wide frequency- 




goo 



910 



920 



930 940 950 960 970 
FREQUENCY IN CYCLES PER SECOND 



980 



990 1000 






FIG. 2. Recorded frequency characteristic of sound transmission in 
a room when the frequency is varied slowly: (A) live room; (B) 
damped room. 

interval. Fig. 1 shows a transmission curve obtained between two 
points in a room under these conditions. The frequency was varied 
at a rate such as to cover the whole designated range in about l 1 /^ 
minutes. A transmission characteristic of this type will show whether 
speech or music transmitted between the two points will have the 
proper balance between the high- and the low-frequency components. 
If the high frequencies predominate, the sound will be characterized 
by shrillness; and if the low frequencies overbalance, the sound will 
have a muffled quality. Other quality characteristics are indicated 
when there is a rise or a depression in the transmission curve at 



148 



E. C. WENTE 



[J. S. M. p. E. 



intermediate frequencies. Similarly, measurements in the studio 
can show something about the character of sound reproduction that 
would result from various placements of the pick-up microphone. 

The transmission curve obtained in the manner just described does 
not tell a sufficiently complete story to enable us to say whether the 
transmission between the sending and receiving points for speech or 



4.13 
325 



REVERBERATION TIME IN SECONDS 
2.06 1.38 



1.03 



300 

275 

250 

225 

200 

175 

150 

125 

100 

75 

50 

25 



\ 



\ 



150 



400 



450 



200 250 300 350 

TOTAL ABSORPTION IN SABINES 

FIG. 3. Relation between irregularity of transmission vs. frequency 
characteristic and reverberation time; capacity of room, 10,000 cubic 
feet. 

music will be the best possible, or even satisfactory. As far as we 
can tell from these curves, the room might be entirely too dead 
acoustically for music, or so live that received speech would be 
quite unintelligible. Nevertheless, if records taken in this manner 
show an improper balance, we are safe in concluding that transmission 
over the measured path will not be satisfactory. 

Now let the operating speed of the recorder be set to a high value 
and the frequency be varied slowly while the positions of the micro- 
phone and the loud speaker and other conditions are kept unchanged. 



Feb., 1936] 



MEASUREMENT OF ROOM ACOUSTICS 



149 



Under these conditions the recorder will indicate levels of sound pres- 
sure averaged over a small frequency-interval. A portion of a curve 
so obtained is shown in the upper part of Fig. 2. The frequency range 
here given is only 100 cycles, extending from 900 to 1000 cps. Al- 
though the total change in frequency is only 10 per cent, we find that 
the curve has innumerable peaks and valleys and that the transmis- 
sion varies through a range of at least 40 decibels. If, upon measure- 
ment, we should find any part of an electrical communication channel 



20 






900 910 920 930 940 950 960 970 980 990 1000 

FREQUENCY IN CYCLES PER SECOND 

FIG. 4. Transmission vs. frequency characteristics to live and to dead 
parts of a room. 

to have a characteristic as irregular as this one, we should probably 
conclude that the system would be incapable of transmitting speech 
intelligibly. As a matter of fact we should be correct in our conclu- 
sion, for this curve was taken in a room that was acoustically so 
reverberant that it was almost impossible to carry on a conversation 
between the sending and the receiving points. 

Following these measurements the room was given an acoustic 
treatment by the introduction of sound-absorbing materials such 
that the transmission as judged by aural observation was practically 
ideal. All other conditions were kept the same. The transmission 
characteristic now obtained over the same frequency range is shown 



150 E. C. WENTE [J. S. M. P. E. 

in the lower part of Fig. 2. It will be noted that there are relatively 
few large dips and that the number and extent of the small irregulari- 
ties are greatly reduced. The change in the reverberant quality of 
the room is thus seen to be easily observable from the change in the 
character of these transmission curves. This change in character 
can be measured and related to the reverberant quality of the room, 
or, more accurately, to the reverberant quality of the sound trans- 
mission between any two points within the room. One method of 
evaluating the degree of irregularity of the curve in a given frequency- 
interval is to take the sum of the pressures of all the minimum points 
and subtract the result from the sum of the pressures of all the 
maximum points. In Fig. 3, values so obtained for a 100-cycle band- 
width are plotted against the reverberation time of the room. The 
observed points are seen to lie well along a smooth curve. 

We might well ask, if there is such a close correlation between 
reverberation time and the degree of irregularity in the transmission 
curves, why not simply measure the reverberation time, which can be 
accomplished within a few minutes by means of the high-speed level 
recorder. The values plotted in Fig. 3 were obtained in a room in 
which the sound was fairly uniformly distributed, and both loud 
speaker and microphone were as far removed as possible from the 
neighborhood of absorbing surfaces. The reverberation time when 
measured at various points in a room will have about the same value, 
for it is determined primarily by the rate of decay of the sound density 
averaged throughout the whole room; but the degree of irregularity 
of the transmission to different points in the room can vary mark- 
edly, as it depends upon the configuration of the room and the distri- 
bution of the sound-absorbing surfaces. The difference is illustrated 
by the curves of Fig. 4, which were obtained with two different micro- 
phone placements in the same room. For the upper curve the micro- 
phone was located in a part of the room where most of the surfaces 
were acoustically hard; and for the lower curve, in a part of the room 
where the absorption was relatively high. Measurements of the 
reverberation times at the two points would yield the same value 
although the forms of the decay curves, which could be determined 
with a high-speed level recorder, might show characteristic differences. 

The reverberation time of a room is independent of the directional 
characteristic of the loud speaker used as the source of sound. The 
character of the sound received from a loud speaker in an auditorium 
does, however, depend upon its directivity. By measurement of 



Feb., 1936] 



MEASUREMENT OF ROOM ACOUSTICS 



151 



the degree of irregularity in the transmission curve, with a particular 
loud speaker set in a particular way, a much better idea is obtained 
of the reverberant quality of the sound that is received when the loud 
speaker is used under the same conditions for the reproduction of 
speech or music. Similarly, with the recorder set to operate at slow 
speed, curves taken at various parts of the room with a particular 
speaker set-up will show the levels and the degree of balance between 
the high and the low frequencies of speech or music received at vari- 
ous parts in an auditorium. 

Various other acoustic effects may be determined from transmission 



20 



40 



500 



I5OO 2000 3000 4000 5000 

FREQUENCY IN CYCLES PER SECOND 



FIG. 5. Transmission vs. frequency characteristic between points in a 
room when a reflecting surface is placed near the microphone. 

curves. When a microphone is placed near a reflecting surface there 
will be noticeable interference between the direct and the reflected 
sound, which may give to the reproduced sound a muffled quality. 
The lower curve of Fig. 5 is a transmission curve taken at a slow re- 
corder speed when a reflecting surface was placed near the microphone. 
The difference in path between the direct and the reflected sound was 
about 15 inches. The upper curve was obtained under similar 
conditions, but without the reflector. A comparison of the two curves 
shows that the reflector produces periodic variations in the trans- 
mission, which must have a noticeable effect upon sound quality. 

Although the curve of Fig. 2(B), which is representative of a room 
having good acoustic characteristics, is relatively smooth when com- 



152 



E. C. WENTE 



u:s. M. p. E. 



pared with that of Fig. 2(A), the transmission characteristic is much 
more irregular than that of most electrical communication channels. 
The fact that speaking conditions are good in spite of these irregulari- 
ties is to be explained partly by the nature of speech, which is never 




60 



? 50 



40 



30 



> 20 



o' 

1 







ou 
50 










































30 






















V\ 


/w^i/ty 


yU 


""> 


/i/to 


/w\ 


w 


Lrvy 


liV/ 


VvA/V 


10 













C 































750 



760 



770 



850 



780 790 800 810 820 830 8- 

FREQUENCY IN CYCLES PER SECOND 

FIG. 6. Transmission vs. frequency characteristics under various re- 
ceiving conditions: (.4) single microphone; (B) six microphones con- 
nected in parallel; (C) six microphones, each provided with rectifier; 
output circuits of rectifiers connected in series. 

sustained sufficiently long to set up a steady-state sound field, 
and partly by a phenomenon in binaural hearing. Because of the 
spatial separation of our ears, the sound pressures at the two ears will, 
in general, be different both in magnitude and in phase. If trans- 
mission measurements are made with two microphones at the receiv- 
ing end connected in series and separated by the same distance as 



Feb., 19.WI MEASUREMENT OF ROOM ACOUSTICS 1 .").*> 

our ears, we shall find that the transmission vs. frequency relation 
is as irregular in character as it is when the measurements are made 
with a single microphone, because the resultant voltage is propor- 
tional to the vector sum of the pressures at the two microphones. It 
is an experimental fact, however, that the loudness sensation is in- 
dependent of the phase relation between the pressures at the two 
ears. If, for instance, the two ears are stimulated by sound pressures 
of the same frequency, the loudness is the same when they are in 
opposite phase as when they are in phase. We can, therefore, more 
nearly simulate binaural reception in the transmission measurements 
by using two microphones, each provided with a rectifier, the output 
circuits of which are connected in series to the level recorder; for 
in this case the resultant voltage will be practically independent of 
the phase relation of the pressures at the two microphones. The 
contrast between binaural and monaural reception is accentuated 
if the measurements are made with a greater number of microphones. 
The upper curve of Fig. 6 shows the transmission characteristic ob- 
tained when a single microphone is used at the receiving end. The 
middle curve was obtained when the single microphone was replaced 
by six microphones connected in parallel. The irregularities in the 
transmission characteristics are seen to be of the same order of mag- 
nitude in the two cases. The lower curve was obtained when each 
of the six microphones was provided with a rectifier and the output 
circuits of the rectifiers connected in series to the level recorder. 
This curve is obviously smoother than either of the other two, from 
which we conclude that in going from monaural to binaural listening 
in a room, the effect is similar to that produced by a reduction in the 
reverberation time of the room. However, comparison between Figs. 
2(B) and 6(C) shows that the reduction in the irregularities obtained 
by increased absorption and by multiple microphones with rectifiers 
is not exactly of the same character : in one case the rate of decay of 
sound in the room is altered and in the other it is not. It is well 
known that when sound is reproduced by microphone and loud 
speaker, the reproduced sound has a more reverberant quality than 
when perceived directly by binaural listening in the source room. 
To reduce this quality it has been common and good practice to in- 
crease the damping of the source room beyond the optimal for direct 
listening. It is, however, not possible by this expedient to get ob- 
jectively quite the same change in the reverberant quality as is 
achieved subjectively by binaural hearing. 



SERVICING SOUND MOTION PICTURE REPRODUCING 
EQUIPMENT* 

C. C. AIKEN** 

Summary. -An outline of the problems encountered in theaters following the in- 
stallation of sound equipment, and the determination of standards of performance. 
The methods and value of gathering experimental data on the operation of equipment 
in the field, both for servicing and laboratory practice, are discussed, as well as the 
effects of variations in recording and in the tastes of the public, both from the exhibit- 
ors' and the public's point of view, and the effect of intelligent servicing upon the box- 
office. 

After sound motion picture reproducing equipment is installed 
in a theater, the following problems are faced : 

(1) Maintaining high-quality reproduction. 

(2) Avoiding faulty operation and failures. 

(3) Adjusting to changing recordings. 

(4) Adjusting to changing standards. 

(5) Modernizing when feasible. 

(6) Gaining experience leading to further improvement. 

The maintenance of high-quality reproduction depends largely upon 
the same factors that are involved in design : 

(a) The beam from the exciter lamp must be uniform, steady in intensity, of 

the proper size, and vibrationless. 

(&) The movement of the film must be free from variation in linear speed, 
weaving, or fluttering. 

(c) The electrical system must be free from extraneous noise or distortion, 

and must have sufficient amplification and a proper frequency response 
characteristic. 

( d) The conversion from electrical impulses to sound waves must be without 

extraneous noise or distortion. 

(e) The sound waves must be directed so as to provide uniform results 

throughout the auditorium, without allowing the room itself to intro- 
duce objectionable factors. 

The standards of performance and the methods of measuring items 
(a) to (d) are determined in the laboratory in connection with the 
design. By extremely close contact between the field and the labora- 

* Presented at the Spring, 1935, Meeting at Hollywood, Calif. 
** RCA Manufacturing Co., Camden, N. J. 

154 



SERVICING" SOUND EQUIPMENT l.V> 

tory groups, the initial standards and methods and the subsequent 
changes are made known and put into operation in the field. 

The final criterion of quality is the human ear ; but among various 
persons the response of the ear varies enormously. Audiometer 
tests show a variation of as much as 40 db. among individuals. For 
a given person, the ear responds differently from hour to hour. To 
avoid having such variation introduce inconsistencies, the standards 
set up in the laboratory, in so far as possible, are expressed in terms 
of objective measurements rather than subjective sensations. 

In many cases, the objective laboratory methods have been found 
to be directly applicable to field use, providing accurate, stable stand- 
ards for the maintenance of high-quality reproduction. In cases 
when the ear must be relied upon without the aid of objective mea- 
surements, it is necessary to devise special tests by means of which 
defects in reproduction are caused to be accentuated so that the 
trained ear can readily detect them regardless of the listener's state 
of fatigue. In this respect it is important that the field engineer 
develop an acute sense of hearing by long and continuous training. 
He must have an excellent standard of comparison and must have 
had long experience listening to reproduction under many conditions 
if he is to be able to diagnose equipment accurately to determine 
whether it is in the best of condition or not. 

The field practice to be followed in correcting faulty functioning and 
failures is determined by experience. The proper procedure is the 
one that works best by actual test. Systematic accumulation of ex- 
perience by a large field force in thousands of theaters forms the best 
possible basis upon which to lay the foundations for these procedures. 
In the same way that the design of equipment changes from year to 
year as new and better methods are developed, field procedures go 
through an ever-improving evolution. 

Closely allied with the application of field experience to field prac- 
tice is the application of field experience to engineering and research. 
Theory and practice are prone to diverge unless theory is constantly 
checked against actual results. The sound motion picture art can 
not develop at the speed it should unless it takes full advantage of 
its experience. By watching the leaders of the industry, smaller 
companies are prevented from diverging too far from the path of 
sound progress, but for the good of the motion picture business as a 
whole, the larger companies may not neglect to follow the products 
of their development. 



156 C. C. AIKEN [J. S. M. P. E. 

The recordings of some producers are lacking in the bass; others 
over-emphasize the bass notes and in some the high-frequency re- 
sponse is so garbled as to make it necessary to reduce the highs. As 
a rule, a satisfactory compromise best suited for the product being 
shown at the time can be found. But for best performance, changes 
in the reproducer characteristics are required to be made when the 
majority of features shown in a theater are obtained from a different 
producer or when a change is made in the recording characteristics. 

Fads introduced in the march toward perfect reproduction carry 
us too far, first in one direction and then in another. At one time 
popular opinion required crisp speech of optimal intelligibility; and, 
at another time, booming, roaring, low-frequency response was de- 
manded. As a matter of good business policy it is necessary to ad- 
just the theater equipment in accordance with the prevailing tastes, 
and to change them as the tastes vary. 

In spite of, or, perhaps because of, the vicissitudes of the show 
business, progress has been rapid. New tastes, new developments, 
new requirements have made obsolete in a few years the early theater 
equipment (and should have made obsolete much of the recording 
apparatus), demanding either the purchase of new and modern equip- 
ment or a major and almost equally expensive though less effective 
renovation of the old equipment. As improvements become avail- 
able, they can, and should, be made in order that the existing installa- 
tions may be kept as modern as possible. 

So far the problem has been viewed largely from the standpoint of 
the technician. Exhibitors are interested in the problem from an 
entirely different standpoint : that of dollars and cents. Here is the 
problem of expressing an intangible "quality of reproduction" in 
terms of tangible ' 'box-office receipts." The many variables, e. g., 
entertainment value of pictures shown, general business conditions, 
amount and kind of advertising, etc., make a quantitative analysis 
impossible or inaccurate. Certain facts can, however, be established 
from which to draw conclusions, and by checking such conclusions 
against a sufficiently large number of experiences, determine their 
accuracy. 

Most important of all factors to the exhibitor is the maintenance of 
high-quality reproduction. In every audience there is an increas- 
ingly large percentage of music lovers and critical listeners. Rarely 
do they analyze the sound equipment when it is "off color," but 
rather do they say, "I did not enjoy that picture," or "Her voice is 



Feb., 1936] SERVICING SOUND EQUIPMENT 157 

not so good," blaming the actor or the producer and discouraging 
their friends from attending the theater. This reacts to the detri- 
ment of not only the one exhibitor, but slightly "off color" sound in 
neighboring theaters can cause a general degeneration of interest 
in pictures and adversely affect the attendance at all theaters. An 
exhibitor should pray, "Let my competitor have obviously poor sound 
or very good sound, but let him not have fairly good sound which will 
eliminate the thrill of a glorious voice." 

The experience of many exhibitors has proved that music lovers 
and critical listeners are found as frequently in the poorer districts as 
on Broadway. Experience has proved, also, that a decrease of at- 
tendance occurs as a direct result of imperfect tonal quality. Critical 
listeners and music lovers are the first to lose interest. The poorer 
the quality the larger is the number of patrons affected. Many 
patrons will have lost their show-going habit before noticeable dis- 
satisfaction becomes evident. 

We have already named the factors that enter into the maintenance 
of high-quality reproduction. Projectionists have risen splendidly 
to the difficult job of operating and caring for reproducer apparatus 
so as to minimize the possible change of quality between service calls. 
That such change of quality does occur is attested by the fact that no 
manufacturer of sound motion picture apparatus has long existed who 
did not set up and maintain a policy of periodic service. From the 
exhibitor's point of view the bankruptcy of a manufacturer is sad; 
but the exhibitor is much more concerned with the fact that the imme- 
diate cause of the bankruptcy lies in the theater, and not in the factory. 

Because of the impossibility of expressing the subjective quality of 
sound in per cent, the discussion thus far has been qualitative, not 
quantitative. Quantitative study can be made by comparing the cost 
of routine service against the loss in box-office receipts occasioned by 
impaired quality of reproduction. If the loss in box-office receipts 
just balances the investment in a periodic service call, the result of the 
investment is increased satisfaction, security from interruption, and 
peace of mind for the exhibitor for no net change in his finances. If 
the period between routine calls is too great, the decrease in box- 
office revenue exceeds the cost of additional service, and the reputa- 
tion and net profit of the theater will suffer. A surprisingly small 
percentage increase in daily attendance is required to balance the 
cost of periodic service. 



VISUAL ACCOMPANIMENT* 
R. WOLF** 

Summary. The principles of producing "Visual Accompaniments" to musical 
renditions for the theater are briefly described, as follows; (1) natural scenes for por- 
traying the "musical mood" of the musical composition; (2} the changing and blend- 
ing of beautiful paintings to interpret the mood, known as the Savage Method; and (3) 
the use of abstract color forms as a means of interpretation. The technic followed in 
applying the two latter methods is described in detail. 

In the days of the silent motion picture it was customary to furnish 
background music as an accompaniment to the picture. In the larger 
theaters using orchestras, it developed quite naturally that the or- 
chestra opened the performance with a musical composition played 
with the house fully lighted and the curtain down ; in smaller theaters 
very frequently only a piano was used for this purpose. 

With the advent of sound pictures, however, there developed a 
general tendency to depend upon the picture and its accompanying 
sound alone. Spoken dialog became all-important, and the musical 
accompaniment was eliminated. This is unfortunate, because music 
has a universal appeal. Occasionally, attempts have been made to 
supply this lack of music from records unaccompanied by visual ac- 
tion, but this has been found to be unsatisfactory to the audience. 

Believing that good music has a place in the motion picture theater 
program, the work described below was undertaken. It has been 
designated by the broad title of "Visual Accompaniment." The 
favorable audience reception to the results of this work, to our mind, 
has justified our expectations. This accompaniment is somewhat 
abstract in its nature and is determined by the music, unlike the usual 
sound picture in which whatever music is used is dictated by the ac- 
tion. To meet the needs of the motion picture theater, basically, 
this means the creation of a motion picture film embodying excellent 
sound recording of a suitable musical composition, accompanied upon 

* Presented at a Meeting of the Atlantic Coast Section at New York, N. Y., 
Jan. 9, 1935. 

** Electrical Research Products, Inc., New York, N. Y. 
158 



VISUAL ACCOMPANIMENT 159 

the screen by a visual interpretation in mobile color. Visual accom- 
paniment films, as described in this paper, can be used advantage- 
ously by any properly equipped motion picture theater. 

The interpretation of music in color is by no means new. Con- 
siderable work in this field has been done from time to time. The 
first comprehensive treatment of this subject is probably contained 
in a book, Experiments Concerning the History of Harmony in Painting 
Generally and Color Harmony Specifically, with Comparisons to Music 
and Many Practical References, by Johann Leonard Hoffman, pub- 
lished in Halle in 1786. In 1894, Alexander Wallace Rimington con- 
structed an apparatus for color accompaniment to music. Other 
modern investigators of this subject include H. Beau and Bertrand- 
Taillet, Herman Schroeder, Hans Bartolo Brand, Emil Petschnig, 
Alexander Skrjabin, Alexander Laszlo, and many others. Skrjabin 
designed a color piano and wrote special compositions for this instru- 
ment, of which his Prometheus was performed in New York in 1916; 
be it said, however, with little public success. Even now there is in 
New York a school that conducts a regular course in the relationship 
of music and color. Considerable work is also being done at present 
with color organs, with which an individual performer gives his im- 
pressions in color of suitable musical compositions. 

However, all these efforts are concerned primarily with the com- 
bination and interpretation of music and color alone, giving little, if 
any, regard to form. In our development work we have found it ad- 
visable to pay some attention to form. As already mentioned, we 
begin in each case with a well known musical selection, recorded with 
exceptionally good quality, and produce upon a motion picture film 
a visual accompaniment in one of the following three ways : 

(1) Natural scenes are used to portray the 'musical mood' of the composition. 
For example, Mendelssohn's Fingal's Cave is interpreted by natural scenes of sea 
and rocky shore, depicting, in the ever-changing form of the waves, the mood of 
the music. The photography, of course, is in natural color. 

(2) Beautiful paintings constantly changing and blending are used to interpret 
the mood of the music. This method, conceived by the eminent painter and 
sculptor, Eugene F. Savage, will, in this paper, be referred to as the "Savage 
Method." The basis of this treatment is to create motion pictures in natural 
colors from miniature stage sets which are correct, not only from the standpoint 
of composition and color, but also as works of high artistic merit. The body of 
the paper is devoted to discussing this method in detail. 

(3) Abstract color forms are used to interpet the musical composition. This 
will be referred to as the "Abstract Method," and while described, will not be 
discussed in as much detail as the "Savage Method." 



160 R. WOLF [J. S. M. P. E. 

MUSICAL MOODS 

Pictures made by the method described under (1) have been re- 
leased commercially under the title of Musical Moods. This method 
is the most conservative of the three to be described. A suitable 
nature scene is photographed in natural colors. Considerable extra 
footage is taken and the final picture is the result of careful cutting as 
well as of depicting a scene appropriate to the music. 

THE SAVAGE METHOD 

The description of this method will be based upon the visual ac- 
companiment to Schubert's Unfinished Symphony. There is no 
authentic record of the composer's visual conception of this work. 
Program notations by eminent musicians and critics covering many 
years have agreed upon some symbolism, however, although in very 
general terms. 

The life and early death of Franz Schubert come to mind in the 
Unfinished Symphony and are carried through the visual accompani- 
ment: 

"At the opening chords, or narrative, we are led into a gracious and beautiful 
world of mountain heights and castles, mirrored in the depths of a river, which is 
seen beyond a sculptured balustrade and varied foliage. With the romantic love 
motif, two figures appear, seated under a spreading tree by the water's edge. 
The warm and engaging atmosphere of the setting gives way to a somber tone, 
the rapture of the music is brusquely interrupted, a sudden storm overwhelms the 
scene. As it clears, the man stands by the sea gazing at the heights as though 
challenged by them. Two muses move across the face of the moon above him, 
encouraging his aspirations. 

"The scene changes to one of sheer barren heights. He has given all and 
gained the heights, but is stopped by a trumpet blast sounding his mortal and 
inexorable doom. A storm of stressful and clamorous music whirls about him, 
lightning threatens him from above, waves reach for him from below, until a 
rainbow appears with its promise of respite. 

"The scene fades to a pastoral valley. The man kneels by the river; his 
strength is spent. The muses appear again, and give direction to his destined end. 
In the last scene he is prone, overwhelmed by his efforts and vanished hopes. He 
lies upon the brink of a chasm into which the river is falling. The ascending 
vapors carry his last aspirations heavenward ; the muses gather over him in the 
vapor, and with the brusque chords of the closing music, take him with them up- 
ward and out of the picture." 

The music, as is always the case, is first recorded and carefully 
timed. Significant passages are noted and timed. In this way, a 
general layout sheet is compiled. It should be noted here that no 



Feb., 1936] 



VISUAL ACCOMPANIMENT 



161 



$. 



G:: 



attempt is made at close synchronization of music and action. How- 
ever, a few key points in music and action are made to synchronize 
generally. Fig. 1 shows the general layout sheet. Finished water 

color sketches of the important scenes are then 

made. 

The preliminary work having thus been com- 
pleted, it is necessary to prepare the settings for 
the miniature stage. This stage is shown sche- 
matically in Fig. 2. A set of planes are provided, 
lettered A to F. In the actual stage, these planes 
are oil paintings upon acetate sheeting. Care 
must be taken in laying out these paintings from 
the original sketches so that the proper perspec- 
tive, which necessitates changes in dimensions as 
the planes progress up-stage, is taken into con- 
sideration. 

Moving clouds and scenes are painted upon long 
strips of acetate sheeting and wound upon rollers. 
These rollers can be mounted so as to move the 
painting either vertically or laterally. Movement, 
as well as its acceleration and deceleration, is con- 
trolled by mechanical means. The fact that in 
some cases a total travel of the scene of 5 inches 
is distributed over 500 frames of film gives an idea 
of the required refinement of the mechanical 
devices. 

In Act I a sculptured balustrade also is moved 
across the stage, frame by frame, mechanically 
controlled in a manner similar to the control of 
the rollers. The various movements, of course, 
must be calculated not only for the positions of 
the planes, but also for their relative speeds with 
respect to each other. The effect desired is a 
changing panoramic view as an observer walks 
along the banks of a river. Various effects, such 
as a water ripple caused by an unseen fountain, 
are obtained with especially built effect machines, also operated 
frame by frame. Some of the figures are modelled in relief upon the 
acetate sheets. When only a relatively short movement of an 
element of a scene is desired, the element is painted upon an acetate 



162 



R. WOLF 



[J. S. M. P. E. 



sheet, mounted upon a "traveller," or frame, fastened to a carriage 
suspended from an overhead rail. "Universal" frames permit lateral 
and vertical movements to be made either separately or simultane- 
ously in combination. 

The main lighting units consist of three-circuit red, blue, and 
white top and bottom strips. These strips are equipped with 
Holophane diffusing lenses to provide substantially even illumina- 





20 Inches 30 



FIG. 2. Dimensions of miniature stage. 

tion upon each plane. The units are so designed and placed that the 
"spill" between planes is negligible. Each circuit is separately con- 
trolled by means of a multi-point rheostat, affording a variation of 
light intensity from zero to full in increments too small to be perceived 
by the eye as definite steps. In addition to these main units, sepa- 
rately controlled spotlights, both white and colored, are used when- 
ever necessary. Each light circuit is designated by a number. 

The various movements upon the stage, as well as the lights, are 
manually controlled. A regular routine for the sequence of these 



Feb., 1936] . VISUAL ACCOMPANIMENT 163 

movements is established. The average time-interval between 
exposures during which all movements, light settings, and exposures 
have to be made, is 12 seconds. With simple action, time-intervals 
of three seconds between exposures are not uncommon. 

The three-color Technicolor process is used to photograph the pic- 
ture. The exposures are of the order of three seconds per frame. 
Correct exposure is determined by means of test-strips of the actual 
scene to be taken. The permissible contrast ratios are also deter- 
mined by means of these test-strips. 




FIG. 3. Arrangement of camera and tunnel leading to 
plane A of stage. 

For exposure control, an electrical timing circuit was used during 
the early part of the work. The time was controlled by a condenser 
discharge circuit, suitable resistances in which determined the desired 
time periods. This circuit was arranged to work over a range of 
V* second to 6 seconds. An Ilex shutter was placed in front of the 
lens and the camera was equipped with a single-frame advancing de- 
vice. Through suitable relays operating the shutter release and the 
camera-tripping device, the exposure and advancement of the film 
to the next frame became automatic when one control-button was 
pressed. This control-button was located at the stage, and its op- 
eration formed the last link in the chain of operations of scene move- 
ments between exposures for each frame. 

During the later part of the work, the electrical timing device and 
Ilex shutter were replaced by a high-ratio reduction gear, and the 
regular camera shutter was used. However, the automatic control- 



164 



R. WOLF 



[J. S. M. P. E. 



button operating the stop-motion camera attachment was retained. 
Fundamental design work indicates that many, if not all, of the move- 
ments, as well as the light changes, can be controlled mechanically, 
thus making it possible to photograph a given scene entirely auto- 
matically. 

The camera is placed approximately 21 feet in front of the A plane 
shown in Fig. 2. The space between the camera and the A plane is 
totally enclosed in a dull black painted tunnel (Fig. 3). All stage 
fixtures, as well as the floor and the ceiling, are also painted dull 
black. Black curtains enclosing the back and stretched across the 












TOP g 1 o 


3 1 5 

WHITC. 1 Oit/e 











fl 




7 
BOTTOM eco 


9 \ // 

*fH/rc 1 BLi/e 








TOP \ * 5 
rof 1 KEO 


n j /9 




"* 






" & 


23 1 25 

wwr 1 L(/ 




c 










TOP *g 


J2 1 34 

WHITS \ BLUS. 




E 





FIG. 4. Light positions ; Act I, Unfinished Symphony. 

front of the stage from ceiling to floor, with a light-tight opening 
fastened about the mouth of the tunnel, are also used. This arrange- 
ment permits using the apparatus in the rear of a large room without 
interference from daylight. It was found that the tunnel between 
the camera and the stage was important to avoid reflections upon the 
acetate sheet in the A plane. Fig. 3 is a general view of the set-up. 

It would have been possible to work with much smaller paintings 
and a much shorter camera distance if only the Technicolor process 
were contemplated. However, it was desirable for experimental 



Feb., 1936] 



VISUAL ACCOMPANIMENT 



165 



purposes to employ other color processes as well. The focal length 
of the only lens available for one of these processes, and the fact that 
the lens could not be stopped down, made the rather large dimensions 
necessary. 

Now to return to the description of the production of the Visual 
Accompaniment for the Unfinished Symphony: It was decided that 
five acts were necessary to illustrate the composition. An act, in 
this connection, means a complete change of scenery, requiring en- 
tirely new stage settings. The elements available for the production 
were still paintings, moving paintings, special effects, and light and 
color changes. From the general layout sheet (Fig. 1) detail layouts 
are made for each scene. These layouts are timed in seconds and in 
frames. An action layout covers the stage, and a layout for light 
changes covers both light-intensity and color changes. 



STOP / t 3 4 5 6 7 9 K> // tZ O U /5 


f7 



c^ 


^J 


r- 






















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>/- 






























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if 


t 







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-' 5 ? : 


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sec / 


f flfvr 






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FIG. 5. Action chart; Act I, Unfinished Symphony. 



As a typical example, consider Act I. This act extended over 122 
seconds, or 2928 frames. It called for the following stage settings: 

(1) Moving clouds in plane A, requiring a roller. 

(2) A sculptured balustrade in plane B, mounted upon a movable platform. 

(3) Painted scenery in plane C l / t , requiring a roller. 

(4) Painted effects, such as swan and boats, requiring a "traveler," in plane D. 

(5) Background clouds, moving across the scene and upward, in plane Z) 1 /:. 
requiring a "universal." 

(6) A general background in plane E, requiring a still frame. 

Fig. 4 shows the light layout. The figures and letters refer to the 
control circuits. The lights required were: 

(1 ) Top and bottom strips, plane A . 

(2) Top strip, plane A l / t . 



166 



R. WOLF 



[J. S. M. P. E. 



(5) Top strip, plane C. 

(4) Top strip, plane E. 

(5) Spotlight in front of and below plane A, shining upon part of plane A 
through an opening in the tunnel. 

(6) Two spotlights upon stage right, directly in front of plane A . 

(7) Spotlight upon stage left, in front of plane A . 

(8) Small sharp spot, G, upon stage left, to illuminate statues upon balustrade. 

(9) Spotlights upon stage left, shining on plane A l /z- 

(10) Spotlight upon stage left, shining on plane C. 

(11) Spotlight upon stage right, shining on plane E. 

(12) Spotlight between planes C and E, shining upon plane E. 

(13) Effect spot between planes D l / z and E, to produce effect of water ripple 
upon plane E. 

The action and light changes were divided into 15 periods of 192 
frames each. Fig. 5 shows the action chart, and Fig. 6 the general 
light action layout, the figures in which represent the rheostat set- 
tings : 24 represents maximal light for the strips, and 48 for the spots. 

Fig. 5 indicates that plane A is operated throughout the take at a 
speed of 10 inches for 192 frames up to the beginning of period 11, 
and 15 inches for 192 frames from period 11 to the end. A suitable 
smooth acceleration distributed over period 10 has to be made in 
this case. Plane B (the balustrade) is operated at a speed of 9 J /4 
inches for 192 frames from the beginning of the action to the end of 
period 11, and then stopped, inasmuch as by that time the balustrade 
is out of the picture. Plane C 1 /* is operated at a speed of 8 9 /ie inches 



mm: 


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FIG. 6. Light Chart; Act I, Unfinished Symphony. 




Feb., 1936] VISUAL ACCOMPANIMENT 167 

for 192 frames to the end of period 13, and stopped. Plane D is oper- 
ated a total of 20 inches for 576 frames from period l l / 2 to 4 l / 2 , and 
stopped, to be operated again 15 l /2 inches for 576 frames over 
periods 10, 11, and 12, and stopped. Plane D l / 2 is operated 21 inches 
for 576 frames over periods 10, 11, and 12, and stopped. The water 
ripple is operated at a speed of 2 x /2 seconds per revolution (time being 
screen time) from the beginning of the action to the end of period 11, 
and stopped. 

Fig. 6 shows the light changes for each 192 frames. Main strip 9, 
for instance, does not change from an original setting of 15 for the 
first 192 frames. From frame 192 
to 384 the light increases from 15 
to 20; and from frame 384 to 576, 
from 20 to 24. From frame 576 
to 768 it decreases from 24 to 12, 
and remains at that value to frame 
1 152. From frame 1 152 to frame 
1344 the light decreases from 12 to 
6, and remains at that value to 

frame 1728. From frame 1728 to 

-ir\nr\ -^ t e FIG. 7. Control desk and frame 

frame 1 920 it decreases from 6 to counter. 

0, and remains at to frame 2496. 

From frame 2496 the light increases from to 18, From frame 2688 
to 2928 the light decreases from 18 to 4. The last period extends over 
240 frames to cover the lap dissolve. 

The act was rehearsed by setting significant scenes. The light 
settings, as well as the positions of the various paintings, were noted. 
It became, then, a relatively simple matter to work out the light and 
color transitions between the scenes. 

The photographing of a scene is controlled from a desk at which the 
light action and movement charts are kept. The light changes are 
read out as they occur. At the desk an electrical counter connected 
with a push button on the stage is installed to show which frame is 
being photographed. Fig. 7 shows the desk and counter. 

A few figures on the economics of producing the visual accompani- 
ment for Schubert's Unfinished Symphony might be appropriate. 
The personnel required consisted of 

2 Artists to make the paintings 
1 Camera crew 

3 Operators for scene movements and light settings 



168 R. WOLF [j. S. M. P. E. 

1 Operator at the control desk 

1 General supervisor to coordinate and direct the various activities 

In an elapsed time of 325 working hours, 4400 man-hours (not 
counting the time of the camera crew) were required to complete the 
production. These man-hours can be broken down as follows : 

Operation Man-Hours 

Making sketches 240 

Painting 1200 

General preparation 590 

Rehearsals 1030 

Taking the picture 1340 

Total 4400. 

It is interesting to note that of 208 hours' actual working time spent 
for taking the picture, only 66 Y 2 hours represent shooting time, and 
141 */2 hours were used for setting up and making light adjustments. 

Further studies and fundamental design indicate that with com- 
plete mechanization of the equipment and reduction in size of the 
paintings, the schedule would not exceed : 

Operation Man-Hours 

Making sketches 240 

Painting 600 

Rehearsals, etc. 250 

Taking the picture 10 

Total 1100 

THE ASTRACT METHOD 

The ' 'abstract method" differs considerably from the Savage 
method, both as to fundamentals and practical realization. The 
basic thought underlying it is that music suggests color to many per- 
sons. The opposite concept, that color suggests music, is also not un- 
known. It is futile to discuss theories of this method, because there are 
as many theories as there are commentators on the subject. Instead, 
a few premises used in the production to be described will be stated : 

(1 ) Color is suggested by the "musical mood" of the composition : light colors for 
gay tunes, and dark colors for somber themes. 

(2) Color is combined with abstract forms suggestive of the rhythm of the 
music. Both form and color must be correct from an artistic point of view. 

(5) Close synchronization of music, form, and color must be established. 

In order to produce the visual accompaniment by this method, it is 



Feb., 1936] 



VISUAL ACCOMPANIMENT 



U 



r 



necessary to associate a color-film with previously recorded music. 
Part of Ponchielli's Dance of the Hours was chosen as a suitable com- 
position for this method. Mrs. Josephine M. Wolf, an artist who has 
made an extensive study of musical themes in color, was chosen to 
create a set of paintings giving her interpretation of the composition 
in abstract form and color. The artist required that some of the 
forms used in the paintings must appear to move in synchronism with 
the music and also that the intensity of the light must change. 

In the picture upon the screen would appear colored forms of ab- 
stract shape. These forms change with the 
music, in shape as well as in color. Through 
lap-dissolves or wipe-offs, new sets of figures 
and colors would appear, again to be followed 
by different designs. When the main theme 
of the music would repeat, the designs and 
colors would also repeat, although not 
necessarily in exactly the same shape or 
hue. The whole picture would follow the 
music closely, giving to the audience an 
impression rather than something definite 
to follow, thereby further subordinating the 
picture to the music. 

To furnish the apparent movement of 
forms, it was decided to make use of a 
curious phenomenon that had been ob- 
served some time ago. If a number of 
lighted areas of different intensities are 
projected upon a screen simultaneously 
from different projectors, and the illumina- 
tion of one of these areas is changed at a 
fair rate, the size of the area seems to 
increase with an increase in intensity and to 
decrease in size with a decrease in intensity. 
By using suitable shapes of areas any ap- 
parent desired motion can be created. By 
using different colors for the light areas the apparent motion 
increases. An illusion of stereoscopic depth can be accomplished by 
skillful use of this phenomenon. 

To carry out the idea, a set-up is made using three spotlights 
equipped with lantern slide projection attachments and a screen made 



SCREEN 




h 



FIG. 8. Projector set-up 
for Dance of the Hours; ab- 
stract method. 



170 



R. WOLF 



fj. S. M. P. E. 



of flashed opal glass. A sketch showing the set-up is shown in Fig. 8, 
where A, B, and C denote the projectors. The lantern slides used 
with these projectors are made as follows : The artist makes the de- 
sign complete in water colors upon sheets about 8 by 10 inches. 
These designs are translated into their essential components ; that is, 
a scene consists, for example, of a background, a foreground, and 
light rays. Fig. 9 shows three such components for a typical 
scene. The outlines of the components are carefully traced upon a 
sheet of heavy white paper, and any essential design features are also 
lightly sketched in. The designs on the paper are cut out, and the 
separate parts are glued to black cardboard, one to each card- 
board. Inasmuch as the designs are cut out of the same paper, there 
is, of course, no difficulty in maintaining the correct relationship of 
the parts. The assembled cardboards are numbered and marked in 
a uniform manner. 

These cardboards, with their white paper cut-outs, are photo- 
graphed. For simplicity, a Leica camera giving a picture 1 by iy 2 




FIG. 9. Components for a typical scene for Dance of the Hours; abstract 

method. 



inches upon motion picture film is used. The film used is positive 
stock, which is developed to as high a contrast as attainable. 

From these negatives lantern slides are made by projection print- 
ing. Inasmuch as three projectors are used, the existing parallax 
has to be taken into account when making the slides. The slides 
also are developed to maximum contrast, leaving the glass clear at the 
unexposed portions. They are then hand-colored, using transparent 
aniline dyes. 

The projectors are three Kliegl spotlights equipped with slide 
carriers and 15-inch projection lenses. The lamps used are 1000- 
watt, 120-volt spotlights, carefully mounted with mirror reflectors. 
Means are provided to adjust the positions of the projector lenses 
slightly to compensate for small irregularities in the slides and the 



i'Vi>.. MM.] VISUAL ACCOMPANIMENT 171 

slide carriers. The projection angles are 324' lateral, 5 19' vertical. 
The lamps in the projectors are connected through dimmers, per- 
mitting a voltage variation of 57 to 118 volts, corresponding to 15 to 
140 foot-candles measured at the screen. 

Close synchronization of music and picture appeared to be a diffi- 
cult problem. By using the following method, however, it was 
solved rather simply : A score of the composition is carefully marked 
for action and light changes. This score is used as a general guide. 
A Movieola is set up with a sound-track and a roll of film carrying 
frame marks, and is operated barely fast enough to permit following 
the tune. At each predetermined important point a mark is made 
upon the frame -marked film with grease pencil, and wipes and fades 
are marked with lines progressing over succeeding frames, the whole 
action being carefully laid out in this manner. The sound-track and 
marked film are then run at the correct speed. The film, if correctly 
marked, will show each important point as it passes by. Corrections, 
if necessary, are easily made at this time. This film is used to make an 
action layout directly in frames. 

From these data a general layout sheet is compiled, each scene con- 
sisting of a separate projector set-up. The action during a scene is 
controlled entirely by changing the dimmers. 

A Technicolor three-color camera is used to photograph the picture 
projected upon the opal glass screen on the side away from the pro- 
jectors, running at a speed of one frame per second. No difficulty 
was experienced in providing the necessary action by dimmer changes 
at this speed. Stop-motion is used at a few points where the thermal 
lag of the filaments would not permit the required rapid change for 
fast action at a constant camera speed of one frame per second. 

Further fundamental design work on this method indicates that it 
will not be necessary to project the picture upon an opal glass screen, 
nor will colored lantern slides be required. The original drawing 
made by the artist can be used. This drawing should be made upon 
heavy water-color paper, with brilliant opaque water colors. The de- 
sign is again translated into its essential components, and black-and- 
white lantern slides are made. However, these slides are not colored. 
The design itself is used as the object to be photographed, illuminated 
through the slides in the projectors. This method would also permit 
the use of colored light in the projectors. 

The light-intensity should not be controlled with dimmers, but with 
iris diaphragms mounted at the projectors. In this way the color- 



172 R. WOLF 

temperature of the lamps is not changed, which helps materially in 
obtaining good color values. 

Effect attachments to the projectors, such as rotating color-wheels, 
flame effects, etc., are too numerous to be mentioned. By using them 
skillfully, very striking and beautiful effects can be accomplished with 
the abstract method of visual accompaniment. To date the abstract 
method has been used only experimentally, and no commercial re- 
leases of films made by this method have been made. 

Admitting that there is a place for good music in motion picture 
programs, it is believed that the present-day high-quality reproduc- 
tion may fill a much-needed want. This is particularly true if 
an artistic visual accompaniment to the music is provided upon 
the screen. It is therefore expected that this new art combining 
fine music faithfully reproduced and "Visual Accompaniment" 
will fill a gap in the amusement field and provide for the audiences 
of motion picture theaters a very worth-while supplemental form 
of entertainment. 

Several demonstration films illustrating two of the forms of visual accompaniment 
were projected after the presentation of the paper as follows: Musical Moods "Fin- 
gal's Cave" (Mendelsohn), "Italian Caprice" (Tschaikowsky), "Barcarole" from 
"Tales of Hoffman" (Offenbach); Savage Method "Unfinished Symphony" 
(Schubert), "Les Preludes" (Liszt). 



THE USE OF FILMS IN THE U. S. ARMY* 
M. E. GILLETTE** 

Summary. An outline of the use and production of educational motion pictures in 
the United States Army, together with a discussion of their use in conjunction with the 
"Applicatory Method" of instruction. 

The Army's interest in motion pictures began shortly before the 
World War when the Medical Corps produced and experimented with 
the use of pictures on social hygiene and other medical subjects. As 
is well known, the Signal Corps made hundreds of thousands of feet 
of film during the World War in visually recording important events 
and activities. This material, together with subsequent additions, 
probably constitutes the largest and most valuable collection of his- 
torical pictures in the government service. Entertainment pictures 
were widely used during the War by welfare agencies within the Army. 
Since the War, the Army Motion Picture Service, directed by the 
Adjutant General's Department, took over this work and now oper- 
ates a chain of post theaters in which feature pictures, obtained 
through regular booking channels, are regularly shown. This is an 
important activity contributing to the contentment and high morale 
of service personnel, especially in the more isolated stations. 

It is not so well known, however, that the Army was one of the 
pioneers in the use of motion pictures upon a large scale for educa- 
tional purposes. In addition to the Medical Corps films just men- 
tioned, sixty-three reels of military training-films were produced by 
the Signal Corps during the War; and many other reels, such as the 
animated Elements of the Automobile, were made by commercial 
agencies specifically for military uses. The production program was 
in full swing at the time the armistice was signed in November, 1918, 
with more than a hundred reels of pictures on military training sub- 
jects in use. 

The value of this material as a training adjunct was recognized; 

* Presented at the Fall, 1935, Meeting at Washington, D. C. 
** U. S. Army, Washington, D. C. 

173 



174 M. E. GILLETTE [j. s. M. P. E. 

but immediately following the World War the pressure for readjust- 
ment in the service stopped all new production and precluded further 
extensive experimentation, although the war-time subjects continued 
in circulation. No new subjects were produced until about 1928, 
when a renewed interest in visual education brought about the adop- 
tion of a definite program of production and the establishment of 
rules governing the initiation and conduct of training-film produc- 
tion projects. The Signal Corps was designated as the agency 
charged with technical production matters, with the various branches 
of the service collaborating in determining picture content and scope. 

In 1930, the Signal Corps acquired a sound recording channel, and 
through the cooperation of the motion picture industry, arranged for 
training, over a period of years, a few selected officers in sound mo- 
tion picture production methods. Three officers have received this 
training to date, the first completing the course in June, 1931. In 
1931 and 1932 a few silent films were revised and off-stage monolog 
was added to make the films more effective. Since then additional 
sound subjects, both natural sound and the monolog types, have 
been undertaken. A total of twelve sound training-films have been 
released, and seven additional subjects are now in various stages of 
production. 

A brief examination of the main steps in the course of a training- 
film project may be of interest. The chief of a branch of service, such 
as the Chief of Infantry, Chief of Cavalry, etc., decides that a training 
film upon a certain subject should be produced. Application is made 
to the War Department for approval of the project. Approval 
granted, the Chief designates an officer, usually a specialist in the 
subject to be covered, to prepare the scenario and act as technical di- 
rector for the picture. The completed scenario is submitted to the 
War Department and referred to the Chief Signal Officer for comments 
regarding feasibility of production from a photographic and technical 
standpoint and for recommendations as to its position in the produc- 
tion schedule. These preliminaries completed, details are then 
worked out as to the place and dates for performing the field photog- 
raphy. The Army has no production stage facilities but must rely 
upon suitable terrain or other background requirements available at 
one or more of its numerous stations. Film processing, animation, 
editorial, and similar tasks are carried on at the Signal Corps Pho- 
tographic Laboratory at Washington, D. C. 

The field production unit consists of the director, designated by 



Feb., 1936] FILMS IN U. S. ARMY 175 

the Chief Signal Officer, cameramen, recordist, and other assistants 
from the Signal Corps Photographic Laboratory. The officer who 
prepared the original script is usually designated to act as technical 
director or advisor besides acting as liaison officer in arranging for the 
use of troops, equipment, and so forth. Leading characters and 
troops are supplied by the interested branch. 

Upon completion of the field photography, editorial and related 
work is carried on at the Signal Corps Photographic Laboratory until 
the picture is ready for presentation to representatives of the inter- 
ested branch and to the Plans and Training Division of the War De- 
partment. Upon approval, release prints are made and distributed 
to the nine Corps Area Headquarters, the three foreign departments, 
the service schools, etc., so that distribution of prints for exhibition 
purposes is decentralized. Several additional prints are retained at 
Washington to meet additional demands. The Signal Corps makes 
use of commercial equipment exclusively, and the production and 
processing methods are copied, as closely as the limited funds and 
personnel will permit, from similar processes or methods in general use 
in the motion picture industry. 

The term "educational motion pictures," is frequently used within 
the Army, as elsewhere, to refer to general interest, propaganda, 
travelog, and record types of pictures, as well as to instructional 
films. One hears occasional references even to entertainment pic- 
tures in this category. Such a meaning is regarded too broad and 
vague for Army purposes. It is desirable to limit the term to pictures 
produced specifically for instructional purposes, which pictures will 
hereafter be referred to as training-films. The remarks that follow 
are restricted to a discussion of methods of presentation and the pro- 
duction technic applicable to military training-films, which, because 
of their general nature, may be of interest to others interested in the 
production of instructional films. 

According to service manuals, the ultimate purpose of all military 
training is effectiveness in war, with a view to maintaining the domes- 
tic peace and international security of our people. It follows there- 
fore, that training-films must contribute effectively to this objective. 
Interest is therefore restricted to subjects having direct military 
value, and such high specialization makes it necessary that military 
personnel perform the directorial and editorial phases of the work. 

The Army's training methods are based upon the applicatory sys- 
tem of instruction, in which individuals or organizations under in- 



176 M. E. GILLETTE [j. s. M. p. E. 

struction are required to apply the principles or methods to an as- 
sumed or outlined situation. There are six steps or phases of this 
system : 

(1) Preparation on the part of the instructor. 

(2) Explanation. 

(5) Demonstration or illustration. 

(4) Application or practice, to acquire skill in execution. 

(5) Examination or test, to determine progress or proficiency. 

(6) Discussion, to correct methods of execution. 

There are no "royal roads to learning" or "get-rich-quick shortcuts" 
in this educational system which, in the majority of cases, requires 
physical as well as mental exertion by the soldier to attain proficiency 
in military subjects. Obviously, training-films can not be used as 
the only means of instruction in the system but must be fitted, as a 
part, into the educational method. Their role must be that of an 
aid or tool in the hands of an instructor, and never that of a teaching 
robot usurping all the functions of the instructor, as extreme enthusi- 
asts may sometimes contend. Our training-films, designed for use 
as aids in one or more of the steps listed above, can be made to shorten 
the explanations or demonstration phases materially, as well as to 
afford more vivid and compelling presentations than would be pos- 
sible by other means. 

It must be borne in mind, however, that all subjects are not equally 
suitable for motion picture treatment. On the other hand, many 
subjects lend themselves admirably to such purposes, and are more 
effective in motion pictures than in any other form. In general, it 
is regarded desirable to restrict subjects selected for motion picture 
treatment to technical subjects and technic in which there is but one 
set of facts or one correct method of performance. Functioning and 
nomenclature of weapons and equipment fall into the first group, 
while pictures showing approved methods of employing weapons, of 
drilling and other exercises, fall into the second classification. Con- 
troversial subjects or those susceptible of solution by more than one 
applicatory method are regarded as less suitable because of the diffi- 
culties of presentation and the danger of imparting the impression 
that there is but one approved solution. Let us now ascertain just 
where training-films can fit into the applicatory system. 

(1) The first step is preparation on the part of the instructor for his 
duties. Military instructors are usually selected because of their pro- 
ficiency or experience in certain subjects. They have access to mili- 



Feb., 1936] FILMS IN U. S. ARMY 177 

tary texts, manuals, and regulations with which to refresh their 
memories and otherwise prepare themselves for the class period. 
These publications contain a mass of detailed information which it is 
impracticable to cover thoroughly in pictures. Training-films are of 
little value in preparing the peace-time instructor for his duties but 
in war-time when thoroughly trained instructors are scarce, pictures 
will undoubtedly become of more value in the first step. 

(2) Explanation consists of a word-picture presented in the ex- 
pository manner, by the instructor. Step by step he goes over the 
lesson, utilizing equipment or personnel in many cases to keep the 
class oriented and aid in his verbal presentation. The use of a re- 
corded lecture for this purpose is physically possible but is not an 
efficient means, for various reasons. When used in conjunction with 
pictures or illustrations, the explanatory phase tends to become com- 
bined with the demonstration phase. The off-stage voice or monolog 
is a very efficient means of presenting a standardized explanation and 
is readily correlated with diagrammatic or illustrative material to 
make the presentation more effective. It is possible to design pic- 
tures specifically for this phase but it is frequently difficult to deter- 
mine whether a picture belongs in this phase or in the demonstration 
phase, due to a close intermixture of the two, as will be discussed later. 

(3) Demonstration, or illustration, may consist in a demonstration 
by the instructor or by a selected group of highly trained persons, or 
in the operation of equipment or weapons by selected personnel. In 
many cases, the instructor will restate portions of his original explana- 
tion as the demonstration progresses, in order to stress or drive home 
the important points. Sound motion pictures are probably of great- 
est value in this phase. They permit the use of a standard comment 
coupled with a silent picture demonstration, the use of a complete 
natural-sound demonstration, or a combination of the two as best 
fits the subject at hand. Such pictures provide means for visually 
demonstrating operations to large groups where lack of facilities or 
the nature of the demonstration prohibits the class from seeing an 
actual demonstration. Many operations are difficult to perform 
without incurring danger for the personnel or consuming expensive 
supplies. 

As has been indicated, the question frequently arises as to whether 
a certain picture should be used with the second step, explanation, or 
i with the third step, demonstration. Special pictures utilizing mono- 
log may be used in the explanatory step, while separate pictures using 



178 M. E. GILLETTE [J. S. M. p. E. 

natural sound or monolog may be used for the demonstration. A 
common practice is to combine the two in the same reel or reels. One 
method is to explain the lesson, step by step throughout its entire 
length, and then follow with natural sound, a monolog, or a silent 
picture demonstration. Another practice is to explain an individual 
point with diagrams, and follow immediately with a demonstration 
covering the particular point. It is usually desirable to finish off the 
picture with a complete demonstration, as a whole, of all points 
covered. Other variations may be used without violating the basic 
principles of the applicatory system. Standardization of explana- 
tion and demonstration can be attained in this manner in a minimum 
number of reels. 

(4) In the fourth step, imitation or application on the part of the 
student, motion pictures are of no value. This step requires mental 
and physical effort in most cases for the student to acquire profi- 
ciency. During this phase it will often prove desirable to review 
the demonstration picture several times to permit closer examination 
of troublesome portions of the subject. This device brings this step 
into intimate relationship with the next two steps. 

(5) In the fifth step, examination, sound motion pictures will fre- 
quently aid by providing a visual yardstick or standard against which 
the soldier's or the unit's proficiency may be measured. Pictures de- 
signed for use as aids in the third step will normally serve this purpose. 
It is not believed that special pictures designed for use only in this 
phase are justified. 

(6) The sixth and last step is the discussion to point out correct and 
incorrect methods of execution. Pictures designed for use in the third 
step, demonstration, must always show the correct method of execu- 
tion. Great care should be used to be sure that the students obtain 
a clear visual concept of the correct method. Inclusion in the third 
step of demonstrations showing incorrect methods generally tends to 
confuse the pupil and befog the salient points. For these reasons a 
picture designed for use in the third phase is not entirely suitable for 
use as an aid in the last phase. If motion pictures are to be used 
effectively in this phase, they should be specifically planned for the 
purpose. Such pictures can unquestionably be made of considerable 
value, but are regarded as subordinate to those designed for the third 
phase. Their production is not justified so long as we have not ex- 
hausted the possibilities of making demonstration and explanatory 
pictures showing correct execution. 



Feb., 1936] FILMS IN U. S. ARMY 179 

According to the best pedagogical practice, a course of instruction 
upon a subject is broken down into a series of lessons or lectures, each 
of which deals with a few important points. Not more than one les- 
son per day is the normal rule, and several days or weeks may be re- 
quired to cover a subject completely. In the military service, where 
pressure for time is frequently urgent, two periods per day per sub- 
ject may be utilized. The limiting factors in this respect are the 
powers of assimilation exhibited by the students in a given period of 
time. The assimilation can be improved considerably by the use of 
visual aids but it is unreasonable to expect that all such limitations 
can be overcome so that a subject can be taught in a single showing. 

It is advisable to plan training-films in parts or sections to fit the 
various lessons of a course of instruction. It is also necessary to re- 
align the courses of instruction to make the most efficient use of the 
training-films. While it is not feasible or desirable to have separate 
parts or reels for use with every separate lesson, it is desirable to fit 
such pictures into the course where their use will be superior to other 
methods of instruction. Several lessons may be consolidated into one 
part, for use in visual and aural summarization; or each part may be 
designed to demonstrate and explain some abstract or difficult point 
and otherwise aid in putting across a single lesson. Properly used as 
visual aids, training-films should materially reduce the number and 
length of the lesson periods necessary to master a subject. The ex- 
tent to which these can be reduced by the use of training-films is a 
direct measure of the value of such aids. 

In the Army, as elsewhere, the high costs of production and the 
limited facilities for production have tempted us to cram a complete 
course of instruction into one film, of, perhaps, five or six reels, de- 
signed for showing in a single session. In some cases only the high 
points have been covered, leaving the details for presentation by 
other methods. In other instances an attempt has been made to 
cover all the details; which has resulted in creating confusion in the 
minds of the pupils because of the rapidity and number of points pre- 
sented in a short time. This type of picture may handicap rather 
than help the student. The better method is believed to be that in 
which the subject is broken down into sections or parts, each of which 
contains sufficient detail presented in such a manner as to enable the 
student to master each step successively. The number of major 
points presented in a single session should not overtax the mental 
ability of the class. Moreover, the pictures should cover only the 



180 M. E. GILLETTE [J. S. M. P. E. 

work immediately before the student; otherwise, extraneous or ad- 
vanced material would distract the thoughts and thereby tend to de- 
feat the purpose of the lesson. 

This brings us to another major point. Training films must be de- 
signed for use in training a particular group. Obviously, pictures 
planned for audiences of officers will generally be beyond the com- 
prehension of average enlisted men. Conversely, those designed for 
enlisted men will frequently appear dull and uninteresting to officer 
classes. The technic of presentation must be varied to suit the men- 
tal age or capacity of the class at which it is aimed. 

While the silent picture has considerable value as an instructional 
aid, depending entirely upon vision to convey its message, it is inferior 
to the natural sound, the off-stage voice, or the monolog pictures, 
which reach the student through both the aural and visual senses. 
The use of off-stage or monolog sound "the voice that knows all, 
sees all, tells all" is effective as a means of standardizing the explana- 
tion, and in general will permit the presentation of a greater number 
of points in a given length of time than is possible in a natural-sound 
picture. Natural-sound pictures provide the best means of repro- 
ducing a scene in all its details of sound and action. Whether natu- 
ral sound or the off-stage voice is to be used depends upon the na- 
ture of the sound and whether such sound or monolog can be made 
to stress the desired points effectively, clearly, and directly. In 
many, if not the majority, of subjects, a combination of the off-stage 
voice and the natural sound will prove most effective. Monolog in 
such films is effectively used to pass over unimportant details rapidly, 
to link together or explain the significance of an event, or to prepare 
the audience for scenes to come. It can be used also to summarize or 
stress the lesson points. In this mixed type of picture care must be 
exercised to keep the audience oriented as to who is speaking. A 
distinctive off-stage voice coupled with suitable pauses and intona- 
tions following or preceding natural-sound sequences is usually effec- 
tive in this respect. In general, the interspersion of short natural- 
sound and monolog sequences is objectionable, resulting in choppy 
and confusing presentation. Natural-sound sequences containing 
no significant dialog may be used in some cases as background for the 
off-stage voice, but they must be subdued and made subordinate so 
that they will not mar the intelligibility of the presentation or dis- 
tract the attention of the class. Properly handled, this often proves 
the most effective method of illustrating certain classes of material. 



Feb., 1936] FILMS IN U. S. ARMY 181 

The use of animated drawings is one of the most effective means 
of illustrating certain kinds of material. Functional processes of 
equipment and weapons can be demonstrated in this manner. For 
example, a complete picture of what occurs in the recoil mechanism 
of a big gun can be visually demonstrated by no other method. In 
making our animated pictures, several different methods are used. 
Articulated cut-outs, miniatures, pointers, moving arrows, and regu- 
lar cut-outs as well as drawings and erasure before the camera, are 
some of the devices used in addition to the familiar celluloid overlay 
system. The method chosen depends upon its adaptability and 
economy of execution in presenting the desired point. Miniatures, 
projection backgrounds, and similar devices of the special-effects 
stage could be effectively used in many cases to produce results at- 
tainable in no other way or as inexpensively. 

Many of the cutting tricks used successfully in producing enter- 
tainment films can not be employed in instructional films. For ex- 
ample, as little as possible should be left to the imagination of the 
student. The presentation should be in the expository manner, so 
that the observer is led step by step through the various processes. 
Emotional or spectacular scenes are highly undesirable, and must be 
avoided except when their use illustrates the point in question. 
Many of the little tricks used with success in building a story up to a 
climax may also be employed in training-films. Repetition of 
sound or scene, change of viewpoint, and the tricks of going into inti- 
mate details can be used effectively. 

The use of humor is a questionable point because it usually serves 
to divert attention. It is frequently found, however, that many 
operations or actions performed in a serious manner will provoke 
laughter from the audience. This is particularly true when the actor 
makes some slight error or appears awkward or self-conscious in his 
role. Continued repetition of a slight idiosyncrasy on the part of an 
actor, or some unusual action or view of equipment in the scene also 
may provoke mirth and thereby destroy the effectiveness of the pic- 
ture. Unrelated picture or sound action, such as trains moving in the 
background, twittering of birds, and the like may prove more dis- 
tracting in the picture than if the class were actually present at the 
scene of action. Great care must be exercised, therefore, to eliminate 
these and any other picture or sound diversions. Theoretically this 
can be accomplished by restricting the scene and sound content to the 
actual instructional requirements, but hi practice this is frequently 



182 M. E. GILLETTE 

difficult to accomplish because the scene and camera locations must 
always be practical. 

All the various camera, optical printer, and sound tricks can be 
called upon to assist in improving the effectiveness of the training- 
film. Zoom shots from long views to close-ups and the opposite are 
effective in maintaining orientation and at the same time provide op- 
portunities for examining minute details. Follow-up shots can often 
be used effectively to follow an individual or an operation through a 
complicated situation. Slow motion can be used to examine opera- 
tions normally occurring at speeds too fast for visual analysis. Stop 
motion will provide opportunities for examining details at any point 
of the action, and time-lapse photography can be used to speed up 
processes occurring too slowly for the eye to evaluate. The micro- 
scope and telephoto lenses can be used to examine minute or distant 
objects, and animation can give life to abstract theories and inanimate 
bodies. Cross-cutting of pictures with animated drawings, used 
freely in training-films, is seldom found in combined form in the en- 
tertainment field. Cameras operated by remote control can afford 
intimate scenes of events in dangerous spots. Cameras placed at 
strategic points provide means for reproducing an event or series of 
events occurring over a large area, or at widely separated points, in a 
closely integrated and correlated form. The use of split-screen tech- 
nic is suggested as one means of showing two widely separated opera- 
tions simultaneously. We can reach back into time through film 
libraries and bring back events long past, to illustrate our lessons. 
The World War files are especially valuable in this respect. Super- 
imposed titles, moving arrows, travelling mats, and similar devices 
of the optical printer are effective in focusing attention upon a particu- 
lar part and in suppressing unimportant details. Sound amplifica- 
tion makes it possible to hear sounds of low intensity and provides a 
ready means for giving large classes intimate details of such things 
as orders received over telephones, whispered commands, and distant 
noises. All these and many more tricks of the motion picture art are 
available, and should be used where applicable by the serious pro- 
ducer of instructional films. 



MOTION PICTURES IN THE ARMY AIR CORPS* 
G. W. GODDARD** 



Summary. An outline of the extensive aerial motion picture activity now being 
carried out in the departments of the Army Air Corps. The relation between the 
various Air Corps units is explained, and the many uses to which motion pictures 
are put in instruction and training, technical studies, maintenance and inspection of 
aircraft, etc., are described. 

Slow-motion pictures have proved very valuable for investigating the causes and 
progress of fire in airplanes, the operation of parachutes, the effectiveness of demolition 
of bombing, etc. Lectures recorded with the pictures explain the operations of blind 
flying, loading bombing racks, releasing bombs, and the like. Motion pictures of vast 
territories are taken quickly by planes flying en masse. 

The Wright Brothers successfully completed the first heavier-than- 
air flight at Kittyhawk, N. C., in 1908. Motion picture photography 
has played an increasingly important part in the development of avia- 
tion since that date. Largely through the medium of the screen, the 
people of the world have followed its progress and have been educated 
to its tremendous possibilities. Prior to the World War most of the 
motion picture films of aviation developments and activities were 
made by the newsreel companies, and all of these films have been 
preserved as historical records for future generations. As far as 
known, there was no other application of the motion picture art in 
aviation until the armies engaged in the World War adopted the mo- 
tion picture camera gun, which solved the problem of training mili- 
tary aviators in aerial gunnery and combat without expending valu- 
able ammunition and subjecting the personnel to the hazards of such 
training. 

The first camera gun was equipped with the standard automatic 
motion picture mechanism, a film magazine which was readily re- 
placed during flight, and an extremely long focal length lens to pro- 
duce a large image of the target airplane upon the film. The camera 

* Presented at the Fall, 1935, Meeting at Washington, D. C. This paper 
expresses the author's views and are not necessarily those of the War Department. 
** Department of Photography, Air Corps Technical School, Chanute Field, 
Rantoul, 111. 

183 



184 G. W. GODDARD [J. S. M. P. E. 

was equipped also with a time-recording attachment which recorded 
the time upon the edge of each individual frame of the film; and thus 
with celluloid film the student was allowed to view his results in the 
negative. The complete unit was mounted upon a standard Lewis 
machine gun. Later this was replaced with a paper film which could 
be redeveloped into a positive and easily handled and viewed by the 
student gunners. The complete unit was mounted upon a gun 
tourelle in the gunners' cockpits of bombing and observation air- 
planes. This wartime camera gun was not adapted for use in single- 
seat airplanes because of the difficulty of mounting it. Several thou- 
sand camera guns of this type were in use in the Army Air Service at 
the close of the War, and hundreds of Air Service photographic spe- 
cialists were assigned to their maintenance and to the laboratory de- 
tails of film developing and finishing. 

Following the introduction of the camera gun, the Army Air Corps 
readily recognized the importance of producing, with the Air Service 
personnel, historical, publicity, and training motion picture films ac- 
curately depicting and permanently recording the rapid development 
of military aeronautics in all its many departments. In furtherance 
of this plan, all Army Air Service photographic sections were equipped 
with Universal motion picture cameras of 200-ft. capacity and special 
mounts for ground and aircraft use. 

During the years following the war, the early type of gun camera 
has been superseded with the development and adoption of the type 
G-4 camera gun, which has greatly increased the efficiency of aerial 
gunnery. With this modern camera gun, a series of pictures is taken 
of the target, recording the aim of the gunner and stop-watch timing 
the aim at the instant of firing. The shape and size, as well as the 
weight, of the G-4 motion picture camera have been made as nearly as 
possible mechanically to resemble the Browning 0.30 caliber machine 
gun fitted for flexible use, so that the operator of the camera gun may 
transfer easily and naturally to the machine gun and use the latter 
with deadly accuracy as a result of his motion picture camera gun 
training. 

The principal difference between the two assemblies is the absence 
of recoil when using the camera. The G-4 motion picture gun cam- 
era takes pictures at the rate of approximately 16 frames per second. 
Each picture represents a shot fired, and records the aim by means of 
cross-lines in the optical system which coincide with the cross-wires 
of the gun sight. In addition, the instant of each camera shot is re- 



Feb., 1936] MOTION PICTURES IN AlR CORPS 185 

corded upon each picture by synchronizing a stop-watch with the 
motion picture camera gun shutter. 

The G-4 camera may be used for both fixed and flexible gunnery 
training purposes during offensive and defensive maneuvers. The 
record of scoring hits may be studied individually or in burst groups, 
by an individual or in classroom instruction, thereby providing 
graphic means for correcting previous errors. Registering the stop- 
watch timing of the shots makes it possible to conduct training pro- 
grams, including aerial combat between two or more airplanes 
equipped with motion picture camera guns, and record the time of the 
first as well as the time of all vital shots fired. 

In addition to providing for training the personnel of observation 
and bombardment airplanes, provisions have been made for mounting 
the camera in the top- wing section of single-seat airplanes for training 
pursuit personnel. 

The G-4 camera is actually a ruggedly constructed motion picture 
camera with its components so arranged as to fit into a framework 
or housing resembling that of an aircraft gun and designed to permit 
installation upon a flexible gun-mount by means of a special adapter 
assembly. The film used is of the standard 35-mm. motion picture 
type; it is 35 feet long, has a leader of 5 feet, a sensitized film of 25 
feet for exposures, and trailer of 5 feet. The film is loaded in the 
camera through a door hinged to the right side of the gun camera 
body assembly, and an electrical type of film indicator, for either di- 
rect or remote installation, is provided to show the operator, by flash- 
ing light signals, that the camera is operating, and by continuous 
light, that the film has been exhausted. The leader and trailer ends 
of the film are of insensitive material and allow the camera to be 
loaded in the daylight. The film proper provides approximately 250 
exposures, which are taken automatically as the camera trigger is re- 
leased at approximately 16 exposures per second. The time-regis- 
tering device optically projects a photographic image of a stop-watch 
dial and full-sweep seconds hand upon the film below the main image, 
and thus records the exact time at which each exposure is taken. 
This type of camera is being used also by the aviation sections of the 
Navy and Marine Corps. 

Preceding, and coincidentally with, the development of the mo- 
tion picture camera gun came the development and use of aerial mo- 
tion picture cameras. Needless to say, the first motion picture cam- 
eras used in aerial work were of the ordinary tripod hand-cranked 



188 G. W. GODDARD [j. s. M. p. E. 

military aviation, not only in the Army Air Corps but in the Naval 
Aeronautics Branch and the National Advisory Committee labora- 
tories at Langley Field, Hampton, Va. It is fully recognized that 
the cost involved has been very small considering the results obtained. 

The Army Air Corps maintains still another aerial photographic 
and motion picture activity. This is the photographic School of the 
Army Air Corps Technical School, located at Chanute Field, Rantoul, 
111. At this school are trained the Air Corps Photographic officers and 
enlisted men, and all the many skilled technicians required for taking, 
developing, printing, cutting, and editing all types of aerial motion 
picture films. All Army Air Corps motion pictures, other than the 
engineering and technical films and films produced locally by the 
photographic section, are taken and produced by the Photographic 
School of the Air Corps Technical School in its complete laboratory, 
which is a department of the Aerial Photographic School. This mo- 
tion picture laboratory is maintained for the purpose of training offi- 
cer and enlisted photographic personnel, as well as for general produc- 
tion work of the Air Corps. Expert motion picture personnel from 
this school is assigned to all major projects of the Air Corps, where the 
films to be taken are not of direct value to the Materiel Division. 

Sound camera equipment has been specially constructed for the Air 
Corps for the production of Air Corps motion pictures. The weight 
of such equipment has been materially reduced and the equipment it- 
self is transported to the various locations in special school photo- 
graphic transport airplanes. The pilot and mechanics on such mis- 
sions perform the roles of director, cameraman, and sound techni- 
cian. Adjacent to the Photographic School at the Air Corps Techni- 
cal School is located the Communications School, which cooperates 
with the Photographic School in furnishing the required radio techni- 
cians, as needed, for the operation and maintenance of the sound re- 
cording equipment. In January, 1934, complete sound camera 
equipment was flown to Rockwell Field, Calif., and Air Corps flying 
personnel completed a four-reel sound motion picture covering the 
Army Air Corps School of Aviation activities. Approximately 70 
per cent of this film was completed in the air, showing the duties of 
the personnel engaged in fog flying, commonly known as "blind" 
flying, and the latest methods of aerial navigation. The film was 
completed for the historical record of the Army Air Corps, and has 
since proved to be very valuable for instructional purposes in Air 
Corps schools, National Guard, and Air Corps Reserve Units. Last 



Feb., 1936] MOTION PICTURES IN AlR CORPS 189 

spring this film served a very useful purpose in connection with the 
aerial training of West Point cadets as recommended in the findings 
of the Baker Board, appointed by President Roosevelt. Included in 
the present schedule of motion picture work is the project of the Photo- 
graphic Department of the Air Corps Technical School to assemble 
and edit the 4000-ft. sound-film entitled Wings for West Point. This 
film was photographed last June at Mitchel Field, Long Island, and 
shows the extent of aerial military training given to the second-class 
men at West Point. This historic film follows the student through all 
his training, from his arrival at Mitchel Field to his departure there- 
from. Approximately 70 per cent of the film was taken in the air, 
showing the cadets carrying out the various navigation and aerial 
gunnery missions. The ground sequences of the film show in detail 
the cadets inspecting the various types of tactical airplanes and 
equipment, and also the routine ground training during the training 
period. The scenario for the film was prepared by photographic per- 
sonnel at the Army Air Corps Technical School and the dialog was 
written by an Air Corps officer on the Commanding Officer's staff at 
Mitchel Field, who was thoroughly familiar with West Point training 
details. The modern air-conditioned photographic laboratory facili- 
ties of the Eighth and Fourteenth photographic sections at Mitchel 
Field were made available for the photographers so that immediately 
after each scene was photographed test developments could be ac- 
complished. The assembly details of the West Point film are being 
accomplished in connection with the routine training of student 
photographers, as well as are those features pertaining to chemical 
mixing, developing, printing, editing, drying operations, and projec- 
tion. In addition to this work, the present photographic school 
schedule includes the preparation of a bombing film for instructional 
purposes at the Air Corps Tactical School, Montgomery, Ala. Ap- 
proximately 90 per cent of the film will include Air Corps bombing 
scenes now in the files of the Engineering Division and the Film 
Library, Office, Chief of Air Corps. The necessary new sequences 
will be completed by expert trained aerial cinematographers at the 
various Air Corps photographic sections assigned to tactical units 
concerned. It is expected that approximately 95 per cent of the film 
will consist of air scenes depicting all types and conditions of aerial 
bombardment, and will prove of great training value to the Tactical 
School and to tactical line units, the National Guard, and the Re- 
serve Corps. One of the features of the picture will be the Engineer- 



188 G. W. GODDARD [j. s. M. P. E. 

military aviation, not only in the Army Air Corps but in the Naval 
Aeronautics Branch and the National Advisory Committee labora- 
tories at Langley Field, Hampton, Va. It is fully recognized that 
the cost involved has been very small considering the results obtained. 

The Army Air Corps maintains still another aerial photographic 
and motion picture activity. This is the photographic School of the 
Army Air Corps Technical School, located at Chanute Field, Rantoul, 
111. At this school are trained the Air Corps Photographic officers and 
enlisted men, and all the many skilled technicians required for taking, 
developing, printing, cutting, and editing all types of aerial motion 
picture films. All Army Air Corps motion pictures, other than the 
engineering and technical films and films produced locally by the 
photographic section, are taken and produced by the Photographic 
School of the Air Corps Technical School in its complete laboratory, 
which is a department of the Aerial Photographic School. This mo- 
tion picture laboratory is maintained for the purpose of training offi- 
cer and enlisted photographic personnel, as well as for general produc- 
tion work of the Air Corps. Expert motion picture personnel from 
this school is assigned to all major projects of the Air Corps, where the 
films to be taken are not of direct value to the Materiel Division. 

Sound camera equipment has been specially constructed for the Air 
Corps for the production of Air Corps motion pictures. The weight 
of such equipment has been materially reduced and the equipment it- 
self is transported to the various locations in special school photo- 
graphic transport airplanes. The pilot and mechanics on such mis- 
sions perform the roles of director, cameraman, and sound techni- 
cian. Adjacent to the Photographic School at the Air Corps Techni- 
cal School is located the Communications School, which cooperates 
with the Photographic School in furnishing the required radio techni- 
cians, as needed, for the operation and maintenance of the sound re- 
cording equipment. In January, 1934, complete sound camera 
equipment was flown to Rockwell Field, Calif., and Air Corps flying 
personnel completed a four-reel sound motion picture covering the 
Army Air Corps School of Aviation activities. Approximately 70 
per cent of this film was completed in the air, showing the duties of 
the personnel engaged in fog flying, commonly known as "blind" 
flying, and the latest methods of aerial navigation. The film was 
completed for the historical record of the Army Air Corps, and has 
since proved to be very valuable for instructional purposes in Air 
Corps schools, National Guard, and Air Corps Reserve Units. Last 



Feb., 1936] MOTION PICTURES IN AlR CORPS 189 

spring this film served a very useful purpose in connection with the 
aerial training of West Point cadets as recommended in the findings 
of the Baker Board, appointed by President Roosevelt. Included in 
the present schedule of motion picture work is the project of the Photo- 
graphic Department of the Air Corps Technical School to assemble 
and edit the 4000-ft. sound-film entitled Wings for West Point. This 
film was photographed last June at Mitchel Field, Long Island, and 
shows the extent of aerial military training given to the second-class 
men at West Point. This historic film follows the student through all 
his training, from his arrival at Mitchel Field to his departure there- 
from. Approximately 70 per cent of the film was taken in the air, 
showing the cadets carrying out the various navigation and aerial 
gunnery missions. The ground sequences of the film show in detail 
the cadets inspecting the various types of tactical airplanes and 
equipment, and also the routine ground training during the training 
period. The scenario for the film was prepared by photographic per- 
sonnel at the Army Air Corps Technical School and the dialog was 
written by an Air Corps officer on the Commanding Officer's staff at 
Mitchel Field, who was thoroughly familiar with West Point training 
details. The modern air-conditioned photographic laboratory facili- 
ties of the Eighth and Fourteenth photographic sections at Mitchel 
Field were made available for the photographers so that immediately 
after each scene was photographed test developments could be ac- 
complished. The assembly details of the West Point film are being 
accomplished in connection with the routine training of student 
photographers, as well as are those features pertaining to chemical 
mixing, developing, printing, editing, drying operations, and projec- 
tion. In addition to this work, the present photographic school 
schedule includes the preparation of a bombing film for instructional 
purposes at the Air Corps Tactical School, Montgomery, Ala. Ap- 
proximately 90 per cent of the film will include Air Corps bombing 
scenes now in the files of the Engineering Division and the Film 
Library, Office, Chief of Air Corps. The necessary new sequences 
will be completed by expert trained aerial cinematographers at the 
various Air Corps photographic sections assigned to tactical units 
concerned. It is expected that approximately 95 per cent of the film 
will consist of air scenes depicting all types and conditions of aerial 
bombardment, and will prove of great training value to the Tactical 
School and to tactical line units, the National Guard, and the Re- 
serve Corps. One of the features of the picture will be the Engineer- 



190 G. W. GODDARD [J. S. M. P. E. 

ing Division technical film made for research purposes during the 
bombing of the Pee Dee River concrete bridge in North Carolina, 
showing the effectiveness of aerial demolition bombs upon steel rein- 
forced concrete construction. 

Occasionally, specialized personnel, and with airplanes of the mod- 
ern service type, are ordered to the Air Corps Technical School from 
the tactical units and other service schools to give lectures and demon- 
strations to the school departments. By order of the Commanding 
Officer, all lectures and demonstrations of this nature will be recorded 
and photographed by the Photographic Department and made avail- 
able for future instruction. Recently a new type of attack plane was 
flown to Chanute Field and a motion picture film was made showing 
all the details of a lecture given on it, including the loading of ordinary 
bombs and parachute bombs upon the latest type of bomb racks. 
The films showed also the method of release, and the actual release, 
of the bombs during flight. The complete lectures, which were given 
by an Ordnance Officer from Shreveport, La., were taken in shorthand 
and are available for completion of the sound details of the film, which 
it is expected will be incorporated in the bombing film being made for 
the Tactical School. These examples are only a few of the many 
that demonstrate the practicability and the need of maintaining a 
modern motion picture laboratory at the Army Air Corps Technical 
School. 

Other films completed to date by the Army Air Corps Technical 
School include the film made on the flight to and from Alaska and 
during the operations at Fairbanks, when Army Air Corps photo- 
graphic planes demonstrated the practicability of mass photographic 
flying and photographed 35,000 square miles in seven hours and 
forty-five minutes of actual time of photographing. Aerial motion 
picture personnel of the school also accompanied the Army Air Corps 
Cold Weather Test Flight along the Northern border in 1934 and 
photographed the operations of the flight. These films have been 
turned over to the Engineering Division and have assisted that ac- 
tivity in the further development of arctic weather flying equipment. 

Civilian instructors, under the supervision of the Director of the 
Department of Mechanics, which department conducts the training 
of all Air Corps mechanics, are now preparing a dialog for a local 
training film covering the standard procedure of maintaining and in- 
specting Army aircraft. The work is being accomplished along with 
the routine work of the school, and the photographing will be done 



Feb., 1936] MOTION PICTURES IN AlR CORPS 191 

by the Department of Photography during regular instruction of the 
classes. 

As previously stated, there are fourteen photographic sections of the 
Army Air Corps. These are located in the nine Corps Areas in the 
United States and in three foreign possessions. The purpose is to 
complete in the most economical manner all photographic training 
missions and miscellaneous aerial surveys for the respective Corps 
Area headquarters. Each aerial photographic section is composed 
of twenty enlisted photographers and technicians under the command 
of a photographic flying officer. Most of these photo section labora- 
tories are quite modern and include air-conditioning, temperature- 
control, and dustproof equipment. They have been constructed 
within the past two or three years in connection with the general 
building program of new Air Corps stations. Each laboratory is 
equipped with motion picture developing equipment and cameras 
adaptable for use in all service type airplanes and upon the ground. 
The operators of the equipment are thoroughly experienced in both 
the operation of the camera and the use of the laboratory equipment. 
These technicians are thoroughly familiar with local atmospheric 
conditions as they affect aerial and ground cinematography. The 
present arrangement of locating cinematographers in all the Air Corps 
photographic sections is regarded as very efficient in that all special 
happenings in that vicinity are immediately photographed and the 
developed films rushed to the Chief of the Air Corps for distribution 
to the newsreels and for the permanent library of the Chief of 
Air Corps. In order to keep the personnel in proper training, each 
section is required periodically to test its equipment in the air and to 
mail the films to Washington, where they are closely inspected. A 
fresh stock of film is carried in the supply depots of the Air Corps and 
is available to the sections upon requisition. Most of the film is fur- 
nished in 200-ft. lengths for use in the standard aerial motion picture 
cameras, which are equipped with 200-ft. magazines. 

Panchromatic No. 2 is the type of motion picture negative film 
generally used for aerial motion picture photography in the Army 
Air Corps. For years it has been found that Panchromatic No. 2 
produced best results when used with the standard Air Corps filters 
employed in making still aerial photographs. Although this film is 
comparatively slow-speed, it is sufficiently fast to permit the use of 
the K-3, minus blue, and A-25 filters. On clear days, between the 
hours of 8 A.M. and 4 P.M., when filters of the minus blue and A-2o 



192 G. W. GODDARD [j. S. M. P. E. 

types are used, the lens opening is set at //4.5, infinity focus, 180- 
degree shutter opening, and the photographing done at 32 frames per 
second. The type of filter and the lens opening vary, depending upon 
the atmospheric conditions in certain sections of the country. When 
using Panchromatic No. 2 for low-altitude pictures taken over cities 
or along the coast line where there is a marked degree of contrast, 
filters of the Aero One type are generally used, and the stop is reduced 
to //8, at 32 frames per second. When producing aerial motion pic- 
tures of this type the primary interest lies in detail rather than in pic- 
torial effect; hence the need for the finest possible grain. Our expe- 
rience has been that this is obtained to the best advantage in Pan- 
chromatic No. 2 film. The use of supersensitive motion picture film 
is resorted to only for early morning or late evening missions, or un- 
der bad weather conditions, when the light is extremely poor. 

A most difficult problem is presented in photographing Army Air 
Corps formations or single airplanes, in that the present colors of the 
airplane cover the two extremes of contrast, the wings being painted 
bright yellow with an enamel finish, giving a high reflection factor, and 
the fuselage being painted a dark green, usually without an enamel 
surface, and having a low reflection factor. In this case it is necessary 
to photograph the formation or single airplane, and sacrifice the re- 
sults in the distant landscape. The Army Air Corps recently issued 
an order to all repair depots to change the green color of the fuselage 
to a light blue. This will be very helpful in photographing airplane 
formations in the future. Another difficulty encountered in photo- 
graphing the latest types of airplanes has been occasioned by the in- 
creased speeds of the new types of military aircraft, compared with 
the speed of the present type photographic airplanes. In photo- 
graphing single airplanes or formations in flight, it is very necessary 
that the photographic airplane be- able to outdistance the airplane 
being photographed in order to move into position for satisfactory 
pictorial composition. In recent months it has been necessary to ar- 
range camera installations in non-photographic airplanes in order to 
correct this condition. It has been extremely difficult to make satis- 
factory camera installations, as it generally happens that the desir- 
able positions are occupied by other pieces of necessary equipment. 
When the 200-miles-per-hour Martin bombers were flown over 
Alaska it was necessary to install the motion picture camera equip- 
ment in the front cockpit of a bomber and cut a hole through the cellu- 
loid turret cowling protecting the forward gunner. A set-up of this 



Feb., 1936] MOTION PICTURES IN AlR CORPS 

kind was used exclusively for motion picture work on the Alaskan 
flight. The oval celluloid enclosure with the camera mounting at- 
tached provided full swing of the camera and mount to any desired 
position. The location of the camera in the nose of the airplane in 
this instance proved very desirable in that it was away from the mo- 
tors and kept free from oil, which generally accumulates upon the lens 
when the camera is mounted at the rear of the motors. The camera 
operator on the Alaskan flight was provided with a radiophone so 
that it was possible for him to talk to the pilots of the planes being 
photographed and give them necessary instructions as to the desired 
formation. 

Considerable difficulty is experienced in the operation of cameras 
in cold weather, particularly on planes flying at high altitudes where 
the camera is exposed to the wind blast. Constant attention to the 
proper lubrication of the moving parts is necessary. Moreover, as 
previously indicated, the operator must be constantly on the alert to 
prevent oil from covering the lenses, particularly in single-motored 
airplanes, in which the camera is mounted directly behind the radial 
motors which throw off a fine spray of oil from the cylinder heads and 
accessories. 

In connection with the maintenance and repair of aerial cameras 
and other equipment, including laboratory equipment, most of this 
is attended to in the units and activities concerned. However, major 
repairs are completed either at the factory producing the equipment 
or at the Materiel Division. Army Air Corps motion picture cam- 
eras in most cases are operated electrically from the 12-volt airplane 
power supply. 

Aside from the historical, publicity, and training sound motion 
pictures required by the Air Corps, it is believed that motion picture 
photography will play a very important part in future military ob- 
servation operations. The speed of the military airplane now being 
developed will be much too high to permit the observer or pilot to 
make pin-point still photographs with the required degree of accuracy 
or for the personnel to carry out visual observation where it is neces- 
sary to spend much time in making a detailed study. This will be 
especially true if missions are required at low altitude under the 
clouds in countries similar to Alaska and Siberia, where cloudy 
weather prevails most of the time. 

It is believed that specially designed high-speed, 70-mm. motion 
picture cameras for observation will solve this problem, in that it will 



194 G. W. GODDARD 

be possible to install a high-speed motion picture camera in the wing 
or fuselage of an airplane, and operate it over the area to be photo 
graphed. Then after the film is printed it can be projected upon a 
screen for detailed study by the staff. In case it is necessary to com 
plete a detailed study of a line of trenches, railroad yards, docks, 01 
munition depots, it would be quite feasible for the pilot to pass ovei 
these areas at 300 mph., press a button upon the control stick, anc 
photograph the entire area in slow motion. After the film is de 
veloped and printed, which could be accomplished within one hour 
the film taken from a plane travelling at 300 miles per hour could be 
projected upon the screen at the normal projection speed, and afforc 
the staff an opportunity to study the area as though they were drifting 
over the area at a speed of ten miles per hour. Making the observa 
tion pictures in this manner, upon 70-mm. film, twice the width o] 
the standard film, would offer another advantage, in that it would be 
practicable to cut one or more frames from the film and study their 
singly or in pairs if a stereoscopic study is desired. With the presenl 
knowledge of fine-grain developers, it is believed films made in thii 
manner will afford a maximum of detail. The development of thi; 
equipment for air use would not present a very difficult problem 
Heavy color filters would not be necessary for this type of aerial 
photography, so that using supersensitive film and a high-speed lens 
the combination should work out quite satisfactorily. Another ad 
vantage is that this equipment could be operated by remote contro 
in single-seat planes and thereby afford a minimal target. 

Further, this same principle in the form of very large cameras 
covering many square miles of territory, could be utilized upon largei 
airplanes at great altitudes. Recent aeronautical development* 
have conclusively shown that such planes may be given as high 
speed as any other type. Once in the air at great altitudes these 
planes could be successfully attacked only from the air, making then 
invulnerable except to planes carrying the same weight of fire. 

What has been said above is a somewhat sketchy outline of the 
vast amount of aerial motion picture activity now being carried oul 
in the various departments of the Army Air Corps. By far, the ma 
jority of this work has and will continue to involve technical anc 
tactical knowledge and experience exclusive to the Air Corps, and 
this work must, therefore, in the interests of efficiency and economy . 
continue unobstructed from any source in the hands of the agency 
most able to perform it. 



NOTE ON THE MEASUREMENT OF PHOTOGRAPHIC 
DENSITIES WITH A BARRIER TYPE OF PHOTOCELL* 

B. C. HIATT AND C. TUTTLE** 



Summary. In discussing the use of a photocell for the measurement of diffuse 
density, the importance of the optical characteristics of the cell as a part of the optical 
system of the densitometer is emphasized. Data showing some of the discrepancies in 
density measurement resulting from these optical characteristics are given. It is 
shown that for two extreme types of emulsion, the measurement of diffuse density is 
possible with certain arrangements of the optical system. 

The barrier type of photocell has been used successfully in many 
instances as a convenient means for measuring illumination and 
brightness. Several characteristics of this device, which make it 
suitable for photometry, appear to make it equally suitable for densi- 
tometry. Simplicity, inherent stability, and spectral response char- 
acteristics are the leading factors which favor its use for the measure- 
ment of photographic density. While visual densitometry will no 
doubt remain as the standard for a long time to come, the advan- 
tages of physical densitometry are so apparent that the substitution 
of the photocell for the human eye is certain to become popular, if the 
photoelectric results can be relied upon to a reasonable degree of 
accuracy. 

It is the purpose of this paper to discuss the influence of the optical 
characteristics of this type of cell when used for the measurement of 
photographic density. This discussion is of interest regardless of the 
method used to convert the cell output to density values. It is of 
equal importance whether the cell is used as a direct-reading device 
with its output calibrated in terms of density, or whether it is em- 
ployed in a null-method instrument in conjunction with a calibrated 
wedge or other intensity-controlling device. 

The reliability of any densitometer depends, in the final analysis, 
upon the means of translating light flux to numerical density values. 

* Presented at the Fall, 1935, Meeting at Washington, D. C. Communica- 
tion No. 567 from the Kodak Research Laboratories. 
** Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N. Y. 

195 



196 



B. C. HlATT AND C. TUTTLE 



[J. S. M. P. E. 



For the visual densitometer, the human eye and brain match field 
brightnesses using the setting of a standard wedge or polarizing prism 
to evaluate the unknown density. For the physical densitometer, it 
is the current output of a photocell which, properly interpreted, will 
give a value to the unknown density. The essential difference be- 
tween these two instruments is that, in the first case, the measuring 
element, the eye, is not connected with the optical system in a man- 
ner which will influence the illumination which it is measuring ; while 
in the second, the cell is a very definite part of the optical system with 



* E E B C J) 

FIG. 1. Optical system of elementary visual 
densitometer. 



/f E B C J) 

FIG. 2. Optical system of elementary physi- 
cal densitometer. 



a definite influence upon the results obtained. An analysis of two ele- 
mentary optical systems for the measurement of diffuse density will 
perhaps emphasize this difference more distinctly. 

Fig. 1 illustrates the essential parts of a visual densitometer. It 
consists of a light-source, A, diffusing material, B, film, C, the photom- 
eter cube, D, and the eye. A means of introducing a comparison 
brightness into the field is shown, although it is not important in this 
analysis. The apertures, E, are merely to limit this field. Light from 
the lamp strikes the diffusing material. Some is reflected, some 
scattered, and some transmitted to the film. Here again some is 



Feb., 1936] MEASUREMENT OF DENSITIES 197 

reflected, some absorbed, in proportion to the opacity of the film; and 
the remainder, passing through the cube, reaches the eye. Some of 
the light reflected by the film is re-reflected by the diffuser. This 
added component has very little effect upon high densities, but it 
causes the low densities to appear somewhat lower than they actually 
are. 

The optical system of an elementary physical densitometer, shown 
in Fig. 2, is essentially the same as that of the visual densitometer, 
except that the photocell is substituted for the eye and cube. The be- 
havior of the light is similar to that of the former system, until it 
passes the film. Here, however, the difference between the cell and 
the eye as part of the optical system becomes evident, and the optical 
characteristics of the cell have a decided influence upon the results. 

The most striking characteristic of the cell to be considered is re- 
flection. Much of the light passing through the film is reflected by 
the cell surface, and again passes through the film to be re-reflected by 
the diffuser. The result is that low densities appear to be higher than 
they actually are. For example, assume that the surfaces of the cell 
and the diffuser each reflect 50 per cent of the incident light. If the 
light that passes through the diffuser is regarded as 100 per cent, then 
the cell, with no density in place, will be affected by this 100 per cent, 
plus the components of first, second, and subsequent reflections, 
amounting to nearly 35 per cent. Now, if a density with transmission 
of 80 per cent is placed over the cell, the light reaching the cell will be 
80 per cent plus about 15 per cent resulting from reflected compo- 
nents that have twice passed through the film. Thus, it happens that 
the apparent density of the film will be approximately 0.15 and not 
0.10. 

Another cell characteristic that has an important effect upon the 
results is the variation of the cell response with the angle of incidence 
of the light. This characteristic influences the integration of light 
received upon the cell surface from light- scattering materials. A typi- 
cal curve of cell output vs. angle of incidence is shown in Fig. 3. 

A third characteristic, that of spectral response, may be important 
in that the cell does not exactly match the eye in this respect, and 
that there is a difference between individual cells of the same or differ- 
ent make. However, this characteristic has little or no significance if 
the materials to be measured are as spectrally nonselective as the 
silver image of a photographic film. 

A fourth characteristic is better called an imperfection. It has been 



198 



B. C. HlATT AND C. TUTTLE 



[J. S. M. P. E. 



noted with certain cells that the output is not proportional to the 
product of intensity times illuminated area. Cells exhibiting this 
fault have, perhaps, been mistreated during use, or contain some flaw 
in the surface. It is possible to select a cell that does not show this 
fault, but since it does exist and may have considerable effect upon 
results, it has been included in this list. 

A fifth characteristic may be called fatigue effect. When cells are 
subjected to high intensities, there is, at first, a rapid falling off of 






TO 
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IO 





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H 








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FIG. 3. Output of cell as function of angle of 
incidence of light. 

galvanometer response, gradually lessening, and finally reaching a 
minimum. The recovery time is much slower, so that if the cell is 
first allowed to reach a steady state, it will remain reasonably constant 
while in use. 

Combinations of two or more of these characteristics in various de- 
grees may cause idiosyncrasies in a photoelectric densitometer. For 
this reason, it is of interest to show how the measured value of a 
photographic density varies as the optical characteristics of such a 
densitometer are changed. 

There are two ways in which a physical densitometer may be cali- 



Feb., 1936] MEASUREMENT OF DENSITIES 199 

brated. The first method is applicable to either a null-method instru- 
ment or one of the type described above. The instrument may be 
calibrated with samples of film which have been measured with a 
visual densitometer. The wedge setting or meter deflection may be 
marked to correspond to the density value of the film sample. The 
second, based upon the fundamental definition of density, consists in 
measuring the illumination of the system with and without the film in 
place, and computing the apparent density from the formula : 

D = lo glo j t 

It does not necessarily follow that an instrument calibrated by the 
first method will give the same value to an unknown density as will an 
instrument calibrated by the second. Nor is theie any assurance that 
either instrument will read correctly a density of an unknown emul- 
sion. Differences in the optical characteristics of the eye and cell, of 
the optical systems used, and of the various types of emulsions are 
factors which may lead to erroneous results. However, it may be 
possible to adjust these factors so that the instrument will give results 
for all types of emulsions which will correspond to the standard 
values of a visual densitometer. Such was the aim of this experiment. 

The first step was to construct a simple densitometer, similar to 
that shown in Fig. 2, with the addition of a lens to utilize the light 
more efficiently and a diaphragm to control the maximum cell output. 
A commercial Weston photronic cell was chosen, and was cali- 
brated with the galvanometer to be used to determine the relation 
between light-intensity upon the cell and galvanometer response. 
This relation was used in the calculation of film transmission and ap- 
parent density value. Two types of emulsion were chosen, fine- 
grained and coarse-grained. The density values were measured with 
a Jones densitometer 1 to obtain the standard diffuse densities. 

Specifically, the aim of this experiment was to devise an optical sys- 
tem in which the density values for both fine-grain and coarse-grain 
film would correspond to diffuse values obtained with the Jones den- 
sitometer. The results are shown, therefore, in such a way that the 
differences between diffuse and observed density values will be most 
clearly indicated, and the effects of changes in the optical system most 
easily recognized. 

The first group of results is shown in Fig. 4. Here, the film is sand- 
wiched between the glass window of the cell and a mask, diffusing 



200 



B. C. HlATT AND C. TUTTLE 



[J. S. M. P. E. 



material being used or not as indicated. There are three facts to be 
noted about these results: First, diffuse density values are not ob- 
tained; second, the two materials do not show the same discrepancies ; 
and third, the results where no diffusion is used correspond more 
closely to the standard density values, while those with diffusion are 
considerably higher. The discrepancies are evidently caused pri ; 
marily by interreflection between cell surface and diffusing material. 

In an effort to get rid of the effects of interreflection between film 
and opal glass, the cell was removed to a distance from the film and 



NO DIFFUSION 

FL-/VSM OPAL, POLISHED 
POT OPAL., riME. GROUND 



o.t 0.4. o.fr o.a i.o i.T. 1.4. !.. i.e %.o o.x 0.4. o.c o.a i.o i.a i A i c. i.e to 




FIG. 4. Diffuse density (Dd) vs. ratio of apparent to diffuse density (D a /Dd) 
for optical system No. 1. 

diffusing material. With this arrangement, the cell would measure 
the brightness of the film, and yet be so placed that its reflection char- 
acteristics would have little or no effect upon the results. The curves 
of Fig. 5 show that, for the fine-grain film, diffuse density values were 
achieved using either flash or pot opal. This was true also for the 
coarse-grain film, but for a limited range only. With no diffusion, the 
curves are considerably higher than in the former case. Also, the effi- 
ciency of this system was very low. The maximum cell output with 
diffusion in the light path was less than 1 per cent of that with no 
diffusion. This is an important factor for two reasons: First, efficient 
use of light with high cell output allows the use of a more rugged type 
of electrical meter; and, second, the wattage of the lamp should be 
kept within reasonable limits to prevent burning the film. It, there- 



Feb., 1936] 



MEASUREMENT OF DENSITIES 



201 



fore, seemed advisable to attempt to measure diffuse density with no 
diffusing material in the system. 

In photographic printing, diffuse density will result if the exposure 
is made with diffuse light ; or, as in the case of contact printing, if the 
positive receives all the light passing through the negative, whether 
the incident light be specular or diffuse. In a visual densitometer, the 
eye has no power to integrate light over an angle. Therefore, to read 
diffuse density, some diffusing material must be used. In a physical 
densitometer, however, the photocell may be able to integrate light, 



NO DIFFUSION 

FLASH OPAL, POLISHE.P 

POT OPAL, flNt &ROUND 



LAMP 



. 

LE.N&-. 
PIAPHRAGM 




A. COARSE-GRAIN 

Mill 




FIG. 5. Diffuse density (Dd) vs. ratio of apparent to diffuse density (D a /Dd) 
for optical system No. 2. 

in a manner similar to the positive material in contact printing, and, 
therefore, measure diffuse density with no diffusing material in the 
system. 

In Fig. 4, the cell was placed so that it received nearly all the light 
passing through the film, with the result that diffuse values were 
actually achieved in some cases, and very nearly so in others. By 
substituting a thin glass window for the relatively thick one originally 
protecting the cell, results were obtained as shown in Fig. 6. For fine- 
grain film, the density values are diffuse over the entire range. Some 
difference in the characteristics of the two types of film caused the low 
densities of the coarse-grain film to appear lower than the diffuse 
value. Coarse-grain film is known to scatter light more than fine- 



202 



B. C. HlATT AND C. TUTTLE 



[J. S. M. P. E. 



grain film at low densities. 2 That this is not the cause for the present 
discrepancy can be deduced from the fact that the curves for flash 
and pot opal are very nearly parallel to that for no diffusion and show 
the same droop in the curve at low densities. 

After measurement of the reflection characteristics of the film and 
photocell, it was concluded that a difference in the specular reflection 




NO DIFFUSION 

FLASH OPAL., ROLISME.P 

POT OPAL , FINE. GR.OUND 



OPAU <*LASS 



COAREL-<iRAIN FILM 

I I I I I I I 




Ot 0.4- 0<b O.8 I.O I.X I .A l. 18 -Z, OX O.A 06, 0.6 1.0 1.1 1.4- I.* 1.6 



FIG. 6. Diffuse density (D d ) vs. ratio of apparent to diffuse density (D a /D d ) 
for optical system No. 3. 

coefficient of fine-grain and coarse-grain film at low densities was re- 
sponsible for the discrepancy. Accordingly, the glass window was 
removed entirely, with results shown in Fig. 7. The system measures 
diffuse density for both fine-grain and coarse-grain film over the range 
of densities used. However, it is not a system that could be used in 
practice, since with no window, the delicate cell surface would be ex- 
posed to injury. The only advantage of removing this window was 
the elimination of specular reflection from the glass surface. It was 
found that this same advantage would result if the glass surface were 
dulled by grinding. A thin window with a finely ground surface was 
placed over the cell surface. The results differed in no way from 
those shown in Fig. 7. 

The above discussion has illustrated some of the problems encount- 
ered in the measurement of photographic density with a photocell. 
It shows that the characteristics, and even the positions, of the com- 
ponent parts of the optical system have an important influence upon 



Feb., 1936] 



MEASUREMENT OF DENSITIES 



203 



the results obtainable. While not a conclusive proof, it demonstrates 
that in one case at least, diffuse density, as defined by a visual densi- 
tometer, can be measured for two extreme types of emulsion. Finally, 
it emphasizes that the photocell is in every respect a part of the opti- 
cal system of a physical densitometer, and must be so treated in the 
design of such an instrument. 



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)AR 


sc.- 


C.R.A 


IN 


riL 


M 






B 


T- F- 


NEL- 


G,R> 


MN 


FIL 


M 


















































o. 


X 


* 


e> O 


6 1 


O 1. 












X 


4- 


( O 


e i 


1 


1 1 


4. | 


ft 1 


e %. 



FIG. 7. Diffuse density (Z)<0 w. ratio of apparent to diffuse density (D a /D d ) 
for optical system No. 4. 

REFERENCES 

1 JONES, L. A.: "An Instrument (Densitometer) for the Measurement of High 
Photographic Densities," /. Opt. Soc. Amer., 7 (March, 1923), No. 3, p. 231. 

2 TUTTLE, C.: "The Relation between Diffuse and Specular Density," /. 
Opt. Soc. Amer., 12 (June, 1926), No. 6, p. 559; republished, /. Soc. Mot. Pict. 
Eng., XX (March, 1933), No. 3, p. 228. 

DISCUSSION 

MR. WHITE : The limitations that have been pointed out in this paper are real 
limitations, and I want to point out that we found this densitometer of value only 
after calibrating the wedge. When we use a photometric density calibration of 
the wedge, the final measured densities of a test-strip do not agree with usually 
measured densities because of the limitations mentioned. 

The only feature we found that made it of value was that, with commercial 
films, the range of graininess was not great enough to cause trouble. We found 
one calibration that would work to the necessary precision on the various films 
of commercial graininess. 



MOTION PICTURE FILM PROCESSING LABORATORIES IN 
GREAT BRITAIN* 



I. D. WRATTEN** 

Summary. Current practices and equipment in use in the motion picture process- 
ing laboratories of Great Britain are described under the headings: Picture Negative 
Development, Positive Development, Development of Sound- Track Negative, Develop- 
ing Equipment, and Printing. 

The developing and printing of motion picture film in Great Britain 
is done in about thirteen laboratories, only five of which, however, are 
equipped for developing picture negative film. All are situated in 
or near London. 

There has been a notable increase in the number of British produc- 
tions during recent years, but the majority of the work done by 
most of the laboratories lies in printing American productions for re- 
lease in England. It is the purpose of this paper to describe some 
of the methods and equipment used in the laboratories in this country. 

The smaller laboratories still use a visual method of controlling 
positive film development, which is, of course, dependent upon per- 
sonal judgment. The larger laboratories, however, are now using 
sensitometric means for the control of development, similar to those 
used in Hollywood. 1 For this purpose the Eastman Type lib 
sensitometer, 2 a time-scale instrument designed especially to meet 
the needs of the motion picture laboratory, is recognized in England 
as the standard motion picture sensitometer. At the present time 
four laboratories have installed and are using such instruments. 
Both the Eastman 3 and the Martens head polarization densitometers 
are widely used. A photocell densitometer complete with automatic 
curve plotter built by W. Watson & Sons, Ltd., London, has been 
installed at one laboratory and has given excellent results over a 
six months' trial period. 

Picture Negative Development. The practice followed in the larger 

* Presented at the Spring, 1935, Meeting at Hollywood, Calif. 
** Kodak Ltd., London, England. 

204 



GREAT BRITAIN PROCESSING LABORATORIES 



205 



laboratories is to control the action of the developer by varying 
either the replenishing rate or the machine speed, according to the 
results attained by developing, at frequent intervals, negative film 
strips exposed to the negative setting of the type lib sensitometer. 
The picture negative itself is developed by the test-method. In 
using this system a test piece from each roll of picture negative is 
developed to the normal gamma value, which in most laboratories 
appears to be in the neighborhood of 0.65, and the man in charge 
of negative development then determines by personal judgment the 
development time required by the particular roll from which the 
test piece was taken. One laboratory, however, attached to one 
of the largest studios, develops all studio picture negatives to a 
standard gamma of 0.65. 

The formula used for picture negative development is in all labora- 
tories a borax developer of the Eastman D-76 type, with slight modi- 




FIG. 1. Sensitometric control record for positive film. 

fications to suit the varying conditions found in different types of 
continuous developing machines. 

Positive Development. In the smaller laboratories the develop- 
ment of positive prints is still controlled by the personal judgment of 
the man in charge of the department. By varying the time of de- 
velopment within certain limits, the machine operator attempts to 
compensate for developer exhaustion and also for small errors in 
printer timing. The larger laboratories, however, control positive 
development by sensitometric means, the practice being to maintain 
a predetermined gamma by altering the machine speed or the re- 
plenisher flow according to the indications obtained from sensito- 



206 



I. D. WRATTEN 



[J. S. M. P. E. 



metric exposures on strips of positive film which are run through the 
machine at hourly or half -hourly intervals. The gamma to which 
prints are developed varies somewhat from laboratory to laboratory, 
but it is safe to say that the lowest value adhered to by any laboratory 
in England is about 2.10, and the highest, 2.40. A positive control 
sheet from one of the laboratories is shown in Fig. 1. This shows 
quite clearly that over a period of sixteen hours, during which the 




FJG. 2. Vinten developing machine. 

machine processed about 170,000 feet of film, the maximum varia- 
tion of gamma was from 2.28 to 2.40, and the variation in time of 
development necessary to maintain the gamma within these limits 
was from 3 l /z to 3 l / 4 minutes. 

. The developing formulas vary considerably, but nearly all can be 
said to be modifications of the well known Eastman D-16 formula, 
although in most cases the citric acid contained in that formula is 
omitted. 



Feb., 1936] GREAT BRITAIN PROCESSING LABORATORIES 207 

Development of Sound-Track Negative. It is unnecessary to de- 
scribe the development of the sound-tracks, since the methods used 
are similar to those already described for picture negative and posi- 
tive film. It is usual for the laboratory to adhere to the specifica- 
tions given either by the studio or by the manufacturers of the par- 
ticular sound system. 

Developing Equipment. Since the equipment used for develop- 
ing motion picture film in England varies considerably in design, it 
is thought advisable to give a general description of several different 




FIG. 3. Washing room for positive film. 

types of installation. Some of the laboratories use the Vinten con- 
tinuous developing machines, which are designed so as to be readily 
adaptable to existing buildings with the minimum alterations. 
For instance, the machines require rooms only nine feet high, and 
the rooms need not all be on one floor. In the standard machine the 
range of developing time, from three to eight minutes, is effected by 
a change in speed of the film drive. Each machine, assuming that 



208 



I. D. WRATTEN 



[J. S. M. P. E. 



a development time of four minutes is required, has an output of 2250 
feet per hour. Fig. 2 shows the developing tanks, on either side of 
which are steel columns. Attached to these columns is the sprocket 
drive shaft, which is driven by the vertical chains. The sprocket 
shaft slides up on the two columns for the initial threading up of 
leader film. In threading, the film is passed beneath the weighted 
roller of the first sprocket, with the emulsion outward, then down into 
the tank and up to the next sprocket, and so on, a weighted diabolo 
hanging in each loop of film in the tank. After development, the 
film passes into the next compartment for rinsing and fixing. The 
rinsing and washing are done by fine jets of water directed upon the 
films as the latter hangs suspended in the tanks, as shown in Fig. 3. 




FIG. 4. Lawley automatic developing machine. 

A suction nozzle removes all surplus water from the film before it 
enters the drying room. In this room diabolos which hang in the 
film loops are placed in racks which prevent them from swaying. 
Conditioned air for drying the film is fed through ducts along the 
sides of the room. Most laboratories using this type of equipment 
employ some form of developer circulation and temperature control. 
It is understood that no less than fifty-seven of these developing units 
have been made by the manufacturers. 

An interesting design is illustrated in Fig. 4. This type of plant 
is installed in one of the largest laboratories attached to a studio. 
The design makes use of long tubes for all parts of the process with the 
exception of the initial stages of development, for which a large tank 
is used, and the operation of drying the film, which takes place in the 
conventional cabinets. The developer circulation system is shown in 
the diagram. The solution passes at the rate of twenty gallons per 
minute through a thermostatically operated temperature contrql 
tank to a main reservoir, and thence to the tank in which the film is 
developed. From there it passes into the fcmr developer tubes ancj 



Feb., 1936] GREAT BRITAIN PROCESSING LABORATORIES 



201) 



is then pumped through the temperature control tank. Developer 
replenisher solution is fed from the inlet side of the pump. In the 
case of the washing tubes, the water enters at the bottom of each 
tube and overflows at the top into a suitable gutter. There are thir- 
teen of these tubes, and since a relatively small volume of water 
is involved and the rate of flow is rapid, it will be seen that this is 
a fairly efficient method of washing the film. The machine drive is 
situated between the drying cabinet and the washing tubes, and 
is fitted with a variable-speed gear. 

The speed at which these machines run is in the neighborhood of 
sixty feet per minute. In this connection, an interesting feature is 




FIG. 5. Debrie automatic developing machine for negative film. 

the control of development time, which is done without altering the 
machine speed. Variation in development time is attained by means 
of the four developer control tubes and four corresponding tubes 
on the end containing the fixing bath. Each developer control tube 
has its corresponding fixing control tube, and the pair of tubes con- 
tains only a single loop of film between them; so that if developing 
loop No. 1 is immersed only one quarter the length of the tube, the 
loop in the No. 1 fixing control tube will be immersed for three quart- 
ers of the tube length. Alterations in the length of film in each tube 
are effected by pressing a small lever, which releases a clutch mecha- 
nism and allows the film to pass into or out of the developer tube. 
Indicators show the length of the film loop in each tube. 

A vacuum suction system removes the fixing solution from the film 
surface as the film passes into the final wash. The surface moisture 
is removed in similar manner before the film passes into the drying 



210 



I. D. WRATTEN 



[J. S. M. P. E. 



cabinets. At the entrance of each drying cabinet is a sprocket; all 
the other spindles bear rollers. A pivoted arm with rollers is located 
at the bottom of each cabinet, by means of which the film tension is 
automatically adjusted. Twenty of these Lawley machines are used 
in the laboratory referred to, and although some of them differ ma- 
terially in respect to the developer recirculation systems and the dry- 
ing methods used, the fundamental design is similar in all cases. 

One of the largest laboratories in this country uses Debrie equip- 
ment. The developing end of one of these machines is shown in 




FIG. 6. Washing tanks and drying cabinets on Debrie machine. 

Fig. 5, this particular machine being used for developing picture nega- 
tive film. The time that the film remains in any solution is made 
known to the machine operator by the control boards at the top. 
Alterations in the time of development or of fixing may be made by 
moving a lever upon the appropriate control board, which is calibrated 
in minutes and seconds. The speed of these machines is in the 
neighborhood of 25 feet per minute per unit. Fig. 6 shows the wash- 
ing and drying ends of fourteen of the positive machines. A feature 
that is usual in most developing installations in this country is the 



Feb., 1936] GREAT BRITAIN PROCESSING LABORATORIES 



211 



provision of a wall dividing the developing machine into a dark end 
and a light end. A Carrier installation is used for conditioning the 
air for these cabinets and also for controlling the temperature of the 
developing solutions. 

While the various machines so far described operate at a lower speed 
in feet per minute than is usual in the U. S. A., one laboratory has 
built three positive developing machines, each designed to give an 
output of from 180 to 200 feet per minute. It is believed that, to 
date, this is the fastest output for one machine operating upon a com- 
mercial scale in any country. In these machines, which were de- 




FIG. 7. Control room. 

signed and built by the laboratory itself, the film is driven by fric- 
tional means and the film perforations are not used. Each machine 
uses 260 gallons of developer and fifty gallons of replenisher solution 
for developing 180,000 feet of positive film in seventeen hours. Each 
machine has a separate circulation system and temperature control, 
and elaborate precautions are taken to safeguard the machines against 
breakdowns during a run. So successful have the machines been 
that four more are in course of construction. 
The control of development is the responsibility of a sensitometry 



212 



I. D. WRATTEN 



[J. S. M. P. E. 



department, which controls the machines according to curves plotted 
from exposures on the Eastman Type lib sensitometer, passed through 
each machine at half-hourly intervals. Fig. 7 shows a corner of the 
control room, with Eastman densitometers and a machine indicator 
panel bearing the instruments for indicating the time of development 
and the temperature. All instructions dealing with machine con- 
trol are telephoned from the control room to the machine operator, 
who has no responsibility other than the mechanical care of the ma- 
chines. 



1 


! 




- (c 




J^i 

i 


i 


riLTCt 


-, 


_, wn > w SULB 

' 1 TMCRMO STATS 
IS 





CPCULATINC__fV. 




FIG. 8. Silica gel air-conditioning plant. 

Among many interesting features of these high-speed units is the 
use of a closed-circuit silica gel air-conditioning plant for film drying, 
the flow diagram for which is shown in Fig. 8. The main air cir- 
cuit passing through the cabinets, the filter, the circulating fan, and 
back to the cabinets is shown in dotted lines at the left of the dia- 
gram. 

At A , in the wet-air duct from the cabinets, a certain volume of air 
is withdrawn by means of the adsorption fan and is forced through 
the silica gel adsorbers back to the wet-air duct at B. That is, the 
silica gel plant is in parallel with the main circuit between A and B, 
and the moisture evaporated from the film in the cabinets is removed 
in the silica gel adsorbers from the air withdrawn at A . A completely 
closed circuit thus results. 

In the duct leading to the cabinets are placed wet-bulb and dry- 



Feb., 1936] GREAT BRITAIN PROCESSING LABORATORIES 213 

bulb temperature regulators, the former of which controls the vol- 
ume of wet air passed to the adsorbers, while the latter regulates the 
dry-bulb temperature in the circuit in the following manner: The 
air entering the adsorbers is heated, first, by the heat of adsorption, 
which is greater than, but mainly due to, the latent heat of the water 
vapor removed by the silica gel being converted into sensible heat; 




FIG. 9. Continuous printer for sound and picture records. 

and, second, by the heat left in the gel after activation. As more heat 
is thus generated in the adsorbers than is required to evaporate the 
moisture in the cabinets, the air must be cooled somewhat before it 
is returned at B. The cooling is done in the heat exchanger, by at- 
mospheric air flowing in counter current to the dried air and exhausted 
to the stack by means of the activation fan, the by-pass damper regu- 
lating the temperature by controlling the amount of dried air passing 
through the exchanger. 



214 I. D. WRATTEN [j. s. M. p. E. 

There are four silica gel adsorbers, which function in the following 
manner : The air to be dried passes through two of the adsorbers in 
parallel, while the remaining two are being activated. The change- 
over from activation to adsorption and vice versa is, however, done by 
only one adsorber at a time, so that a very smooth continuous drying 
effect is attained. The valves controlling the flow of adsorption air 
and activation air rotate continuously, opening and closing the ports 
to the various adsorbers in turn. The hot air to any adsorber is thus 
completely shut oif before adsorption air is admitted. 

Activation is accomplished by atmospheric air heated in a tubular 
gas-fired heater. The air is drawn in through the filter located on 
top of the heater, and its temperature is regulated by a thermostat 
at the outlet. The wet air from the adsorbers, in addition to the 
products of combustion, are exhausted to the atmosphere by the 
activation fan. 

Printing. There is a wide variety of types of apparatus used in 
England for printing motion picture film. The Bell & Howell model 
D and the Debrie printer, the latter being of the intermittent type 
with a continuous printing attachment for sound-track, are used by 
two of the largest laboratories. Another large laboratory uses a 
modified form of the Lawley printer. This English designed printer 
is of the continuous type, and has a printing speed of ninety feet per 
minute. Another make of printer is illustrated in Fig. 9, which is 
also of the continuous type. The double unit shown prints both pic- 
ture and sound at the rate of 100 feet per minute. The automatic 
light change is effected by means of a fiber chart 70 millimeters wide, 
which runs at a speed one-hundredth that of the negative to be 
printed. Negative exposure is timed by running the picture nega- 
tive and the fiber chart upon a special machine in which the chart and 
the film run synchronously at their proper speed relation. A light 
change is effected by means of a punch hole in the chart, and the posi- 
tion of the hole relative to the width of the chart determines the 
printer step value. There are twenty-one light changes. 

In all English laboratories except those in which Bell & Howell 
printers are used, printer light changes are effected by means of 
external resistances in the lamp circuits. It is customary for the 
laboratories to match their printers by means of simple photographic 
photometry in which film stock is flashed at various printer points and 
then developed and read on a densitometer. 

The timing of motion picture film is done by visual methods, and 



Feb., 1936] GREAT BRITAIN PROCESSING LABORATORIES 215 

to assist in the operation, the well known Cinex sensitometer is used 
by two laboratories. Sound-track is timed by density measurement. 
Printing rooms are conditioned at 70 per cent relative humidity in 
many of the laboratories. 

Conclusion. From this incomplete description of some of the meth- 
ods and equipment used by motion picture laboratories in Great 
Britain it will be seen that the tendency is to follow American prac- 
tice generally. It must be understood, however, that the number of 
release prints required of a production is considerably smaller than 
would be the case in the U. S. A., and that, in consequence, many of 
the English processing installations were designed with a view to 
keeping down equipment costs. 

There is no doubt that the adoption of the more accurate sensito- 
metric control of development is having a pronounced effect upon 
processing technic, especially with regard to developer recirculation 
and replenishment. In this connection it is fortunate that both in 
the U. S. A. and in Great Britain the Eastman Type lib instrument is 
regarded as the standard motion picture laboratory sensitometer, 
since such a condition greatly facilitates an exchange of sensitometric 
data between the two countries. 

The author wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to Messrs. 
J. Skittrell, R. Terraneau, W. Hitchcock, W. Lawley, and W. Vin- 
ten, and the Silica Gel Co., Ltd., of London, for their kindness in 
allowing the use of the illustrations for this paper. 

REFERENCES 

1 HUSE, E.: "Sensitometric Control in the Processing of Motion Picture Film 
in Hollywood," J. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., XXI (July, 1933), No. 1, p. 54. 

2 JONES, L. A.: "A Motion Picture Laboratory Sensitometer," /. Soc. Mot. 
Pict. Eng., XVTI (Oct., 1931), No. 4, p. 536. 

3 CAPSTAFF, J. G., AND PURDY, R. A.: "A Compact Motion Picture Densito- 
meter," Trans. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., XI (Sept., 1927), p. 607. 



SPRING, 1936, CONVENTION 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

EDGEWATER BEACH HOTEL 

APRIL 27TH-30TH, INCLUSIVE 



Officers and Committees in Charge 

PROGRAM AND FACILITIES 

W. C. KUNZMANN, Convention Vice-P resident 

J. I. CRABTREE, Editorial Vice-P resident 

O. M. GLUNT, Financial Vice-P resident 

G. E. MATTHEWS, Chairman, Papers Committee 

E. R. GEIB, Chairman, Membership Committee 

W. WHITMORE, Chairman, Publicity Committee 

H. GRIFFIN, Chairman, Convention Projection Committee 

O. F. NEU, Chairman, Apparatus Exhibit 

LOCAL ARRANGEMENTS AND RECEPTION COMMITTEE 

C. H. STONE, Chairman 

R. P. BEDORE F. P. HECK J. H. McNABB 

O. B. DEPUE B. J. KLEERUP R. F. MITCHELL 

H. A. DEVRY S. A. LUKES C. G. OLLINGER 

J. GOLDBERG J. E. McAuLEY B. E. STECHBART 

CONVENTION PROJECTION COMMITTEE 

H. GRIFFIN, Chairman 

L. R. Cox J. GOLDBERG J. E. MCAULEY 

H. A. DEVRY S. A. LUKES H. RYAN 

Officers and Members of Chicago Local No. 110, I. A. T. S. E. 

APPARATUS EXHIBIT 

O. F. NEU, Chairman 

H. A. DEVRY S. HARRIS 

J. FRANK, JR. C. H. STONE 

LADIES' RECEPTION COMMITTEE 

MRS. C. H. STONE, Hostess 

assisted by 

MRS. B. W. DEPUE MRS. S. A. LUKES 

MRS. H. A. DEVRY MRS. R. F. MITCHELL 

MRS. F. B. HECK MRS. B. E. STECHBART 

216 



SPRING CONVENTION 217 

BANQUET COMMITTEE 

W. C. KUNZMANN, Chairman 

O. B. DEPUE J. H. KURLANDER S. A. LUKES 

J. GOLDBERG S. HARRIS R. F. MITCHELL 

H. GRIFFIN C. H. STONE 



HEADQUARTERS 

The Headquarters of the Convention will be the Edgewater Beach Hotel, 
where excellent accommodations and Convention facilities are assured. A 
special suite will be provided for the ladies. Rates for SMPE delegates, Euro- 
pean plan, will be as follows: 

One person, room and bath $3 . 00 

Two persons, double bed and bath 5 . 00 

Two persons, twin beds and bath 5. 00 

Parlor suite and bath, for two 10.00 and 12.00 

Room reservation cards will be mailed to the membership of the Society in the 
near future, and every one who plans to attend the Convention should return his 
card to the Hotel promptly in order to be assured of satisfactory accommoda- 
tions. 

A special rate of fifty cents a day has been arranged for SMPE delegates who 
motor to the Convention, in the Edgewater Beach Hotel fireproof garage. Private 
de luxe motor coaches operated by the Hotel will be available for service between 
the Hotel and the Chicago Loop area. 

TECHNICAL SESSIONS 

An attractive program of technical papers and presentations is being arranged 
by the Papers Committee. All sessions and film programs will be held in the 
East Lounge of the Hotel. 

APPARATUS EXHIBIT 

An exhibit of newly developed motion picture apparatus will be held in the 
West Lounge of the Hotel, to which all manufacturers of equipment are invited to 
contribute. The apparatus to be exhibited must either be new or embody 
new features of interest from a technical point of view. No charge will be made 
for space. Information concerning the exhibit and reservations for space should 
be made by writing to the Chairman of the Exhibits Committee, Mr. O. F. Neu, 
addressed to the General Office of the Society at the Hotel Pennsylvania, 
New York, N. Y. 

SEMI-ANNUAL BANQUET 

The Semi-Annual Banquet and Dance of the Society will be held in the Ball- 
room of the Edgewater Beach Hotel on Wednesday, April 29th, at 7:30 P.M. 
Addresses will be delivered by eminent members of the motion picture industry, 
followed by dancing and entertainment. 



218 



SPRING CONVENTION 



[J. S. M. P. E. 



INSPECTION TRIPS 



Arrangements have been made for conducted tours of inspection to various 
laboratories, studios, theaters, and equipment and instrument manufactories in 
the Chicago area. Those firms who will act as hosts on these trips are : 



Burton Holmes Films, Inc. 
Bell & Howell Company 
Chicago Film Laboratories, Inc. 
Da-Lite Screen Company, Inc. 
Enterprise Optical Manufacturing 

Company 

Herman H. DeVry, Inc. 
Holmes Projector Company 



J. E. McAuley Manufacturing 

Company 

Jam Handy Pictures Corp. 
Jenkins & Adair, Inc. 
National Screen Service, Inc. 
Western Electric Company 
Wilding Picture Productions, Inc. 
Society of Visual Education 



RECREATION 

A miniature nine-hole golf course, putting greens, and regulation tennis courts, 
maintained by the Hotel, will be available to SMPE delegates registered at the 
Hotel. Details will be available at the registration desk. Special diversions 
will be provided for the ladies, and passes to local theaters will be available to all 
delegates registering. 



Monday, April 27th. 
9:00 a.m. 

10:00 a.m.-12:00 p.m. 
12:30 p.m. 



2:00 p.m.-5:00 p.m. 
8:00 p.m. 

Tuesday, April 28th. 
10:00 a.m.-12:00 p.m. 
2:00 p.m.-5:00 p.m. 



Wednesday, April 29th. 
10:00 a.m.-12:00 p.m. 



7:30 p.m. 



PROGRAM 

Registration 

Society business 

Committee reports 

Technical papers program 

Informal Get-Together Luncheon for members, their 

families, and guests. Several prominent speakers 

will address the gathering. 
Technical papers program 
Exhibition of newly released motion picture features 

and shorts. 



Technical papers program 
Technical papers program 

The evening of this day is left free for recreation, 
visiting, etc. 



Technical papers program 

The afternoon of this day is left free for recreation 
and for visits to the plants of various Chicago 
firms serving the motion picture industry. 

Semi- Annual Banquet and Dance of the SMPE: 
speakers and entertainment. 



Feb., 1936] 

Thursday, April 30th. 

10:00 a.m.-12:00 p.m. 
2:00 p.m.-5:00 p.m. 



SPRING CONVENTION 



Technical papers program 
Technical papers program 
Society business 
Adjournment of the Convention 



219 



SOCIETY SUPPLIES 

Reprints of Standards of the SMPE and Recommended Practice may be obtained 
from the General Office of the Society at the price of twenty-five cents each. 

A limited number of reprints remain of the Report of the Projection Practice 
Committee (Oct., 1935) containing the projection room layouts, and "A Glossary 
of Color Photography." These may be obtained upon request, accompanied by 
six cents in postage stamps. 

Copies of Aims and Accomplishments, an index of the Transactions from October, 
1916, to June, 1930, containing summaries of all the articles, and author and 
classified indexes, may be obtained from the General Office at the price of one 
dollar each. Only a limited number of copies remains. 

Certificates of Membership may be obtained from the General Office by all 
members for the price of one dollar. Lapel buttons of the Society's insignia are 
also available at the same price. 

Black fabrikoid binders, lettered in gold, designed to hold a year's supply of the 
JOURNAL, may be obtained from the General Office for two dollars each. The 
purchaser's name and the volume number may be lettered in gold upon the back- 
bone of the binder at an additional charge of fifty cents each. 

Requests for any of these supplies should be directed to the General Office of 
the Society at the Hotel Pennsylvania, New York, N. Y., accompanied by the 
appropriate remittance. 



SOCIETY ANNOUNCEMENTS 

BOARD OF GOVERNORS 

At a meeting of the Board of Governors held at the Hotel Pennsylvania, New 
York, N. Y., January 10, 1936, the budget for the year 1936 was drawn up and a 
complete report rendered by the Financial Vice-President on the financial state 
of the Society. In addition, further details of the approaching Chicago Conven- 
tion were arranged as described in the preceding section of this issue of the JOUR- 
NAL. 

In view of the removal of the President of the Society, H. G. Tasker, to the 
West Coast, Mr. E. Huse who was reelected in the October balloting to the Execu- 
tive Vice-Presidency and who also resides upon the West Coast, resigned his 
position so that another might be appointed to act as executive officer of the 
Society upon the East Coast. Mr. S. K. Wolf, of New York, was appointed 
Executive Vice-President, and Mr. Huse was reappointed to the Board to fill the 
vacancy thus created by Mr. Wolf's appointment. 

ATLANTIC COAST SECTION 

At a meeting held in the auditorium of the Electrical Association of New York, 
a paper, with demonstration, was presented by J. A. Miller on the subject of 
"Millerfilm Recording." The system was originally described at the Hollywood 
Convention last May, and was published in the July, 1935, issue of the JOURNAL. 
This presentation included a number of improvements that had been made on 
the equipment since that time. The meeting was well attended, and the presenta- 
tion aroused considerable interest and discussion. 

MID-WEST SECTION 

The regular monthly meeting of the Section was held at the Electrical Associa- 
tion, Chicago, 111., on January 16th, at which time J. C. Heck presented a paper 
on the subject of "Screens and Their Applications in Theaters." 

The meeting was well attended, and arrangements were completed for the 
next meeting of the Section to be held on February 13th. Consideration was 
given also to the activities of the members and officers of the Section during 
the forthcoming Convention of the Society in Chicago, to be held on April 27th- 
30th, inclusive, as described in the preceding section of this issue of the JOURNAL. 



220 



JOURNAL 

OF THE SOCIETY OF 

MOTION PICTURE ENGINEERS 

Volume XXVI MARCH, 1936 Number 3 



CONTENTS 

Page 

The Use of Cinematography in Aircraft Flight Testing 

F. R. COLLBOHM 223 

World Motion Picture Markets N. D. GOLDEN 232 

Technical Advances in Soviet Russia A. F. CHORINE 240 

The Motion Picture Industry in Japan Y. OSAWA 243 

The Motion Picture Industry in India G. D. LAL 248 

Problems of a Motion Picture Research Library. . H. G. PERCEY 253 
The Historical Motion Picture Exhibit at the Los Angeles 

Museum E. THEISEN 259 

The Motion Picture Collection at the National Museum 

A. J. OLMSTEAD 265 

The Interrelation of Technical and Dramatic Devices of Motion 

Pictures B. V. MORKOVIN 270 

The Use of Motion Pictures in Human Power Measurement .... 

J. M. ALBERT 275 

William K. L. Dickson Obituary G. E. MATTHEWS 279 

Officers and Governors of the Society 282 

List of Members 

Alphabetical 285 

Geographical 323 

Spring, 1936, Convention at Chicago, 111., April 27th-30th, 

Inclusive.. 338 






JOURNAL 

OF THE SOCIETY OF 

MOTION PICTURE ENGINEERS 



SYLVAN HARRIS, EDITOR 

Board of Editors 
J. I. CRABTREE, Chairman 

O. M. GLUNT A. C. HARDY L. A. JONES 

G. E. MATTHEWS 



Subscription to non-members, $8.00 per annum; to members, $5.00 per annum, 
included in their annual membership dues; single copies, $1.00. A discount 
on subscriptions or single copies of 15 per cent is allowed to accredited agencies. 
Order from the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, Inc., 20th and Northampton 
Sts., Easton, Pa., or Hotel Pennsylvania, New York, N. Y. 

Published monthly at Easton, Pa., by the Society of Motion Picture Engineers. 

Publication Office, 20th & Northampton Sts., Easton, Pa. 
General and Editorial Office, Hotel Pennsylvania, New York, N. Y. 
Entered as second class matter January 15, 1930, at the Post Office at Easton, 
Pa., under the Act of March 3, 1879. Copyrighted, 1936, by the Society of 
Motion Picture Engineers, Inc. 

Papers appearing in this Journal may be reprinted, abstracted, or abridged 
provided credit is given to the Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers 
and to the author, or authors, of the papers in question. Exact reference as to 
the volume, number, and page of the Journal must be given. The Society is 
not responsible for statements made by authors. 



Officers of the Society 

President: HOMER G. TASKER, 3711 Rowland Ave., Burbank, Calif. 
Past-President: ALFRED N. GOLDSMITH, 444 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y. 
Executive Vice-P resident: SIDNEY K. WOLF, 250 W. 57th St., New York, N. Y. 
Engineering Vice-President: LOYD A. JONES, Kodak Park, Rochester, N. Y. 
Editorial Vice-President: JOHN I. CRABTREE, Kodak Park, Rochester, N. Y. 
Financial Vice-President: OMER M. GLUNT, 463 West St., New York, N. Y. 
Convention Vice-President: WILLIAM C. KUNZMANN, Box 6087, Cleveland, Ohio. 
Secretary: JOHN H. KURLANDER, 2 Clearfield Ave., Bloomfield, N. J. 
Treasurer: TIMOTHY E. SHEA, 463 West St., New York, N. Y. 

Governors 

MAX C. BATSEL, Front & Market Sts., Camden, N. J. 

LAWRENCE W. DAVEE, 250 W. 57th St., New York, N. Y. 

ARTHUR S. DICKINSON, 28 W. 44th St., New York, N. Y. 

HERBERT GRIFFIN, 90 Gold St., New York, N. Y. 

ARTHUR C. HARDY, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. 

EMERY HUSE, 6706 Santa Monica Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. 

GERALD F. RACKETT, 823 N. Seward St., Hollywood, Calif. 

CARRINGTON H. STONE, 205 W. Wacker Drive, Chicago, 111. 



THE USE OF CINEMATOGRAPHY IN AIRCRAFT 
FLIGHT TESTING* 



F. R. COLLBOHM** 

Summary. A description oj some of the applications of motion pictures to test- 
ing aircraft in flight, referring particularly to diving tests, water take-off, landing 
speed, and load-deflection tests. 

In recent years the flight testing of aircraft has undergone a very 
radical change. A few years ago the testing of a new airplane con- 
sisted usually of one or more initial flights during which the test 
pilot got the "feel" of the controls and reported whether or not the 
airplane flew normally and felt satisfactory to him. If something was 
not exactly right, the difficulty was in most cases solved by a trial- 
and-error process. After the airplane was pronounced satisfactorily 
flyable, it was given a full-throttle speed test which may or may not 
have been corrected for non-standard atmospheric conditions, depend- 
ing upon the test pilot and the company for which he worked. Usually 
this was sufficient, but in a few cases was supplemented by a test of 
the climbing ability and ceiling of the airplane. 

Today the flight test department of a modern airplane manufac- 
turer proceeds upon a highly developed, scientific, and technical basis. 
It is the aim of the flight test engineer to eliminate, or at least to 
reduce greatly, all the hitherto uncontrolled variables affecting the 
characteristics and performance of an airplane. The field of flight 
testing has also become greatly broadened, so that not only are such 
things as speed, climb, ceiling, and landing speed accurately deter- 
mined, but also quantitative measures of stability, maneuverability, 
efficiency, and many other related factors must be determined. 

The search for greater accuracy and more coordinated information 
early brought forth the manifold advantages attendant upon the use 
of motion picture equipment in flight test work. The early tests with 
this equipment were so successful that its widespread adoption fol- 



* Presented at the Spring, 1935, Meeting at Hollywood, Calif. 
** Douglas Aircraft Co., Inc., Santa Monica, Calif. 



223 



224 F. R. COLLBOHM [J. S. M. P. I 

lowed rapidly. The uses of the motion picture camera may be divide 
into three major groups, all of which are closely interrelated and ovei 
lapping. First, the camera is very much utilized as a recording devic 
to take rapid, accurate, and simultaneous readings of many instrt 
ments. Second, it is used as a timing device, either by operating it a 
a known, fixed speed, or by photographing the objects undergoin 
test in conjunction with a timer or stop-watch. Third, the motio 
picture camera has also been used as a direct measuring device b 
making use of the geometrical properties of its optical system. 




FIG. 1. Set-up of camera for photographing in- 
strument board during dive test. 

Dive Test. An excellent example of the utility of motion pictur 
equipment for recording purposes is illustrated by its use in dive tesl 
ing. Airplanes are dive tested in order to ascertain whether all struc 
tural parts are strong enough to bear the loads imposed by maximur 
design air speed and acceleration. In the case of certain types c 
military airplanes, this means that they must be flown vertical!; 
downward until they have reached the highest speed possible, know: 
as the terminal velocity. When they have reached this speed, the; 
are suddenly pulled out of the dive; the change in direction cause 



Mar., 1936] CINEMATOGRAPHY IN AIRCRAFT TESTING 



225 



a great centrifugal force to act directly outwardly from the center of 
the turn in other words, directly downward with respect to the 
normal fore and aft axis of the airplane. The magnitude of the force 
or acceleration thus attained is measured in g units or the equivalent 
number of normal level flight loads. For example, when the airplane 
is subjected to an acceleration of lOg, the apparent weight of every 
item in it is ten times its weight when the plane is flying straight and 
level. Also, the loads in some of the structural members will be ten 
times their loads in unaccelerated flight. 

During the performance of a test of this type, the pilot is required 




FIG. 2. Special instruments installed for photographic recording of dive 

test results. 

to record a great number of different measurements, such as, during 
a dive, the rate of increase of speed, the engine rpm., the control force 
and the direction, the elevator angle, and the trimming tab angle; 
at the start of the pull-out, the altitude, and the airspeed; during the 
pull-out, the maximum indicated acceleration, the control force re- 
quired, loss of altitude, the elevator angle, and many other related 
observations. When it is realized that the total time from the start 
of a dive until the completion of the pull-out is only a few seconds, and 
that the pilot during this test is under a great strain, not only due to 
the extreme precision of flying necessary, but also to the severe 
physiological reactions associated with the high accelerations, it may 
be readily understood that it is asking too much of any pilot to record 
all the necessary information. 



226 



F. R. COLLBOHM 



[J. S. M. P. E 



It has been customary in the past to depend upon the pilot's mem 
ory for furnishing the necessary data after the completion of the test 
This method was necessarily inaccurate and unsatisfactory, so that 
motion picture equipment was called upon to do the observing. This 
decision resulted in the development of special remote reading in 
struments, to be mounted upon the airplane's instrument board 
together with the regular flight test instruments. These special in- 
struments indicated the control forces exerted by the pilot, the posi 



TIME (| SECOlfDS ) 



FIG. 3. Speed- time curve for water take-off of 
flying boat with normal load. 



tions of the various control surfaces of the airplane, and other neces 
sary measurements. The motion picture camera was mounted so as 
to take pictures of all the standard and special instruments, togethei 
with a timer, or clock with a large seconds hand, which served as a 
coordinating measurement against which to plot the variation of eacli 
of the other instrument readings throughout the test (Figs. 1 and 2) 
The accomplishment of a system of recording the data photo 
graphically was not achieved without having to solve several problems 
resulting from the high accelerations that were involved. As stated 
before, during the pull-up each item in the airplane weighs many times 
its normal weight, including the escapement in the clock and the gov- 



Mar., 1936] CINEMATOGRAPHY IN AIRCRAFT TESTING 227 

ernor in the camera. Much trouble was at first encountered in keep- 
ing the clock going at lOg and in keeping the motion picture camera 
from slowing down and overexposing or even stopping entirely. One 
type of 16-mm. camera was finally found that seemed to run very 
consistently and at uniform speed, and it was found that if the clock 
were rotated about its axis approximately 171 degrees from the up- 
right position it would continue to keep time. However, if moved 
1 degree to either side of this new position, it would slow down, and 
if rotated 2 degrees it would stop completely. 

Water Take-Off. Another type of test depending upon the record- 
ing capabilities of the motion picture camera is the measurement of 
the total water drag upon the hull of a flying boat at any instant 
during take-off. Here again, the camera is depended upon to record 
simultaneously several times per second, the readings of many differ- 
ent instruments. As in the dive analysis, all instrument readings are 
plotted against time, the common factor. The water drag is found as 
follows : 

(1 ) The rate of change of speed, or the slope of the speed-time curve, gives 
the acceleration at each instant (Fig. 3). 

(2) Since the weight of the plane is known, the force required to give the 
above acceleration at each instant is determined (F = Ma}. 

(3} Engine horsepower is calculated from the readings of several engine in- 
struments, such as tachometers, manifold pressure gauges, carburetor air tem- 
perature indicators, etc. This can be further corrected to give the propeller 
thrust at each instant during the take-off. 

(4) The total thrust developed by the propellers is divided among several 
factors: the force required to accelerate the airplane, the drag of the water 
upon the bottom of the hull, and the drag of the air upon the remainder of the 
surface. 

(5) Since the force required to give the observed acceleration is known, it 
may be subtracted from the calculated thrust, leaving a remainder that counter- 
balances exactly the air and water drag. 

(6) Since the air drag at each speed has been determined by wind-tunnel tests 
and flight tests, it may be subtracted, thus leaving a resultant curve of water 
drag vs. velocity. 

This type of test has proved very useful in determining the over- 
load performances possible with flying boats and has shown very 
close correlation with model tests made in the N. A. C. A. Model 
Towing Basin. Motion pictures are widely used also to allow closer 
and more exact analysis of the wave-forming and spray character- 
istics of flying-boat hulls, both full-scale and in model tests. This 
is particularly valuable since "slow-motion" analysis is possible. 



228 F. R. COLLBOHM [J. S. M. P. E. 

Landing Speed. The motion picture camera is used as a timing 
device for measuring the landing speeds of aircraft. A number of 
methods are employed for the test, but all are fundamentally the 
same as regards the function of the camera equipment. One method 
of determining the true landing speed employs a motion picture 
camera mounted upon the airplane pointing sidewise, horizontally 
perpendicular to the thrust line. Equally spaced parallel lines are 
painted upon the airport field just off the runway and perpendicular 
to the normal landing path of the airplane. During the landing tests, 
the camera is started just before the wheels touch the ground so as 
to take pictures of the parallel lines marked upon the field as the plane 
passes by them. The landings are so made that the wheels touch 
the ground when opposite the group of parallel lines, and the point 
of contact with the ground at each landing is recorded. Before each 
landing, the camera is fully wound, and between alternate landings the 
speed of the camera is checked by taking pictures of a stop-watch. 

The landing speed of the airplane may then be found as follows: The 
number of frames on the film from the point at which one of the marks is 
lined up perfectly to the point at which the next mark is similarly lined up is 
counted; and, since the number of frames per second is known, and the distance 
between the lines is also known, the speed of the airplane from each line to the 
next one can be readily calculated. This speed is determined between each pair 
of the six or eight lines marked upon the field, and a curve is drawn to show the 
speed and its variation through that distance. Since the point of contact with 
the ground was recorded, the speed at that point of the curve is the actual ground 
speed at the instant of landing. The wind speed is then added to give the true 
landing speed. 

It is important to note that since the camera takes pictures of lines 
rather than points, the attitude of the airplane has no effect upon the 
results ; even if the camera were not pointing in a direction parallel to 
the lines upon the ground, it would still indicate when it was exactly 
in line with one of them because the image of that line upon the film 
would then be perpendicular to the horizon in the picture. 

Direct Measurement. The use of the motion picture camera as a 
direct measuring instrument has been more wide spread in European 
countries than in the United States, but its utilization here for this 
purpose is progressing rapidly. The accuracy of tests of this type de- 
pends entirely upon precise knowledge of the geometrical properties 
of the optical system of the camera. In other words, the focal length 
of the lens and the distance to the aperture plate must be known to a 
high degree of precision. This type of motion picture test can prob- 



Mar., 1936] CINEMATOGRAPHY IN AIRCRAFT TESTING 229 

ably be illustrated best by describing a method of determining the 
landing speed of an airplane. In making the test, the camera is 
mounted upon the ground in the middle of the landing runway in 
such a position that the plane lands directly toward the camera, but, 
of course, comes to a full stop before reaching it. The test consists 
simply in photographing the plane as it approaches for the landing and 
until after the wheels are on the ground, with the camera operating 
at a known constant speed. The distance of the plane from the 




FIG. 4. Installation of motion picture camera in cabin 
of transport airplane for wing deflection measurement. 

camera in each frame can later be determined by simple geometry if 
some prominent dimension of the plane is known, such as, for example, 
the span of the wings or the distance from one landing wheel to the 
other. Since the distance between the plane and the camera can be 
found for each frame, and since the time interval between frames is 
known, the velocity with which the plane moves toward the camera 
can be determined in the usual manner by dividing the change in 
distance between frames by the corresponding time interval. The 
same procedure has been used also to determine the take-off and the 



230 



F. R. COLLBOHM 



[J. S. M. P. E. 



initial climb of aircraft, to ascertain their capability of climbing over 
a fictitious obstacle at some specified distance from the starting point. 
Load-Deflection Test. Another test in which the camera is used as 
a measuring device in a different manner is that in which the load- 
deflection curve of a wing or other part of the structure is to be de- 
termined in flight. It has been customary in the past to turn an air- 
plane upside down upon the ground and load the wing with lead or 
sand bags according to a calculated or arbitrarily determined distribu- 
tion, checking the deflection for various increments of load. The 
curve of wing deflection vs. load could then be plotted and compared 
with the calculated or theoretical curve. This kind of test was 




FIG. 5. View through camera, showing wing tip 
scales with relation to cross-wire in camera, with plane 
on ground. 

very difficult and expensive, particularly with the larger airplanes, so 
it was decided to load the airplane structure in the air and measure 
the wing deflection photographically for each increment of load. 
Not only did this motion picture test save time and money, but it also 
eliminated any possibility of error due to variation between the actual 
distribution of the force upon the wing and the test distribution as 
applied with lead or sand weights upon the ground. To carry out the 
test, a standard motion picture camera with a special cross-wire built 
into the aperture plate was very rigidly mounted upon the center-line 
of the airplane with the lens pointing directly out toward the tip of one 
of the wings (Fig. 4). Upon the wing tip were mounted two 
vertical scales, one near the leading edge and one near the trailing 
edge, with graduations visible through the camera lens, A visual 



Mar., 1936] CINEMATOGRAPHY IN AIRCRAFT TESTING 231 

accelerometer was mounted upon the instrument board to enable the 
pilot to pull up the airplane to any desired acceleration, and a record- 
ing accelerometer was installed at the center of gravity of the airplane. 
The plane, which was fully loaded, was then flown at the predeter- 
mined airspeed and suddenly pulled up to whatever acceleration was 
desired. At the same time, the motion picture camera was operated, 
recording the deflection of the wing tip, both front and rear, by the 
change in scale position with reference to the fixed cross-wire in the 
camera aperture plate (Fig. 5) . Successive pull-ups were made, each 
slightly higher than the one preceding, until the maximum proof load 
was reached, the camera recording the wing deflections for each 
pull-up. A plot of the data obtained with the motion picture film and 
the accelerometer records yielded the load-deflection curve ior the 
wing, together with information as to its torsional stiffness by finding 
the difference between the deflections of the front and the rear scales 
upon the wing tip. 



WORLD MOTION PICTURE MARKETS 5 
NATHAN D. GOLDEN** 



Summary. A discussion of some of the difficulties of marketing American-pro- 
duced films in foreign countries, with particular reference to the problems of taxation, 
censorship, government subsidies for the development of home production, quotas, 
and contingents. 

During the past few years the motion picture map of the world 
has had its face lifted in many respects. While formerly our main 
problem in foreign markets was that of overcoming the language diffi- 
culties that followed closely upon the introduction of the sound-film, 
most of the old problems, such as high taxes, censorship, government 
subsidies for the development of home production, quotas, and con- 
tingents are still with us. 

In the early days of sound, the dialog in American films sent to for- 
eign markets was in the English language. Foreign audiences mar- 
velled at the fact that the actors were actually speaking. Of course, 
only those who understood English were able to derive the most en- 
joyment from the picture, so that later dialog in the foreign tongue 
was superimposed upon each scene of the film, the American actors 
continuing to speak English. Foreign audiences accepted the ar- 
rangement at the outset, but soon tired of it and demanded sound- 
films in their native tongues. This led to the importation to America 
of numerous foreign actors to do the speaking for the American stars. 
While the early attempts were, at best, crude, they served the purpose 
of satisfying the foreign patrons and thus enabling the American in- 
dustry to maintain its supremacy upon the screens of the world. 
The next cycle in dubbed films disclosed the demands of theater 
patrons in non-English-speaking markets for films having more action 
and less dialog. By that time the art of dubbing was so well de- 
veloped that a Wallace Berry or an Ann Harding could portray screen 

* Presented at the Fall, 1935, Meeting at Washington, D. C. 
** Chief, Motion Picture Section, U. S. Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Com- 
merce, Washington, D. C. 

232 



WORLD MOTION PICTURE MARKETS 233 

characters in any language so perfectly that even the foreigners them- 
selves are unable to discover the deception. With dubbing no longer 
a source of concern for American producers, a new problem in foreign 
marketing presented itself in the form of legislation designed to cur- 
tail the exhibition of dubbed films, insisting that all the dubbing be 
done in local studios by local actors and technicians. Thus it will be 
noted that there is a decided trend in foreign countries toward estab- 
lishing home industries with native actors speaking the mother 
tongues. Although the films produced thus far are admittedly of an 
inferior quality, they have nevertheless invariably drawn well at the 
box-offices because of the appeal to nationalistic loyalty and despite 
the fact that the foreign audiences are well aware that their home pro- 
ductions are not at all comparable to those of American origin. The 
long runs that such foreign films are enjoying at the theaters tend to 
diminish the number of play-dates for our American films, and, as a 
result, influence the amount of our business abroad. Reports re- 
ceived from Trade Commissioners at the Bureau of Foreign and Do- 
mestic Commerce and the Consular offices of the State Department 
substantiate these remarks regarding the popularity of local produc- 
tions and their progress. Confronted with this situation, it may be 
said to their credit that our American stars and their dubbed pictures 
retain their popularity and are still the best money-makers for all 
foreign theater operators. 

In Brazil, during the past six months, were exhibited two strictly 
domestic feature films which gained considerable popular acclaim 
and proved highly profitable to their producer. The first was a seven- 
reel feature released during February, under the title of Hello, Hello, 
Brazil. This picture enjoyed the longest run of any feature produc- 
tion thus far made in the country (five weeks) and netted the pro- 
ducers approximately $31,000. Subsequently, another feature film 
entitled Students was released by the same producer, which, while not 
as popular or profitable as the former, proved a financial success. 

The motion picture industry in Argentina during the past few years 
has developed comparably to those in other countries. A limited 
number of Spanish-language pictures has been shown, and, judging 
from the cordial reception accorded the pictures, it is obvious that 
the natural preference of the Spanish-speaking peoples is for pictures 
in their own language. During 1934, eight features were produced in 
Argentina, and it is reported that so far during the current year the 
total has increased to twelve, with ten more in preparation. It is 



234 N. D. GOLDEN [J. S. M. p. E. 

understood that all the Argentine studios, totalling twenty-one, are 
wired for the production of sound pictures. No local producer has 
failed during the past 18 months, and it is estimated that the Argen- 
tine production for 1935 amounts to about twenty-two features. It is 
planned to show these pictures throughout Argentina, and possibly in 
other neighboring countries, the mother language of which is Spanish. 

In Spain the film industry is at present small, but, in spite of finan- 
cial reverses on the part of some of the companies, steady progress is 
being made. From a production of five feature films in 1932, the 
domestic industry rose to twenty-four full-length pictures in the fol- 
lowing year. Estimates for 1935 credit local producers with from 
twenty-five to thirty feature films. Some of the Spanish films have 
been successful financially, and have indicated the possibility of a 
bright future for the industry, since Latin America is looked to as 
offering a great export market for Spanish films when they come into 
their own. Production thus far has been handicapped by lack of first- 
class equipment and expert technicians, but the groundwork is being 
established for an important permanent industry. None of the films 
thus far produced in Spain deserve particularly high rating, but they 
have been warmly received by the Spanish public. 

Additional competition is expected also from Argentina, where the 
motion picture industry is developing, as already noted, and from 
Mexico, as well. Films from those countries, being in Spanish, will 
undoubtedly enjoy an advantage in Spain. It is important that any 
films made in Spain should also capture the Spanish psychology, and 
in that respect Spanish films made in Mexico or Argentina are re- 
garded as more likely to succeed than Spanish films made in the 
United States. 

The quality of the feature pictures produced locally in Finland 
(in the Finnish language) is generally regarded as decidedly inferior 
to that of American and European productions. The majority of 
the pictures, however, have had particularly successful runs because 
of the natural desire of the Finnish-speaking population of Finland 
(almost 90 per cent) to listen occasionally to pictures produced in 
their own language. That a greater number of feature pictures has 
not been made locally is due principally to the limited capital of the 
producing companies. 

We find that Chinese pictures, with their typically Chinese settings, 
continue to attract the general populace in China. Only in the case of 
a few action and comedy pictures has there been any substantial de- 



Mar., 1936] WORLD MOTION PICTURE MARKETS 235 

mand recently from the purely Chinese market for American pictures. 
The extent to which the outlying markets have been taken over by 
Chinese sound and silent films may be realized from the fact that, in 
Fukien Province, of 150 pictures imported into Foochow in 1934, 90 
per cent were Chinese. Pictures that showed the best box-office 
returns were those in which the action dominated the dialog. With 
few exceptions, the most popular actors were also those who de- 
pended largely upon pantomime rather than dialog for effects. 

There are approximately 40 producing studios in India, according 
to the most reliable list. A number of Indian companies have made 
excellent profits on their pictures during the past year or so, which 
has caused a large number of individuals to go into the picture busi- 
ness for the purpose of making a single picture, utilizing the leisure 
time of directors, actors, and staff of the studios, and picking up 
popular Indian plays upon the basis of small royalties or outright 
purchase. A year ago a run of two or three weeks for an Indian pic- 
ture was regarded a very outstanding event, but many pictures dur- 
ing the past year have run two to three weeks and in some cases more. 
In one instance recently an Indian picture was shown for more than 
11 weeks. 

In Hungary, operators claim that the Hungarian rural districts de- 
mand no other than Hungarian sound-films. Listening to a strange 
language distracts the attention from Hungarian titles, and is tire- 
some for the average Hungarian theatergoer. 

Behind the impetus of production in foreign countries of the world 
are governmental subsidies granted to producers. It is becoming 
increasingly difficult for American distributors to release their 
pictures abroad because of heavy burdens imposed upon them. 
After all, each foreign market will return only so much money on any 
given picture, and there are but so many play-dates available. 

QUOTAS AND CONTINGENTS 

Governmental control of foreign films was introduced in Germany 
in 1916 as part of a general control of imported products, was con- 
tinued after the war as a protective measure for the German film in- 
dustry, and proved to be the forerunner of similar control measures 
in other European countries. Among the various forms, the best- 
known controls today are contingents and quotas. Quota laws origi- 
nally promulgated for the silent films have since been revised to in- 
clude sound-films. New legislation is designed to stimulate the 



236 N. D. GOLDEN [j. s. M. p. E. 

growth of home industries to be subsidized by means of funds col- 
lected from the operation of the quota systems. 

There are at present fourteen countries throughout the world that 
have among their statutes some form of quota or contingent regula- 
tions affecting the importation or limiting the exhibition of American 
motion pictures. Five other foreign countries are agitating for film- 
control legislation, and in a number of other countries the tax rates 
are so great that it is difficult for American companies to operate 
successfully in those markets. In two particular cases, France and 
Mexico, new regulations recently proposed are so drastic that if en- 
acted they will virtually force American producers to withdraw from 
the market or turn over their branch-offices to Commissions appointed 
to take charge of not only the distribution of the film but collecting 
and allocating the money accruing to the distributors as rental for 
the films. 

In France the present film regulations terminate July 1, 1936. A 
draft decree has just been proposed, which, if made effective, would 
replace the present regulations. It would then be mandatory that 
30 per cent of all feature films shown quarterly in any given theater be 
French, and for all films such as newsreels and documentary films the 
proportion would be not less than 20 per cent. These percentages 
could subsequently be altered which would open possibilities in the 
future of either further curtailment or increase of the number of 
foreign films that might be exhibited. This draft would further 
create a National Agency to which deductions would be paid from 
the net receipts of theaters for authors, composers, and producers as 
their shares of the receipts. Article 46 of this proposal would give to 
the Agency absolute powers and the right of handling a large share of 
all the funds circulating in the French motion picture industry. Our 
American distributors, in the light of this article, would not only be 
dependent upon the Agency for the payment of film rentals, but would 
be subject to the plan of percentage deductions intended to meet the 
administrative expenses of the National Agency. Any surplus of 
such deductions could be used to promote the development of the 
cinematographic art and industry in France. If our American com- 
panies were forced to operate under the proposed decree, it would be 
tantamount to forcing them to contribute money for the creation of a 
local industry, involving the danger of their being ultimately elimi- 
nated from the market. 

In Mexico a law has recently been proposed that would create an 



Mar., 1936] WORLD MOTION PICTURE MARKETS 237 

autonomous organization (Institute Nacional de la Industria Cine- 
matografica) with a maximum capital of two million pesos ($555,- 
200), which would be supplied by the Federal Treasury. The ob- 
ject of the organization would be to make loans to worthy Mexican 
producers in order to encourage the Mexican industry. The pro- 
posal is so restrictive that a domestic or foreign company could not 
operate in Mexico unless it became a member of the organization. 
One of the most important provisions under which this Institute 
would operate stipulates that it would have full authority to concede 
or not to concede permission for the importation of foreign pictures 
into Mexico. However, before permission would be granted for show- 
ing foreign films, it would be necessary to submit the films to the In- 
stitute for inspection and revision. Another section of the proposal 
specifies that the taxes now paid on national and foreign films as im- 
portation and exhibition duties would be doubled; but that films 
exhibited under the auspices of and with the approval of the Institute 
would pay only half the taxes levied upon other pictures not so ap- 
proved. Foreign films permitted to enter Mexico would be under- 
stood to be exhibited by authority of the Institute. 

Under the terms of this proposed law, American films might gradu- 
ally be eliminated from the Mexican market, and, so far as Mexican 
business is concerned, our producers would be dependent upon the 
benevolence of the Institute. American representation through its 
own distributing organizations would be eliminated, since the distri- 
bution of American films would be regulated solely by a governmen- 
tal agency, the primary purpose of which would be to produce, dis- 
tribute, and exhibit Mexican films. 

As a result of the failure of American companies in Mexico to ob- 
tain relief from the high taxes imposed upon them, all companies 
ceased distributing their product there as of September 30, 1935. 
Since then, only Mexican and European films have been shown or 
distributed. 

In Great Britain, too, we hear rumblings of a movement for a 
change in the Quota Act of 1927, which automatically terminates in 
1938. An astonishing document has recently been laid before the 
Film Group of the Federation of British Industries containing amend- 
ments to the Act of 1927. The main point suggested in this document 
as reported by the British trade press, is that at the termination of 
the existing Act a new Act should be instituted running to 1950, by 
the terms of which the distribution quota should rise from 30 to 100 



238 N. D. GOLDEN [j. s. M. p. E. 

per cent of the foreign product for the preceding year. The exhibitor 
during this period would show an increasing percentage of British 
product, commencing at 17.5 per cent in 1938 and reaching a maxi- 
mum of 42.5 per cent in 1950. The proposal further provides that 
each distributor should acquire in any one year not fewer British 
films than a stated percentage based upon his foreign film footage 
registered during the previous year, and that his total expenditure 
upon British productions should be not less than the same percentage 
of his total receipts in respect of foreign material. 

This virtually means that if a distributor registered in the year 
1938 300,000 feet of foreign film, and received in foreign rentals 
$3,000,000 during that year, for the year 1939 he would be required 
to register at least 30 per cent of 300,000 feet, i. e., 90,000 feet of 
British film, and the total cost of such British film would have to be 
at least 30 per cent of $3,000,000, or approximately $900,000. 

While the possibility that the proposals described above may ac- 
tually become laws is rather remote, the proposals do give us a good 
idea of the trend of thought of our foreign competitors and the ex- 
tremes to which they are resorting in their efforts to reduce the screen- 
ing time of American-made pictures. 

CENSORSHIP 

Censorship has been the cause of considerable concern to distribu- 
tors in foreign markets. Without exception, the regulations are be- 
coming more drastic, even to the extent of creating measures to regu- 
late the morals of the public during their attendance at motion pic- 
ture theaters. An incident in point is a recent consular report from 
Bagdad, Iraq, advising that the mayor of that city has issued an 
order to all theaters that "during matinee performances men and 
women must not sit together, and that during night performances 
they may do so in boxes and galleries, but not in the second- and 
third-class sections." 

The purpose of this paper has been merely to point out some of the 
dangers confronting American film producers in a number of the for- 
eign markets. Although some of the statements may seem rather 
pessimistic, it is not intended to convey the idea that American pic- 
tures will reach the point of being completely removed from the 
screens throughout the world. Striking a more cheerful note, it may 
be said that quality films will never be submerged, and that though 
we may lose some screening time as a result of local production 



Mar., 1936] WORLD MOTION PICTURE MARKETS 239 

abroad, the pictures of high entertainment value that American 
producers have been turning out, and those having international 
appeal, will always find a market despite any legislative or national- 
istic barriers that may be erected in foreign markets. Present 
handicaps may mean that we shall send fewer pictures abroad, but 
such pictures as we do send will return revenues commensurate 
with their superior quality. Time will supply a definite answer to 
the questions now at issue. But factual studies are quite convincing 
that the energy, resources, and producing genius of the American 
industry will serve to sustain for us a strong position in the picture 
houses of the world. 



TECHNICAL ADVANCES IN SOVIET RUSSIA* 
A. F. CHORINE** 



Summary. A brief description of recent progress in motion picture development 
in the U. S. S. R. Reference is made to a combined machine for film cutting, sound 
mixing, and re-recording; a process of recording mechanically upon old film, and 
the use of such recordings on location and for radio broadcasting; a new continuous 
battery-operated portable projector; a photocell involving multiple secondary emission; 
recording sound upon separate film synchronized with the picture film; and trans- 
mission of sound pictures by television. 



I am happy to be present at this conference of engineers represent- 
ing the highest cinema technic in the world. Permit me to convey 
to you the greetings of the Chief Soviet Cinema Administration and 
all the scientific and technical cinema workers of the U. S. S. R. I 
shall try to describe in a few brief words the motion picture develop- 
ments in which we are engaged today. 

With regard to single-film sound cameras, we are working upon a 
number of small improvements in operation, regulation, etc., one of 
which relates to an apparatus permitting the director, the recordist, 
and others to observe how the sound is being recorded while the 
picture is being shot. The title of the picture and the name of the 
sound engineer, also, can be printed automatically upon the sound 
negative, for the purpose of identification. 

We have constructed another machine for combined film cutting, 
sound mixing, and re-recording. This machine has two heads for 
sound-film, or one for mechanically recorded film, a phonographic 
mechanism having two different speeds, and a circuit for three 
microphones. All the connections and combinations of the films are 
controlled electromagnetically from one keyboard. 

All the studios of the U. S. S. R. are now recording mechanically 
upon old film for the purpose of obtaining on location records of a 
large variety of sounds, folk songs of the various nationalities, etc. 



* Presented at the Fall, 1935, Meeting at Washington, D. C. 
** Ail-Union Electrical Trust, Moscow, Russia. 



240 



TECHNICAL ADVANCES IN RUSSIA 241 

The system has proved desirable because of the negligible, or entirely 
non-existent, cost; and, in addition, it permits playing back 
immediately what has been recorded. To test the device the 
Leningrad Broadcasting System broadcast 70 per cent of their pro- 
grams with mechanical recordings on old film over a period of three 
months. The first recordings were of entire operas, performed by the 
best operatic companies in the Soviet Union, as well as of the best 
concert performances and news events. The experiment was crowned 
with practical and technical success. 

Efforts are now being made to improve the construction of sound- 
reproducing apparatus so as to reduce the cost of operation for both 
large and small theaters. 

Great interest is being shown in the Soviet Union in a movement 
to make sound pictures available to the remotest corners of Siberia, 
to sections of the North, and to Turkestan, and also to the reading 
rooms of the collective farms. The chief requirement for such installa- 
tions is that it should be possible to show pictures, with direct or 
alternating current, at places where no commercial supply is available. 
For that purpose I have devised a special system employing a small 
projector in which the film moves continuously. Owing to the fact 
that the projector does not have a pull-down mechanism, a very low- 
powered motor can be used for the drive. The resulting mechanical 
system is very simple, and can be employed for mechanical recording. 
The entire installation, including amplifier, projection lamp, motor, 
etc., is operated by a 6-volt, starting-type battery. Everything is 
reduced to the utmost simplicity. There is not even a photocell. 
The apparatus is now being given a field-test, at the conclusion of 
which a description of the system will be published. 

A new type of photocell, involving multiple secondary emission, 
has been developed for use in sound pictures which is about a 
million times as sensitive as the previous cells. Samples of such 
photocells have been made and tested, and substituted in large thea- 
ters for all the tubes in the amplifiers except the last. Under labora- 
tory conditions they have given satisfactory results. One short- 
coming of the cells at present is the comparatively high voltage, 
about 2000 volts, that must be applied. There is no doubt that 
the system has a promising future. I have just learned that 
Dr. Zworykin has produced a similar cell in the RCA Laboratories. 

A theater is Leningrad is experimenting in reproducing mechani- 
cally recorded sound from a separate film synchronized with the pic- 



242 A. F. CHORINE 

ture. Such a system would make it possible to show foreign pictures 
and to equip silent films with sound in very short order. 

Laboratory experiments are now being concluded on the trans- 
mission of sound pictures by means of television. Use is made of an 
optical disk with achromatic lenses. The legibility is from 120 to 
180 lines. In 1936, experiments will be made in Moscow on the trans- 
mission of films on a wavelength of 7.5 meters (4 megacycles). At 
the beginning of the experiment, 50 receiving sets with cathode screens 
will be installed in various parts of the city. 

Extraordinary interest is being shown in dubbing, because there 
are no fewer than seventy minor nationalities in the Soviet Union, 
each having its own language, and each language being spoken by 
great numbers of persons. A number of these nationalities now have 
their own cinema studios. It is obvious how very desirable it is 
to be able to make pictures in the Soviet Union in at least three or four 
languages. 

The Chief Administration's Experimental Factory for Cinema 
Equipment has recently produced the first experimental perforation 
machines for printing and developing pictures. Up to now, all such 
machines were obtained abroad. 

Closing this brief report, I extend to you, in the name of the Chief 
Administration, headed by Mr. Shumiatsky, an invitation to the 
Conference of Engineers to be held at Moscow in the Spring of 1936 
in conjunction with the Cinema Festival. In the near future I 
intend to submit to the Society detailed descriptions of the apparatus 
mentioned above. 



THE MOTION PICTURE INDUSTRY IN JAPAN* 
Y. OSAWA** 



Summary. A description of the status of motion picture production, distribu- 
tion, and exhibition in Japan, mainly from a commercial point of view, but with 
brief reference to some of the operating problems. 

The motion picture has in recent years, in Japan, gradually re- 
placed older forms of public entertainment, such as Kabuki and other 
stage dramas, and has now established itself in a firm position among 
the leading industries of the country. According to government 
statistics, nearly 180,000,000 Japanese visited the motion picture 
houses during the last year. It is quite evident that the motion 
picture will become still more important in the public life of the 
Japanese people in the coming years, and the real growth of the in- 
dustry seems now to have begun. 

Nevertheless, the artistic and technical standards of the Japanese 
motion picture are still in an elementary state. There are many 
scientific problems to be studied and cinematic experiences to be ac- 
quired. This paper will briefly describe the present condition of the 
motion picture industry in Japan, sketching its various aspects and 
problems. 

PRODUCTION 

During 1934, a total of 440 feature pictures were produced by the 
Japanese studios: the three major companies, the Shochiku-Shinko 
group, Nikkatsu, and Daito Eiga producing three-fourths of them; 
and the minor and independent studios, altogether eight or ten in 
number, contributing the remaining one-fourth. In the latter group 
are included the Photo-Chemical Laboratory, more commonly known 
as PCL, of Tokyo, and J. O. Studio, Ltd., of Kyoto, which are the two 
new financial interests that came into the motion picture field about 
three years ago. 

Today an average Japanese feature picture is made in 8 to 10 reels, 

* Presented at the Spring, 1935, Meeting at Hollywood, Calif, 
** J. Osawa & Co., Ltd., Kyoto, Japan, 

243 



244 Y. OSAWA [J. S. M. p. E. 

whereas until only a few years ago no picture was regarded as a "fea- 
ture" unless it contained more than 15 or sometimes even 20 reels. 
The number of release prints usually required for distribution varies 
from 12 to 15, a sufficient number for circulation throughout the 
country in the ordinary case. Sometimes, in the case of a particu- 
larly popular picture, 20 or 30 copies may be made ; but such is the 
exception rather than the rule. 

The yearly consumption of raw film stock in Japan is approximately 
50,000,000 feet of positive and 5,000,000 feet of negative. Agfa, Du- 
pont, and Eastman are used principally, Eastman taking a greater 
share of the business. During the last year, two Japanese companies 
entered into manufacturing standard motion picture raw film upon a 
large scale : namely, Fuji Film Manufacturing Company, a subsidiary 
of the Mitsui interest, and Oriental Photo Industrial Company, an 
experienced manufacturer of general photographic materials. Both 
companies have already placed their sample films upon the market, 
but the quality is not yet sufficiently satisfactory for acceptance by 
the major companies. Although they have not yet attempted to pro- 
duce other than positive film, it will still be some time before they 
offer serious competition to imported films. 

The processing laboratories of the major studios are generally 
rather poorly equipped, with the old rack method still in use, under 
the visual, or rather temperamental control of the watchman on the 
floor. However, there are now two modern processing laboratories 
using up-to-date machine developers with thermostatic control of the 
chemicals and regular air-conditioning systems. One is the Far East 
Film Laboratory, in Kyoto, which processes Eastman film, and the 
other that of the J. O. Studio, also in Kyoto, which handles Agfa film. 
A new laboratory is now being built in Tokyo by the J. O. Studio, 
which will begin operating by the end of May this year. 

Although the acceptance of the talking picture by the Japanese 
audience has been quite decisive, production has not kept pace with 
the public demand, due mainly to the financial weakness of the major 
studios and to the inability of the theaters to equip themselves with 
sound apparatus. While many attempts had been made since 1930 to 
produce Japanese "talkies," a really successful sound picture was not 
produced until 1932. Since that year the major companies have re- 
luctantly started producing them, but with little progress. It was not 
until 1934 that "sound" was seriously taken up. Although the prog- 
ress of sound-film in Japan has been very slow up to this time, 1935 



Mar., 1936] MOTION PICTURES IN JAPAN 245 

will see a rapid increase in the production of talkies and perhaps by 
the end of 1936 all the important Japanese pictures will be sound 
pictures. 

While the number of feature pictures produced in Japan is rela- 
tively large, the quality of the average Japanese film has not yet at- 
tained the high technical and artistic standard of the average Ameri- 
can or good European picture. Japanese producers yet have much to 
learn in the field of story and scenario preparation, subject matter 
treatment, editing technic, etc. Also, an equally important defect is 
found in the poor working conditions in the Japanese studios, particu- 
larly the inadequacy of supply of mechanical equipment and appara- 
tus. The situation is almost tragic as regards sound recording. 

Nikkatsu Studio is the only Western Electric licensee in Japan; 
and J. O. Studio, Kyoto, is the only studio equipped with RCA re- 
cording apparatus. Other studios, including Shochiku and PCL, use 
their own sound systems. Other mechanical equipment and facilities 
are also sadly lacking in most of the older studios. Such new appara- 
tus as the zoom lens, perambulator, projection background process, 
fully automatic printer, color process, etc., are still in the realm of 
luxury, and about which Japanese technicians are allowed only to 
dream. 

The cost of an average Japanese picture is incredibly low. An aver- 
age talkie, a fair-sized feature picture of 7000 to SOOO feet, with a 
shooting period of 45 days, is made within a total of between 30,000 
to 50,000 yen, including the story, scenario, salaries of director, 
cameramen, talents, musicians, sound engineers, and all other techni- 
cians, sets and costumes, location expenses, royalty for sound record- 
ing, etc. in fact, all the items that are necessary in producing a com- 
plete picture. The low cost of production, necessitated by the distri- 
bution limitations which will be described later, is responsible without 
question to a great extent for the poor quality of the average Japanese 
picture. 

DISTRIBUTION 

There are approximately 2000 motion picture theaters operating in 
Japan today. Although most of the older houses are very poorly 
constructed buildings, the new theaters are of very modern design 
with every up-to-date accommodation. They are air-conditioned and 
well furnished, with comfortable chairs. According to the latest 
figures, only one-half of the movie theaters in Japan are now equipped 
with sound reproducers, leaving nearly 1000 theaters yet to 



246 Y. OSAWA [J. S. M. P. E. 

be wired. These additional installations will very likely be made 
within the next two years. Of the approximately 1000 theaters already 
wired, only 10 per cent are equipped with either Western Electric or 
RCA reproducers. About 40 theaters have the Tobis-Klangfilm sys- 
tem, and the remaining 85 per cent have divers other sound systems, 
both American and Japanese, of rather poor quality. 

The average admission fee of a Japanese movie house is 50 sen in 
the first-run week in the big cities, and 30 to 20 sen in the smaller 
towns. After the second run, the fee usually drops to 20 to 10 sen. 
Although the admission fees are low, a good first-run theater with a 
"hit" program can earn a gross of 20,000 to 30,000 yen in the first 
week. A very popular film just recently earned a gross of 80,000 yen 
in a two weeks' run in one theater in Osaka, which was deemed excep- 
tionally good. 

The program always consists of two feature pictures with one or 
two shorts, thus making one performance about three hours long. 
The theater usually runs four performances a day. 

Japanese movie fans can be separated into two distinct categories : 
the class audience and the mass audience. There seems to be no 
middle ground between them. Therefore, a Japanese picture must be 
either an exceedingly fine film of the highest quality, which will be 
ardently admired by the student and the intellectual classes patroniz- 
ing the better theaters in the big cities; or it must be a low-level pic- 
ture with much excitement or pathos which will win strong support 
from the lower working class constituting the bulk of the movie audi- 
ence in the smaller towns and in the country. Among the former, 
such films as The Chorus of a Million produced by Victor Japan and 
J. O. Studio, and Botchan by PCL, have been recent successes; for the 
latter class, love themes or sword fighting plays (corresponding to the 
Wild West pictures) have always been popular. 

Foreign films are generally patronized only by the student and the 
intellectual classes, except wild animal pictures, which are very popu- 
lar among all classes. During 1934, 340 foreign feature pictures 
were released in Japan (80 per cent American and 20 per cent English 
and European), this number being the highest in the last five years. 

With the advent of talkies, the language barrier was at first be- 
lieved to be a very serious obstacle. In fact, with the early pictures, 
an interpreter, called a Benshi, standing upon the stage in the 
dark, shouted a translation of the dialog along with the original sound, 
thus making it nearly impossible for either the original dialog or the 



Mar., 1936] MOTION PICTURES IN JAPAN 247 

translator to be understood. Now all foreign films have their dialog 
superimposed upon the film in Japanese titles, thus eliminating the 
interference of the Benshi. Recently two or three attempts have been 
made to dub the Japanese language into the sound-track. The most 
successful attempt was made in the RKO picture, Flying Devils. Its 
result was very satisfactory, and there is good possibility of adapt- 
ing the method in the future to certain types of foreign pictures. 

The best received foreign pictures in Japan during the last year were 
// Happened One Night, Footlight Parade, Der Kongress Danzt, Le 
Pacquebot Tenacity, Poil de Carot, etc. The biggest box-office successes 
were King Kong, Tarzan pictures, and Chaplin and Lloyd pictures. 
Because of the superior technic and treatment of foreign pictures, 
the demand for good foreign films will continue. 

CONCLUSION 

The vital problem facing the Japanese motion picture industry to- 
day is the improvement of the technic and workmanship of their films, 
so that the standard will be raised to the international level in tech- 
nical quality and artistic treatment. At present, earnest efforts are 
being made upon the part of certain Japanese producers to cooperate 
with some American companies in the joint production of pictures in 
Japan. If such a scheme materializes, it will provide excellent oppor- 
tunity for the Japanese technicians to learn their lessons and acquire 
new experiences. Such stimulation will be so great that it may revo- 
lutionize the entire production system. At any rate, the Japanese 
motion picture must develop to a higher level, and it may not be so 
long before Japan will also be contributing to the other peoples of the 
world worthy and varied entertainments of the Orient through the 
medium of the motion picture. 

DISCUSSION 

MR. E. RICHARDSON: Mr. Osawa, your people are so wonderfully successful 
with the brush and have such natural technic in artistic lines, I wondered whether 
in your country they had produced cartoons of your people? 

MR. OSAWA: Yes; about three or four companies are now trying to make 
Japanese cartoons, and some are getting a little bit better. But although they 
are very successful in drawing pictures, etc., the American system is not as well 
worked out as in the studios, and as to the music we haven't very good orches- 
tras. But I think the young boys are working very hard on that, and in a couple 
of years we may turn out some cartoons. 

(A very interesting Japanese film was projected, showing a number of motion 
picture studios engaged in production and some of their most celebrated artists in 
action; also a number of the most prominent motion picture theaters.) 



THE MOTION PICTURE INDUSTRY IN INDIA* 
G. D. LAL** 

Summary. A description of the status of motion picture production, distribution, 
and exhibition in India, mainly from a commercial point of view, but with brief 
reference to some of the technical problems. 

Nearly five years ago the first "all talking and singing picture" 
was produced and exhibited in India. As sound was then a novelty, 
it took the country by storm. Business conditions generally were 
far from satisfactory, and so, finding money in the talking pictures, 
everybody rushed into the business. Within a year about twenty 
producers had entered the field; and by the end of the second year 
the number of producers had increased to about thirty-four. 

Unfortunately, the technical educational system in India is sadly 
lacking. Contacts with the rapidly progressing countries of the 
West, especially America, have been, and are yet, very poor. India 
has not been closely in touch with western scientific developments. 
Thus, when the motion picture "gold rush" started, a number of 
adventurous silent producers, theatrical people, and others began 
hastily to look for recording outfits. Due to the fact that sound was 
new and insufficient technical information was available, and being 
ignorant of the complications thereof and having only limited 
finances at their disposal, nearly all the adventurers fell an easy prey 
to the "bootleg" equipment manufacturers. 

To date, there are approximately ninety producers in India oper- 
ating completely under Indian capital and management. There are 
about thirty sound studios, which, besides producing their own inde- 
pendent pictures, rent their studios and equipments on a footage 
basis to the other producing companies. The chief centers of ac- 
tivity are Bombay and Calcutta. 

Unacquainted with the technic of sound, the Indian writers were 
incapable of planning or writing their stories successfully. Directors, 

* Presented at the Spring, 1935, Meeting at Hollywood, Calif. 
** Delhi, India. 
248 



MOTION PICTURES IN INDIA 249 

actors, and the other technical hands were, and still are, recruited 
from the silent producers and the theatrical stage. The effect has 
been to produce pictures that are jumpy, lacking in continuity, and 
too theatrical. 

The sound engineers have come mostly from the ranks of radio en- 
thusiasts or college graduates whose training has been largely of an 
academic nature. As a result of their unfamiliarity with the equip- 
ment with which they had to work, and not being well informed on 
the principles of recording and its limitations and complications, the 
sound quality has consistently been very poor. In numbers of cases 
the quality has been worse than that afforded by some of the midget 
radio receivers, and poor laboratory work has contributed consider- 
ably to its insufficiency. Although some of the studios do boast of 
possessing an up-to-date laboratory, they have not yet been able to 
maintain a strict check on photographic density. This, of course, is 
due to the lack of information not only as to how to operate the equip- 
ment properly, but as to the entire processing technic. Even though 
some studios have managed to improve the sound quality in the film, 
it has been ruined by the projectionists in the theaters, who are none 
other than the good old silent "grinders." Most of them do not 
know even the fundamentals of electricity, not to speak of the 
principles of sound reproduction. 

According to one estimate there are about 600 sound theaters in 
India; and according to another, there are somewhat more than 700 
all over India. The majority of these are the old silent houses or 
theatrical halls, and have not been suitably treated for sound. About 
a score or two have been properly treated acoustically. Most of 
them contain five to seven hundred seats, and nearly all are equipped 
with American-made reproducers. Very recently a reproducer 
called "Philisonor," made by Philips of Holland, has come into the 
market and has been widely distributed. Sales of this reproducer so 
far seem to indicate that it will become the most popular reproducer 
in the Indian market. The chief reasons for the small number of 
wired houses in India are the lack of electric power circuits, lack of 
system in organizations, and the cost of equipment. 

Almost all Indian productions are based upon religious, mythologi- 
cal, and historical subjects. Two of the most progressive producers 
have very recently begun to produce social plays. To produce re- 
ligious and mythological pictures effectively, much trick work, play- 
backs, rear projection, and other devices are required that have not 



250 G. D. LAL [J. S. M. p. E. 

yet been attempted. The trick work that has been attempted so 
far has been, from the American point of view, very primitive and 
ineffective. Only recently a few rear projection outfits have been 
bought by some producers, but no pictures are reported to have been 
released in which "process shots" have been employed. Two at- 
tempts have also been made on animated cartoons, which have been 
reported to be jumpy and lacking in humor. 

Despite the fact that the languages and dialects of India are very 
numerous, the pictures made in Hindustani have commanded a very 
large market, the reason being that the majority of the people in the 
provinces such as Bengal, Madras, Sind (Karachi), etc., having lan- 
guages of their own, yet can understand Hindustani, though their 
own languages are not understood outside their provinces. Thus, the 
belief that the number of languages and dialects in India militates 
against the possibilities of the motion picture field is incorrect. In 
proof thereof, it might be interesting to note that pictures produced 
at a cost of about 20,000 rupees have yielded as much as 75,000 rupees 
and more. The possible receipts can be envisioned if it is borne in 
mind that there are only 700 theaters in India; and the educated and 
respectable families have not patronized the Indian pictures very 
much because they fall far short of their expectations. Another 
misunderstanding, referring to the "caste system," should also be 
corrected. The so-called "untouchables" attend the same theaters, 
travel in the same trains, street-cars, etc., as the "touchables"; no 
segregated corners are allotted to them, and they pay the same ad- 
mission fees. 

There is no flat-rate admission system in India at least it has not 
yet been introduced so far. The usual charges in rupees are equiva- 
lent to $3, $2, $1, 50c and 25c. This classification is not based upon 
any caste system, but upon the social status of the individual. In 
order to improve and build up the Indian motion picture industry 
four courses are open: (1) to send bonafide students abroad to study 
the various phases of the industry in other countries; (2) to import 
foreign technicians to assist in practical training and in organizing 
the industry; (3) to purchase standard equipment and seek the in- 
formation and training through them; (4) to organize a financially 
strong and central organizing body to control the industry. 

(1) Quite a number of our young men came to America and other 
countries, and invariably began their studies by joining a technical 
school. Unfortunately, there is no school that can possibly provide 



Mar., 1936] MOTION PICTURES IN INDIA 251 

broad and useful practical training in the many phases of this huge 
industry; and because the boys did not realize the complications and 
breadth of the art, they believed they could become experts by taking 
the diplomas of the schools that existed. Most of the boys that came 
out have gone in for photography and sound engineering; they ob- 
tained their diplomas and returned to India as "Foreign Qualified 
Technicians." Some of the boys who understood the situation and 
realized that actual practical training in the various studios was 
necessary, tried to gain entree to the studios, but found the doors 
shut. The result has been that they had to return to India incapable 
of being of much help to the industry, although a little wiser in the 
ways of the world. 

(2) Due to the various misunderstandings between the East and 
the West there has been a serious lack of appreciation of the actual 
conditions of the East, particularly as regards living conditions. The 
purchasing power of a rupee in India is almost the same as that of the 
dollar in America; but as the exchange ratio is roughly three rupees 
to the dollar, it will be appreciated that to pay the American techni- 
cian his American salary in dollars in India becomes prohibitive. 

(3) It is most surprising, indeed, that the various manufacturers 
of standard equipment in America have not yet taken stock of the 
Indian market. Indian import duties and other local tariffs are very 
high, amounting in some instances to 30 or 40 per cent. Naturally, 
the producers find it difficult to pay the high prices for standard 
equipment and to pay the royalties, in addition. 

To expect technical information or other training from the major 
equipment companies is out of the question unless India is their 
customer; and even those Indian firms that have been using some of 
the standard equipment and recording channels have not been able 
to obtain results because of their inexperience and lack of technical 
information. Apparently the outfits are working satisfactorily, as 
they (i. e., the manufacturers) "have no complaints" and "have sold 
'so many' outfits." But those who have seen, heard, and watched 
the results know how satisfactory they have been. 

(4) One of the chief reasons why capital was shy and why most of 
the public-spirited men kept aloof from the Indian motion picture 
industry was the lack of confidence in the technical personnel and 
their organizers. Furthermore, there has been a tremendous waste 
in production, which was, and still is, due to the inexperience of the 
present day directors and technicians, and the absence of really 



252 G. D. LAL 

clever and responsible men to suggest workable plans and schemes. 
What has made the situation worse has been the entrance into the 
field of the self-styled "Foreign Qualified Technician" and some un- 
desirable hands that have come into the business. 

The cost of producing an average length feature, containing about 
10 or 11 1000-ft. reels (sometimes as many as 16), is in the neighbor- 
hood of 10,000 rupees. Unfortunately, no serious attempt has been 
made to collect such data and it is almost impossible to quote definite 
figures. 

Since the advent of sound, American pictures have been patronized 
less than have the English pictures, the simple reason being that the 
pictures sent to India were of jazz and underworld life, full of typical 
American slang and humor, which nobody outside America can under- 
stand or appreciate. But such pictures as Cleopatra, Queen Chris- 
tina, and their like are very popular even among the uneducated. 

It is certainly very gratifying and creditable that India has made 
slow but steady progress in spite of the odds against her. She has 
been struggling along, groping in the dark, accomplishing whatever 
has been accomplished by trial and error. Only recently an Indian 
picture has been accepted for exhibition at the International Arts 
Exhibition to be held in Vienna. India has the talent, and has 
everything in her favor in the way of story material, locations, work- 
men, and so forth. What are lacking are more honest, sincere, and 
experienced Indian boys to study the industry abroad and become 
the pioneers in organizing the industry. It is hoped that before long 
a better understanding and cooperation will be established between 
the East and the West which will eventually yield better business to 
the American manufacturers and assist in building up our industry. 
Thus we shall have not only more friendly business relations, but a 
more authentic understanding of the East will be gained. Also, the 
producers here in Hollywood will not have to send out expensive ex- 
peditions to the East or the Far East, or to Africa, for background 
shots which could very safely be entrusted to producers or individuals 
in India. 



PROBLEMS OF A MOTION PICTURE RESEARCH LIBRARY* 

H. G. PERCEY** 

Summary. The organization and equipment of the research department at 
Paramount Studios are described. The difference in the problems of research on 
historical and modern photoplays is explained, with specific examples from current 
pictures. 

In the days when Jesse Lasky and Cecil B. DeMille operated a 
little motion picture studio on Vine Street in Hollywood, there was 
employed as a reader in the Story Department an actress who had 
"trod the boards" from Minnesota to Louisiana and from New York 
to California. Because of her wide experience and excellent memory, 
the production staff formed the habit of asking her what the butler 
had worn in this play, or whether the desk in that one was Governor 
Winthrop, or Mission. One day, as the company flourished, they 
decided to have their stories reviewed in New York, and this actress, 
Elizabeth McGaffey, persuaded them to give her a dictionary, the 
National Geographic Magazine, and a public library card, and allow 
her to start a research department. This eventful happening took 
place in 1914. 

It grew slowly at first, with an occasional magazine added: the 
London News, because of the War; the Architectural Record, for the 
Art Department; and a few books for each picture. In fact, for many 
years the chief growth of the department was in connection with 
important pictures. No additions to the department have excelled 
the splendid architectural material on Spain purchased for Spanish 
Dancer. For Ten Commandments were purchased the La Sainte 
Bible with the Tissot illustrations, the Encyclopaedia of Religion and 
Ethics, and many commentaries on the Bible; for Old Ironsides, fine 
boat books ; while for The Patriot, some rare Russian historical mate- 
rial was added, including the two-volume set published to commemo- 
rate the coronation of Tsar Nicholas II. 



* Presented at the Spring, 1935, Meeting at Hollywood, Calif. 
** Paramount Productions, Inc., Hollywood, Calif. 



253 



254 H. G. PERCEY [j. s. M. P. E 

Today, there are 8100 books and bound magazines, and a picture 
file greater than that of the Los Angeles Public Library. The collec 
tion, though still built ostensibly around productions, has been aug- 
mented by a great many standard reference sets of encyclopedias, the 
Yale University Pageant of America, Peoples of All Nations, Countries 
of the World, Lands and Peoples, Manners and Customs of Mankind 
History of the Nations, and the Smithsonian Institution Scientific 
Series. The library subscribes also for the more important magazine 
indexes, thus making available for use a large stock of bound and 
current periodicals, including Asia, Architectural Forum, Arts ana 
Decoration, House and Garden, Travel, many foreign weeklies, anc 
various news magazines. 

Although the work of the department was at first restricted tc 
little more than finding out what had been used for the stage play, 
or what the sheriff's badge of the eighteen-eighties was like for a 
"western," gradually not only the production units, but all the de- 
partments, learned to depend upon research to help solve their prob- 
lems. Regardless of our over-zealous publicity departments' stories, 
the librarians have never claimed infallibility, nor deserved it. Given 
enough time, and enough money, they can usually find satisfactory 
material ; but when a director sends in an order from a set, with the 
breathless messenger hanging over our shoulders while we try to find 
a picture of a wedding ring used in Spain in the seventeenth century, 
the battle is lost. No other department in the studio is used by so 
many persons, and for so many purposes. Bing Crosby wishes to 
pick out the moustache he will wear in Mississippi. The Art Director 
wants to see the interior of an old English stable for Peter Ibbetson; 
for the latter picture the Costume Designer must to see the 
hat worn by a little boy with an Eton suit in 1819. The Censorship 
Department has been warned that the life of a character in a forth- 
coming picture resembles that of some noted diplomat, so biographical 
material must be found. The interior view of a church for slaves is 
wanted by King Vidor for So Red the Rose. The Drapery Department 
needs yacht flags and insignia for The Big Broadcast of 1935. How to 
address an informal note to an English countess is the problem of the 
Foreign Department, while the Legal Department wishes to check 
upon a play bearing a title similar to one recently purchased by the 
company. A letter received by the Fan Mail Department asks the 
nationality of the adventuress in Lives of a Bengal Lancer; and some 
one else wishes the name of the musical instrument used to charm 



Mar., 1936] PROBLEMS OF A MOTION PICTURE LIBRARY 255 

the snake. The unit business manager wants the name of a Turkish 
technical advisor for The Last Outpost. A real spider spinning a 
real web is wanted by the Special Effects Department ; and an engi- 
neer from the Sound Department asks whether it is true that a 
waterspout can be broken by shooting a cannon into it. 

Our greatest problems, and the most interesting, arise in making 
historical pictures. An excellent example is Ttie Crusades. The 
preliminary work was done on it a whole year ago, when histories of 
the Third Crusade, and biographies of Richard the Lion Hearted were 
located. In July, Harold Lamb, whose scholarly but readable books 
upon the subject have made him an authority, was assigned to write 
an original story. Our work with him proved to be of great length, 
but fascinating, relating to the costumes of kings and queens, lords 
and ladies, minstrels and priests; army life, military tactics, and 
battle cries; the manner of saluting an officer, and paying homage 
to a king; marriage customs of the twelfth century in France, 
and religious customs among the Saracens. How much of Windsor 
Castle was built at that time, and how was it furnished? Not only 
Mr. Lamb, but, in his wake, art director, set dresser, sketch artists, 
and technicians, all plied us with questions. One point alone may 
serve to illustrate what pains are taken to be exactly correct, 
and yet how difficult it often is to find information upon what seems 
to be rather simple. There is a scene in the script in which Richard 
visits the smithy to see how his new sword is progressing, and himself 
strikes a few blows with the hammer. While he is thus engaged, a 
messenger summons him back to the castle, to greet Philip Augustus 
of France, an unexpected guest. The same evening the smith de- 
livers the finished sword. Could a sword be tempered, polished, and 
finished so quickly? First we searched the material on arms and 
armor; then the books on the arts and crafts of the Middle Ages, 
narratives of the time, and even historical novels and children's 
stories. In the magazine indexes we found countless articles on the 
history and manufacture of swords, but none that answered the ques- 
tion. We tried the Huntington Library, and the University libraries; 
finally, even the Library of Congress, but their great resources con- 
tained no such data. Through an army officer, we found the name of 
the firm that had made the last issue of cavalry sabers, but even they 
could not tell us how long it had taken them, let alone how long it 
might have taken an armorer of the twelfth century. The Chief of 
Ordnance sent us the government specifications for swords, which 



256 H. G. PERCEY [j. s. M. p. E. 

proved very amusing to the DeMille unit, but of no help. Just as we 
had about given up hope, two articles appeared in magazines regard- 
ing the work of Kenneth Lynch, a metal craftsman, with a forge in 
Long Island City. A letter to him brought the information that he 
had made some of the swords for The Crusades, and that he believed 
that at that time it would have taken three men one day's work to 
make a sword. 

The costume problem is a grave one, and is still quite unrecog- 
nized by many directors. We have all the great authorities, including 
Racinet, Planche, Hottenroth, Rosenberg, and Giafferri; uniform 
regulations, books on coiffures, fashion magazines, and countless 
others; but the costume must please not only the designer but the 
director and the star. The designer may not want the Spanish cos- 
tume of the province in which the story is written, but one worn in 
Argentina, or depicted by Sargent in El Jaleo. The director may 
know that the Alaskan Indians wear something closely resembling 
a "Mother-Hubbard," but one can not blame him for not putting such 
an outfit upon a supposedly languorous lady. A masculine star 
would not wear knee breeches in a Revolutionary War picture, be- 
cause he thought them unbecoming. 

Competent technical advisors are indispensable in connection with 
pictures, the locale of which is supposed to be in a foreign country or 
which is concerned with some special subject, such as the army or 
navy, aviation or engineering. Occasionally, one will misrepresent his 
capabilities, but there are so many nationalities represented on the 
payroll of any studio that it is not difficult to find such information. 
There are countless questions of customs and procedure that are 
not answered in books; infinite details of costume, which make all 
the difference between right and wrong to the natives of a country, 
but would never be noticed by Americans. For every good technical 
person employed, our knowledge of the country is enriched, but un- 
fortunately, we receive all the criticisms of the incompetent ones. 

On the average modern American picture, the work is seldom ex- 
haustive. For Stolen Harmony, we sent for city or state police uni- 
forms and equipment from four states, only to find there was hardly 
a glimpse of them left when the picture was finished. Prison pictures 
worry us a little, because with the new prison reforms prevalent in 
so many of the states, we do not always find the stripes and chains 
that are usually associated with the punishment of criminals. 



Mar., 1936 J PROBLEMS OF A MOTION PICTURE LIBRARY 257 

A part of the work that we find particularly enjoyable is that done 
with some of the musical composers. For instance, before Ralph 
Rainger began composing the music for Rose of the Rancho he spent 
hours looking at pictures and reading books upon the customs of 
early California life on the big ranches, the fiestas, the dances 
everything but the music. 

There is no end to the work that can be done, nor to the material 
that can be used in a research department. We once made a survey 
of the employees to find out where we could get specialized informa- 
tion quickly. The employees have been particularly valuable in 
connection with European War stories, because practically every 
branch of foreign service is represented, and also for small amounts of 
translation that are often needed quickly, such as a German sign in 
a train, or a Spanish letter. None of the research departments has 
the equipment to do scientific research, but that is a goal toward 
which we can work. 

There is a nation-wide movement, now well organized, that is 
going to have a decided effect upon motion pictures, and by the very 
nature of it, upon the growth of research departments in the industry 
Motion Picture Appreciation which is being studied in the public 
schools in connection with the English classes. When we realize 
that there are no fewer than thirty million children and adolescents in 
the schools of the United States, it must be evident that teaching them 
not only discrimination but criticism as well, is bound to influence a 
number of factors that today many persons feel are of little conse- 
quence. One of the English teachers in a Junior High School told 
us that surveys made a year ago and again this spring had shown a 
surprisingly great increase in the attendance at recommended pic- 
tures. The Women's Clubs, the Parent-Teachers Associations, the 
Theater Managers, the Public Libraries, are all doing their best to 
help. Pamphlets are issued on a few of the specially recommended 
films such as David Copperfield, one hundred and twenty-four thou- 
sand of which are being circulated. The Public Libraries give out 
book-marks referring to these and some of the historical pictures, 
suggesting other books on the same or similar subjects, readable 
histories, biographies, and novels. All this leads to an intelligent 
demand for better entertainment, more accurately presented; and 
perhaps the research departments will soon come into their own. 



258 H. G. PERCEY 

DISCUSSION 

MR. CRABTREE: Is your equipment restricted to books, or do you have file 
records of photographs, clippings, etc? Also, do you have a directory of persons 
in Hollywood who can tell you what is worn in France or Ireland or other coun- 
tries? It would seem that such a person would be able to put you right about 
costumes in much shorter time than by reading a book. 

Miss PERCEY : That is true, and we do try to get them ; but we must investi- 
gate them very carefully, because very often they have not been abroad for a 
long time sometimes years and when they go to the wardrobe department to 
pick out a policeman's uniform, for example, the one they pick out is hopelessly 
out of date. 

Yes, we have a directory of research experts. But, as in everything else, it is 
always something that we do not have that is asked of us. We have also a very 
large clipping and photograph file. We have practically no scientific books. 
The library has been built around the motion pictures we have made, and not 
around the future needs of the staff or the studio. In time to come, perhaps, 
we shall have at least the important scientific encyclopedias and similar material, 
which should be owned by the studio and not by individuals in the sound or other 
departments. 

I was very much interested in the films taken with polarized light, because one 
of our difficulties is that of supplying photographs to be used in pictures as back- 
ings outside windows. When filming a scene in France, for instance, a photo- 
graph typifying French scenery may be required, and our great trouble is that 
often we have no such photographs, but have, instead, very good rotogravure 
prints. With the polarizing filters, it will be possible to enlarge the prints satis- 
factorily, I believe. 

MR. CRABTREE: Yes, we get as good reproductions from mat prints as 
from glossy prints. 

Miss PERCEY: That is very interesting. It will help to solve some of our 
problems. 

PRESIDENT TASKER: That is another example of how the Society mutually 
assists the various persons in the industry. 

MR. CRABTREE: It supports Professor Morkovin's statement that the more 
each man knows of the other man's problems, the more valuable he is to the 
industry. A specialist these days must be a jack of all trades, with an extra 
knowledge of his particular subject. Miss Percey, how many persons are em- 
ployed in your department? 

Miss PERCEY: We have only five in the Research Library at Paramount 
Studio. One of our exchange men came to the studio not long ago and looked 
around almost with disgust. Having read the accounts of the enormous research 
staff that Mr. DeMille used on Cleopatra and The Crusades, he was horrified when 
he saw my rather limited library, and only five of us. He said, "I thought you 
had at least 300 persons employed." 



THE HISTORICAL MOTION PICTURE EXHIBIT 
AT THE LOS ANGELES MUSEUM* 



E. THEISEN ** 

Summary. The development of the historical motion picture exhibit at the Los 
Angeles Museum sponsored by the Society is described, from 1930 when the first 
gallery was opened. The various contributions of the pioneers represented in the 
exhibit are discussed, and a description of the various accessions and the policies of 
the Museum in displaying these collections is given. 

The historical exhibit of motion picture relics at the Los Angeles 
Museum is being brought together so that the relics may not become 
scattered or lost. The records and apparatus of many of the arts, 
and even many of the traditions incidental to their development have 
been lost because of a lack of interest in preserving the material or 
putting it into suitable and safe depositories. Even now, scarcely 
more than forty years since the motion picture began, many of the 
records and much of the mechanical paraphernalia have been lost. 
However, the Society of Motion Picture Engineers and the Los An- 
geles Museum, in collaboration, have sponsored the activity of pre- 
serving as many relics and memorabilia of the motion picture as 
possible. 

Because many of the motion picture pioneers did not realize the 
importance of their researches, they did not preserve their devices in- 
tact, but, instead, removed sprockets, gears, or parts of the devices 
for use in further experimentation, with the result that the original 
equipment was gradually dismantled. Time after time, in the search 
for the original equipment, such was found to be the case. Fires, 
the death of the pioneer, and lack of funds are other reasons for the 
destruction and scattering of the records. 

Realizing all this, the idea of a motion picture museum was crystal- 



* Presented at the Spring, 1935, Meeting at Hollywood, Calif, 
** Los Angeles Museum, Los Angeles, Calif. 



259 



260 E. THEISEN [j. s. M. p. E. 

lized. The Motion Picture Division of the Los Angeles Museum was 
organized in January, 1930, with Earl Theisen Honorary Curator. 
On December 10, 1931, the Board of Governors of the Society of Mo- 
tion Picture Engineers appointed a Committee known as the Museum 
Committee, whose duty it was to aid in bringing together the relics 
of the motion picture. The Los Angeles Museum was chosen as a de- 
pository. 

The initial exhibit in the Museum at that time was a collection of 
approximately 1200 specimens of film, representing the entire history 
of the motion picture. The collection included actual clippings 
from original films of pioneers and from notable photoplays from year 




FIG. 1. S. M. P. E. motion picture exhibit, Los Angeles Museum. 

to year, color, sound, and the various processes, each being repre- 
sented by separate specimens bound between glass plates for preser- 
vation, and accompanying each specimen was a historical notation. 

In the collection, which is still on display, may be seen raw stock 
made by Eastman in 1890, and motion pictures made by W. K. L. 
Dickson for Edison in 1889. There are numerous examples of the 
earliest films to be projected upon screens, including those of Wood- 
ville Latham, the Lumiere Brothers, the Biograph, and others. Speci- 
mens of hand-colored motion pictures made in 1898 may also be 
seen. There are also specimens of stop-motion, and motion pictures 
by miniatures, of the same period. 

There is one specimen on display that corresponds to the main title 
of current pictures. It is a film in which are two frames of title bear- 



Mar., lMi| HISTORICAL MOTION PICTURE EXHIBIT 1>()1 



ing the statement, "Copyrighted by T. A. Edison, 1897." It was 
inserted five feet from the start of the film so as not to be torn away 
as a result of the practice at that time of removing the short sections 
of the film that were damaged by the starting of the projector. In 
the collection are also specimens of such noted pictures as The Great 
'I' rain Robbery, The Birth of a Nation, and others. There are samples 
of sound-films made by Ernst Ruhmer as early as 1904, and animated 
cartoons made by J. Stewart Blackton as early as 1900. 

The specimens are displayed by means of backlighting in an open- 
air case arrangement, so that the film specimens will not be heated 
above 70 degrees. This collection of motion picture film specimens 
was first begun by Earl Theisen in 1924, and includes samples ob- 
tained from all over the world. 

Since 1930, when the Motion Picture Museum idea was crystal- 
lized, there has been constant activity in assembling the available 
relics. The Los Angeles Museum has furnished assistance and dis- 
play facilities, while the sponsorship of the Society of Motion Picture 
Engineers, under the guidance of the Historical and Museum Com- 
mittee, has aided considerably in bringing together the material. 

Many notable private collections have been deposited with the Los 
Angeles Museum, and many records of the motion picture pioneers 
are represented. On display may be seen a model of "The Black 
Maria," the first Edison studio. This model was made from specifi- 
cations furnished by W. K. L. Dickson, who made the original studio 
for Edison in the early 1890's. Besides this model there are other 
models showing a present-day sound stage with all its appurtenances. 
There is also a model showing how a glass matte process "shot" is 
photographed. Plans have been promulgated for adding to the 
miniature models in this display as and when they can be made. 

Particular attention is being given toward bringing together the 
mechanical equipment. Projectors and cameras made by a number 
of pioneers have already been acquired, and have been treated to pre- 
vent corrosion and destruction before placing on display. This 
equipment, after being received at the Museum, is carefully cleaned, 
the rust is removed, and it is so treated as to prevent the formation of 
new rust. 

Many archives have also been gathered both for preservation and 
display. The catalogs issued by the Biograph Company showing 
photographs from the first Biograph films have been acquired 
from the collection of George E. Van Guysling. Mr. Van Guysling, 



262 E. THEISEN [j. S. M. p E. 

who was Manager of the Biograph Company during the years 1904 
to 1907, saved many of the records of the Biograph Company. For 
the most part these have been placed with the Los Angeles Museum; 
some have been put into display cases, while the other material has 
been placed in the Museum storeroom for safe-keeping. A store- 
room of about 3000 square feet has been set aside for this purpose. 

Mr. J. Stuart Blackton has made available material from the old 
Vitagraph Company. In the Blackton collection may be seen, among 
other things, the drawings from which was made the Vitagraph trade- 
mark. Mr. Blackton also supplied a Biograph mutoscope "peep 
show," of 1908. In this mutoscope may be seen a complete picture 
showing the members of the Patents Company. One-half of the men 
shown in the picture have since died. The motion picture is not 




FIG. 2. Old slide of about 1831-32, on display in the S. M. P. E. exhibit. 
Only a small portion could be projected at a time. The slide was painted 
in panorama, so that motion of the train would be simulated as the slide 
was passed through the lantern. Candles were used in the magic lantern 
for illumination. 

upon film, but upon the mutoscope cards which flipped past the line 
of vision and thus integrated the progressive motion of the successive 
photographs upon the cards. 

Other pioneers have supplied photographs, hand-bills, and other 
memorabilia from the Kalem, Lubin, Essanay, Selig, and, in fact, all 
the more widely known early motion picture companies. Much of 
this material is in the form of hand-bills, as in the case of a collection 
of Edison programs during the period of 1909 to 1911 furnished by 
Herbert Prior, an Edison leading man at that time. These hand-bills 
bear descriptions of the pictures, photographs, and, in later hand- 
bills, listings of the casts. 

Records on display at the Museum indicate that the motion pic- 
ture players first began to receive publicity in 1910. A copy of the 
Sunday Post Dispatch of St. Louis carried a feature article on May 20, 
1910, announcing for the first time "that the IMP Girl is really Flor- 
ence Lawrence," This, according to available records, was the 



Mar., 1936] HISTORICAL MOTION PICTURE EXHIBIT 263 

publicity given to a motion picture player, and was brought about 
through the enterprise of Carl Laemmle, for whom Florence Lawrence 
was working at the time. 

The Motion Picture Story Magazine, which was first published in 
February, 1911, by J. Stuart Blackton as the Patent Company's 
publication, carried stories about the players. One of the early pic- 
tures in which Edison gave credit to a cast was a 700-ft. picture en- 
titled The International Heart-Breaker, released on December 11, 1911. 
Examples of all this "star" publicity may be seen on display in the 
Museum exhibit. 

The Museum also has on display, from the George E. Van Guysling 
collection, hand-bills from motion pictures made in Los Angeles in 
1906. One hand-bill issued by the Biograph Company from their 
Los Angeles office, 2623 Pico Street, dated June 17, 1906, announces 
a picture entitled A Daring Hold- Up in Southern California. An 
earlier picture had been made on June 10, 1906. There is also on 
display an announcement from the Billboard Magazine of that time, 
of the opening at Los Angeles of a branch of the American Biograph 
Co. As indicated by the Los Angeles City Directory, the Biograph 
Company remained in Los Angeles continually from that date until 
the dissolution of the company. There is a popular tradition that 
the first motion pictures were made in Los Angeles by Colonel W. N. 
Selig in 1908. David Horsley is credited with making the first pic- 
tures in Hollywood in October, 1911. 

These hand-bills, along with suitable photographs, are displayed 
in swinging frames permitting the visitors to the museum to study 
the exhibit closely. Also in the swinging frames are many patent 
papers and other documents. Upon the walls are framed and auto- 
graphed pictures of many of the motion picture pioneers, including 
Edison, Eastman, and others. Framed nickelodeon posters hang 
upon the wall. 

Upon display in the gallery is an attempt to show how the idea 
of motion pictures began more than 250 centuries ago and evolved up 
to the present time. A photograph is shown, supplied by Will Day 
of London, of a boar having two distinct sets of legs, the original 
drawing of which, upon the wall of a cave at Altmira, Spain, dates 
back to approximately 25,000 B.C. The drawing was evidently an 
attempt by the artists of that time to represent motion pictorially. 
Preserved in the Museum files are records of many attempts to pro- 
duce motion pictures before photography was available, an example of 



264 E. THEISEN 

which was the magic lantern. On display are magic lanterns ex- 
ploying either candles or kerosene, and many beautifully hand- 
painted slides, arranged in narrative sequence with the idea of telling 
a story. For instance, the travel lecture, Through the Holy Land, 
depicts in succession the various interesting sights of the Holy Land, 
intended to be accompanied by suitable explanatory discussion. As 
an example of the "story slides," there is The Orphan's Dream, in 
which is depicted in a series of three slides the story of the little or- 
phan going to Heaven and seeing the angels. The first slide, known 
as the "foundation slide," showed the orphan asleep upon a couch; the 
second slide was superimposed in the upper right-hand corner and 
gradually slid into view upon the screen, thus introducing the idea of 
the angels appearing to the orphan. 

Besides the historical material upon display, material has been de- 
signed to explain the current motion picture processes, such as the 
making of an animated cartoon, the coloring of motion pictures, the 
lighting technics, etc. In these displays, wherever possible, actual 
examples of the successive steps of the processes are shown, along 
with suitable labels. 

The Historical and Museum Committee and the Los Angeles Mu- 
seum are particularly interested in preserving the history of the mo- 
tion picture as it unfolds. With this purpose, various companies 
and leaders of the cinema are encouraged to send literature, para- 
phernalia, and other items that portray evolutionary progress. A 
number of magazines send complimentary subscriptions so that a com- 
plete file of current events is preserved. 

At this time it is fitting that a plea be made for further acces- 
sions and for the cooperation of those who may have in their posses- 
sion any historical motion picture material. Persons having such 
material owe posterity a duty. Motion picture relics must be pre- 
served, and since there is little commerical value attached to the 
relics, it follows that this material should be deposited with the Mo- 
tion Picture Museum. Credit is always given to the donors upon labels 
describing the exhibits. ,In certain instances where it is inadvisable 
to make the material an outright gift to the Museum, recall privileges 
may be granted. 



THE MOTION PICTURE COLLECTION AT 
THE NATIONAL MUSEUM* 



A. J. OLMSTEAD** 

Summary. The Smithsonian Institution was created in 1846 by act of Congress 
according to the terms of the will of James Smithson, of England, who bequeathed 
his property to the U. S. Government for the purpose of founding at Washington an 
establishment for increasing and diffusing knowledge among men, and to be known 
as the Smithsonian Institution. The Section of Photography is a part of the Divi- 
sion of Graphic Arts. It constitutes in its exhibits a history of photography, both 
still and motion, as represented by 12,180 specimens. The present paper describes 
some of these exhibits in relation to their historical aspects. 

Recently I was advised that the Board of Governors of the Society 
had sanctioned the Smithsonian Institution as a depository of motion 
picture material, thus authorizing in the East a depository for the 
exhibition and display of such equipment. Museums grow slowly 
and exhibit and care for what has passed into history. We speak of 
material over 50 years old as being of museum age, under which rule 
motion picture apparatus is just approaching maturity, as I believe 
the beginnings of the motion picture industry were some 40 years ago. 
However, early machines, methods, and processes are rapidly passing, 
and no time should be wasted in collecting the material and placing 
it where it will be cared for and be safe. Of all museums, national, 
state, or city, the national is on a most enduring foundation. The 
section of photography, covering both still and motion pictures, is 
some sixty years old; and here a tribute should be paid to its founder, 
Thomas W. Smillie, who had the wisdom to make the beginning and 
whose chief interest it was during the forty -eight years in which he 
served the Institution. 

It is my purpose to review briefly the motion picture material now 
in the collection, and to invite you to inspect it. Toys embodying 
the principle of persistence of vision as a factor in creating an illusion 
of motion date back to 1830. We have a combination toy zoetrope 

* Presented at the Fall, 1935, Meeting at Washington, D. C. 
"* Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 

265 



266 A. J. OLMSTEAD [J. S. M. p. E, 

dated 1876, from the U. S. Patent Office, the inventor of which states 
that it can be used as a paper collar-box after the termination of its 
period of usefulness as a toy. Other zoetropes or "Whirligigs of 
Life" are shown, some employing mirrors and some lenses in their 
construction. The periphantoscope whirls before a mirror, thus 
differing in construction from the zoetropes in that the reflection is 
viewed through slotted openings, a whole library of carefully drawn 
disks being provided to afford a variety of entertainment. The 
phantoscope provides a semblance of motion by allowing a series of 
prints bound tightly together at one edge to flip successively under 
the thumb at the opposite edge. These are some of the devices of the 
premovie days, mainly for the purpose of providing amusement for 
children and adults. 

The Eadweard Muy bridge collection is very complete. Muy bridge 
began his historic experiments in 1872 in an effort to settle a dispute 
as to whether a trotting horse had all four feet off the ground at any 
part of its stride. His work and his photographs of the horse, taken 
with twenty-four cameras, form a historic episode in the art, and 
proved this to be true. Following his work in California, Muybridge 
was given a grant of forty thousand dollars by the University of 
Pennsylvania to carry further his study of human and animal motion, 
the culmination of which work embodied the publication of some 
eight hundred photogravure plates of a wide variety of subjects, for 
which he received world-wide recognition. The work was all done 
with dry plates, exposed serially in a battery of cameras not a single 
camera and single point of view, as we now take motion pictures. 
The zoopraxi scope was Muybridge's instrument for projecting the 
pictures. 

In 1887 Wallace Gould Levison, a member of the Brooklyn Acad- 
emy of Science, constructed a camera, included in the collection of the 
Smithsonian, that would expose twelve plates in less than a second. 
These plates were placed upon the periphery of a drum and exposed 
by an electrically operated shutter. This camera recorded motion 
from one point of view, thus differing in principle and practice from 
Muybridge's multiple-camera method. 

Film came upon the market about 1888, and was a big aid in the 
solution of the movie camera and projector problems. Of Edison's 
material the most important in the collection is a projection kineto- 
scope, the lamp house of which contains a lime light: electricity was 
not then so available as now. There are also two cameras and a 



Mar., 1936] NATIONAL MUSEUM COLLECTION 267 

light-testing machine accredited to Edison ; and a synchronizer, dated 
1908, in which an effort was made to synchronize an Edison talking 
machine with a motion picture film. The machine was operated by 
a battery, and to keep the picture and speech together, the operator 
kept the green light burning, the red being an indication of "out of 
time." It has been said that with the present means of sound repro- 
duction and amplication, this machine would give excellent results 
with old film and records. The great difficulty at the time was 
not that of keeping the sound and picture together, but that the 
sound was weak and the needle scratched badly. 

One of the first projectors to be used commercially, the eidoloscope, 
was invented by Woodville Latham, and was used in April, 1895, to 
give public exhibitions in New York, N. Y. It was probably the 
third machine of its kind that was constructed, and was used by Le- 
Roy Latham, a son of Woodville Latham, to give exhibitions at Nor- 
folk, Newport News, and Richmond. A later machine, patented in 
1902, maintained the loop and included an intermittent movement 
with an improved shutter. The instrument stands in a case in the 
Museum by itself, and was shown at the sesquicentennial exposition 
at Philadelphia. 

In connection with the eidoloscope I well remember the first visit 
of Eugene A. Lauste to the motion picture exhibit. He greeted this 
machine with affection and much feeling, saying that he did not know 
that one existed, and that he had helped to build the machine as well 
as design it. 

The Jenkins material at present fills one section of a wall case. 
Fifteen years ago a small part of this collection formed the beginning 
of the Museum's exhibit of motion picture apparatus. The Muy- 
bridge material was added later. 

The Jenkins exhibit is most complete : it includes equipment dating 
from Jenkins' experiments and processes to the final aerial map- 
ping camera, one of his last jobs. The list is a long one and I shall 
only mention the items in a general way: early motion picture 
cameras and projectors; later equipment for radio transmission of 
photographs; television and motion picture equipment; high-speed 
motion picture cameras for analysis of motion ; apparatus for trans- 
mitting weather maps by radio to ships at sea; and, finally, the aerial 
mapping camera already mentioned. 

Edward Amet, of Waukegan, 111., did some early work on projec- 
tion. We have three of his models: (7) a demonstration model to 



268 A. J. OLMSTEAD [j. s. M. P. E. 

prove that a motion picture could be taken and projected; (2) one 
made in 1894-95, of which some 500 were made and sold; (3) one 
made for the market in 1900, employing a claw. 

Of the work of Marvin and Casler we have three cameras and one 
projector. The machines are large and cumbersome; the camera 
was driven by a 2-hp. motor, and the film was 2 3 /4 inches wide, with- 
out perforations. It was exposed at the rate of forty a second. The 
camera that they constructed worked, and did not infringe existing 
patents. The design was largely due to the genius of Casler. The 
prints were first shown in a peep-hole machine known as the muto- 
scope, and later positives were projected with a machine known as 
the bio graph. The work of these two men resulted in the formation 
in 1896, of the great Biograph Company that made motion picture 
history for the next 20 years, invading England and France and con- 
structing studios and laboratories. 

Standing at the corner of the exhibit, and in actual operation, we 
have one of the mutoscopes mentioned above, which was shown by 
the U. S. Post Office Department at the St. Louis Exposition in 1904. 

Eberhardt Schneider is represented by two early printers, three 
perforators, four film polishers and rewinds, five projector heads and 
five cameras, all of his invention and manufacture. 

Most important and of great interest in this collection is a frame of 
film specimens dating from 1895. 

Recently there have been acquired from the Bell Telephone Labo- 
ratories a collection of fifty-nine specimens of the early work of 
Eugene A. Lauste, of whose contributions to the modern sound picture 
art too much can not be said. Lauste's work began in the eighties : 
in 1889 he was with Edison, and later with Woodville Latham (1894), 
designing and building the eidoloscope, used for public performances 
in 1895. He was first to record sound and scene upon the same film, 
his English patent being dated August, 1906. Lacking vacuum tube 
amplification, he was unable to operate his loud speakers with satis- 
factory volume. His work in recording sound was far in advance of 
the science of reproduction. 

To mention a few of the more important models: 1908-9, sound 
reproducer; 1910-11, camera and projector for sound and scene; 
1911-12, sound recorder; 1912-13, sound and scene projector. 
Added to this material later was a most valuable collection of photo- 
graphs and manuscripts, carefully arranged by Mr. Lauste over a 
period of years, descriptive of his work and that of many of his con- 



Mar., 1936] NATIONAL MUSEUM COLLECTION 269 

temporaries in the early days of motion picture development. Mr. 
Lauste had the pleasure of seeing his exhibit arranged upon the 
shelves of the Smithsonian a few short weeks before his death on 
June 26, 1935. 

Last, but not least, in October, 1923, this Society the Society of 
Motion Picture Engineers presented the Institution with a histori- 
cal collection, consisting of some 15 specimens of film strips and 
screen-plates of which I shall mention a few : McDonough-Joly screen- 
plate ; Fenske Aurora screen-plate ; Thames plates ; Kelley line-screen ; 
Krayn screen; Omnicolor plate; Ives chromoscope slides; and Bio- 
graph, Brewster, Prizma, and Technicolor film strips. 

In preparing this paper I have discovered the list of the historical 
motion picture material now in the collection is a sizable one, and, in 
conclusion, will as a summary mention the names of some the in- 
ventors whose work is now represented : Muybridge, Levison, Edison, 
Latham, Jenkins, Amet, Marvin and Casler, Schneider, and Lauste 
all names that appear large in motion picture history. 



THE INTERRELATION OF TECHNICAL AND DRAMATIC 
DEVICES OF MOTION PICTURES* 

B. V. MORKOVIN** 

Summary. The dramatic technic of motion pictures is determined by the cinema 
mechanics and by the way the actual world is shaped through the medium of lens and 
microphone. The technician must be guided in his work by an understanding of the 
dramatic purposes and meanings of the devices used and by a knowledge of the fun- 
damentals of cinematic dramaturgy. Some of the requisites for attaining a 
harmonious blend of all the cinematic powers and possibilities, and the differences 
between mere stage productions and motion picture productions are pointed out. 

Dramatic art, whether it be literary, stage, or screen drama, works 
upon the emotions of the readers and audiences by twofold processes, 
opposed to each other, yet harmoniously balanced : 

One takes them away from the vexations of their actual life into 
the realm of make-believe. It fascinates by imaginary transformation 
of life, and transports by the spark of unreality. 

The other process makes believable the impossible and the strange. 
By an illusion of life-likeness it stirs the interest, arouses sympathetic 
emotions, and plays upon the keyboard of the past experience of the 
readers and spectators. Drama gives the excitement and thrill of 
first-hand experience without making the reader or spectator pay 
the price for his experience. 

The form of drama most expressive in its means, most adequate 
for conveying the complex experience of our dynamic age, is the 
cinematic drama, the motion picture. Unprecedented in history by 
any other form of artistic expression, cinematic means, since their 
inception a little more than half a century ago, have been continuously 
and cumulatively enriched by the work of national and international 
geniuses of science and technic. The fields directly or indirectly 
related to the cinema have been enhancing the powers of cinematic 
expression : sound, light, electricity, chemistry, all branches of photo- 
graphy, radio, television, etc. This scientific and technical contribu- 



TECHNICAL AND DRAMATIC DEVICES 271 

tion keeps perfecting the cinematic tools and their ability to capture 
and reproduce human experience with precision, sensitiveness, and 
vigor. At the same time, the cinema has benefited from the growing 
richness and finesse of all the arts that constitute its ingredients and 
contributors: literature, legitimate theater stagecraft, painting, 
sculpture, architecture, music, and ballet. 

Not unlike modern witchcraft, the cinema creates in the mind of 
the spectator an illusion of living through the life experiences of char- 
acters. It achieves this by means of sympathy with or for characters 
and their vicissitudes, and by empathy, or unconscious repetition in 
the spectator's muscles and body of the movements and actions of 
characters. 

In order to produce this hypnotic illusion, cinema has mastered its 
material and tools and made them malleable, and has learned to 
organize its material into a variety of stimuli working upon the hu- 
man nerves of eyes and ears and indirectly upon the nerves of the 
other senses. The material for the visual stimuli is provided by the 
actors, their bodies, feelings, and thoughts; by the costumes, make-up, 
furniture, settings, and other props of all epochs and descriptions; 
by composition of lines and masses, clarified and reenforced by camera 
angles and distances, and by distribution of light and shadows: the 
material for aural stimuli is provided by sounds, noises, dialog, and 
music. All these stimuli are organized emotionally into peculiar, 
dramatic patterns. The cinematic stimuli, as the Greek KIV^OL 
indicates, work essentially by means of movements, large and small, 
from the mere drooping of the eyelids to spectacular battles and 
chases and the play of emotions behind them as the motivating forces. 
The dramatic expressiveness and powers of the cinema are increased 
by the technical progress, the perfection of technical equipment, 
camera, lighting, optical printer, processes, sound equipment, color, 
etc. 

The scenario writer and the director, who translate the story into 
cinematic terms, have to learn to think cinematically, to become 
cinema conscious. Like a good musician who hears the music while 
reading the notes, the director while reading the story, or its adapta- 
tion, must visualize it in actions, movements, and sounds with dialog 
added for punch and clarity. Technical devices of the cinema and 
their effects play the same role for the scenario writer and director 
as do words for the writer of fiction. The richer and more expressive 
the vocabulary of words, idioms, metaphors, and associations com- 



272 B. V. MORKOVIN [j. s. M. p. E. 

manded by a fiction writer, the greater the facility and freedom of 
imagination in his writing. Likewise with the scenario writer and 
the director; in order to express effectively the dramatic situations 
and the mental states of the characters, they must have at their 
finger tips a large "catalog" of dramatic effects and all the psycho- 
logical capabilities of numerous technical devices of camera, light, 
and sound, and must know also when and how to use them. If they 
are not skilled in the cinematic technic and are not cinema conscious, 
they will depend entirely upon the technicians for their cinematic 
resources. They will not create an imaginative cinematic drama; 
they will merely transpose the story scene by scene into terms of 
camera and microphone with the customary dialog. They will use 
literary and stage technic instead of the cinematic technic of move- 
ment and interaction of characters. 

In translating stories into motion pictures, scenario writers and 
directors should adhere to rules governing their construction into 
scenes and sequences that are in accordance with the essential 
technical nature of cinema. Cinematic devices produced by the 
camera and the microphone or by cutting must not be strung to- 
gether mechanically. The attempt to do so by directors who are 
not trained cinematically is equivalent to translating from one 
language into another without possessing a knowledge of grammar 
and syntax and trying to put together in a haphazard way the words 
looked up in the dictionary. 

The eyes and ears unconsciously register and coordinate in the brain 
the different aspects of visual and aural experience. Being parts of 
one head, eyes and ears blend their experiences automatically, each 
reenforcing the other. The cinematic eye the lens, and cinematic 
ear the microphone, do not proceed automatically to register and 
coordinate the material they record. The brains behind them, the 
cinematographer, the sound engineer, and the director, make a great 
and deliberate effort to weld different visual and aural effects and 
orchestrate them effectively, as it were, into a technical and dramatic 
unity. 

The "filmic" world by no means is a reproduction of the real world. 
It is artificial and technical, through and through. It has its own 
space and time; in conveying moods and delineating characters and 
events, it uses its short-hand language of suggestions, contrasts, 
comparisons, and symbolism. Working with prearranged illusions, 
it is sometimes more realistic and vivid than reality itself. A force- 



Mar., 1936] TECHNICAL AND DRAMATIC DEVICES 273 

ful film can be produced only by a smoothly flowing continuity built 
in a dramatically crescendo. For that purpose the director and editor 
should know how to guide the spectator's thoughts and feelings into 
a total dramatically unified impression; how to tell the story skill- 
fully in pictures and sound, with well timed atmospheric effects 
accomplished by the various technical devices. The attention of the 
spectator is guided and directed by the distribution of light, converg- 
ing lines and emphasis by contrast, by close-ups, by sound, inanimate 
objects, dramatic clash, by increased or decreased tempo. A cine- 
matically trained director having all the cinematic resources at the 
tip of his finger, effectively organizes them and builds his drama as 
an engineer with a thorough knowledge of his materials, combining 
them according to the purpose he wishes to achieve. He keeps the 
spectator's emotions at close grips with the unfolding cinematic 
drama, stirring them profoundly at the climax, and sending the 
spectator home after settling the main issues of the hero's predica- 
ment. 

The progress achieved by the technicians and engineers contributes 
immensely to the dramatic progress and effectiveness of motion 
pictures. The expressive power at the disposal of the writers and 
directors depends upon the precision, sensitiveness, flexibility, and 
efficiency of the equipment, and upon the ability to control the condi- 
tions under which the equipment is used. The work is accomplished 
by minutely dividing the labor of the technical workers and the func- 
tions of the contrivances and instruments used. Each of these instru- 
ments and devices produces different effects. The minute speciali- 
zation of the work of each technician and each instrument increases 
the difficulty of adjusting and harmonizing each phase of the work 
with all the others. 

The integration of all these effects into a practical unity resembles, 
in a way, the solving of a jigsaw puzzle. And yet the success of a 
picture and its ability to gain and hold the spectator's attention 
spontaneously are not immediately due to the splendid technical 
devices, but to the fact that the picture creates an impression of having 
been made out of one piece and the single effects entirely submerged 
by the whole. 

Because of the need of harmoniously blending all the technical de- 
vices to produce a unified dramatic effect, it is necessary that : 

(1) The technicians have a fundamental knowledge of other technical media. 



274 B. V. MORKOVIN 

camera, sound, light, composition, set construction, etc., since these are inter- 
dependent and intertwined. 

(2} The work of the technicians, in order to be in harmony with the aims of 
the director, must be guided by an understanding of the dramatic purposes and 
meanings of the devices they use and by the knowledge of fundamentals of the 
dramatic structure. 

The unprecedented progress of the American motion picture in- 
dustry has secured its world leading position. If this position is to 
be maintained, it is not sufficient to organize the progress in each of 
its fields, technical and dramatic, separately; both fields should be 
more closely interrelated, and the progress in technical machinery 
and devices should be utilized more fully for psychological and dra- 
matic effects. This would at the same time eliminate a good deal of 
the production waste caused by the hit-and-miss methods. For this 
purpose are required: 

(1) Research into the interrelation of the technical, psychological, and dra- 
matic aspects of cinematic devices. 

(2} Research into the laws and technic of blending the effects of the various 
optical and auditory devices into the new values and dramatic possibilities arising 
from their combination. 

(5) Opportunity for technicians and engineers to study the fundamentals of 
other and adjacent technics, cinematic dramaturgy, and the dramatic and psy- 
chological effects of the various technical devices. 

(4) To provide facilities for the dramatic workers of the industry, scenario 
writers, directors, editors, and others to study the fundamentals of motion pic- 
ture technic and to experiment with it. 

The industry must eliminate the haphazard methods of hit and 
miss in organizing its production. The nature of the cinema 
as an interrelation between the dramatic and the technical aspects 
should be thoroughly understood and scientifically and experimentally 
elucidated. When that is done, the difference between the motion 
picture industry and the sausage or the automobile industry will be 
clearly seen. New untouched and unlimited potentialities of motion 
picture science, technic, and art will be opened. Then industry will 
have the technical and dramatic super-experts, who will understand 
the laws of blending harmoniously all the cinematic media, recognize 
the technical and dramatic powers and possibilities of the cinema, 
and how to use them in every changing situation. This research and 
study should be organized by the studios for their members with the 
cooperation of the various educational, engineering, scientific, and 
dramatic bodies versed in the subject. 



THE USE OF MOTION PICTURES IN HUMAN 
POWER MEASUREMENT* 



J. M. ALBERT** 

Summary. A brief description of the application of motion pictures to the study 
of the motions of operatives in factories, etc. Eight-mm. film is used, and means are 
provided for studying and analyzing the motions either at various speeds of projection 
or frame by frame. 

The object of this paper is to acquaint the motion picture engineer 
with some of the problems that confront the industrial engineer, and 
how the development of motion picture equipment for use in such 
work is assisting to solve these problems. 

All items of cost must be measured by some recognized unit, and 
once the measuring unit is established, its evaluation in terms of 
dollars is simple. Therefore, if the work of the industrial engineer is 
to be accurate, all items of cost including labor cost must be reduced 
to a unit-of-measurement terminology. 

Until such a unit was developed by Chas. E. Bedaux some years ago, 
industry had no uniform and accurate scale by which to measure the 
expenditure of human effort. Men were hired by the year, the month, 
day, hour, or piece for a certain sum, and their efforts were measured 
by what they produced in terms of pounds, feet, gallons, etc. As a 
historical record of cost this method enabled the business man to 
know whether during the past year he had made a profit or a loss, 
but it did not tell him why, nor did it provide him with any means of 
controlling his expenditures. 

In order to control costs it is necessary to know, not only the actual 
costs, but, far more important, what the costs should have been. 
Having established standards of production for each operation in the 
plant, the setting of standard costs is quite simple. The Bedaux 
Unit, or B, is the unit for measuring human effort. It is the work pro- 
duced by a normal workman, working at a normal rate under normal 
conditions, in one minute. Sixty Bedaux Units constitutes a standard 

* Presented at the Spring, 1935, Meeting at Hollywood, Calif. 
** Chas. E. Bedaux Co., 

275 



276 J. M. ALBERT [J. S. M. P. E. 

normal hour's work. This is standard performance, and is required of 
every worker in the plant in order that he earn his base pay. To de- 
termine the standard performance correctly and exactly two funda- 
mental activities must be initiated, and several variable factors must 
be determined: (^4) time studies, and (B) motion studies. Before the 
development of light, portable motion picture equipment, time and 
motion had to be studied separately. Time studies were made with 
the stop-watch. Motion studies were made by observation. The two 
were not synchronized, and the human factor entered into both to a 
greater or less degree, depending upon the natural skill and the ac- 
quired training of the persons making the studies. 

The motion picture photograph obviated this difficulty, accurately 
and permanently, but there still remained several important modifica- 
tions or improvements to be made in the equipment itself. It was 
found, for example, that the ordinary 8-mm. spring-driven Cine 
Kodak was not timed accurately enough for time studies. Having but 
one speed, which had a tendency to vary slightly in relation to the 
tension of the spring, constant winding was necessary, which made it 
rather awkward to use. Having no slow-speed attachment, its value 
for motion and job analysis was very limited. Requiring considerable 
space for the spring mechanism, etc., it did not hold sufficient film 
for our purpose. 

The equipment developed for time and motion study consists of an 
8-mm. Cine Kodak with a lens working at object distances of 2 feet. 
It is electrically driven, on any a-c. or d-c. circuit of voltage up to 130, 
the speed being regulated in part by a central rheostat at the back of 
the motor, but principally by a centrifugal governor. The camera 
exposes 1000 frames of Super Sensitive film per minute at normal 
speed, and 4000 frames at high speed. This gives us an exposure 
possibility of 1 / 30 of a second for slow-motion work. It has been found 
that, here in California, on clear brilliant days, little, if any, artificial 
lighting is required. In any case, only one or two ordinary photo- 
flood lamps and reflectors are required, set up at the proper distance 
and angle relative to the operation to be studied. 

Eight-mm. Super Sensitive film is put up in 16-mm. reels. One 
half the width of the film is exposed at a time, the roll is then threaded 
for running in the reverse direction, and the other half is then exposed. 
The Bedaux measurement camera is designed to carry a maximum of 
100 feet of 16-mm. film, or 200 feet of 8-mm. width. This provides 
16 minutes' running time at standard speed, which is ample to cover 



Mar., 1936] PICTURES IN HUMAN POWER MEASUREMENT 277 

practically any operating cycle. In fact, most cycles are so short that 
only a few feet of film are required for each one. Each cycle is, of 
course, identified by photographing its number and symbol from a 
number plate, after the study of the cycle is completed. 

The photographic technic is but little more exacting than that 
required of a good amateur. However, the technic of the industrial 
engineer is considerably more professional than that. He is not con- 
cerned with the facial make-up, or expression of the face of the sub- 
ject, at any rate. 'He wants an accurate story of time and motion. 
But the sets can not be staged. They must be the actual operations 
performed in the shop and the factory under ordinary working condi- 
tions. The movements of the hands must be seen, of the feet, the 
body, the manipulation of the machine, and the machine itself in 
operation. 

In addition to modifying the camera, it was likewise necessary to 
alter and improve the projector. Knowing the taking speed to a 
split second was of little value unless the projection speed could be 
controlled. This was done by equipping the projector with a speedom- 
eter, a rheostat for controlling the motor speed, and a frame counter. 
With these attachments we are able to project film at speeds of 50 to 
150 per cent of the normal running speed. By throwing a switch, the 
motor is cut out, and each frame can be projected as a still picture 
by means of a hand-crank. In addition, a method of loop projection 
has been developed. The film is cut at the end of an operation or 
cycle photographed, and the two ends are joined together to form 
a loop, which can be projected over and over again, slowed down or 
speeded up, or projected a frame at a time with the aid of the hand- 
crank, bringing the process or the machine and the operator literally 
into the laboratory. 

Each frame is studied and analyzed. The analysis is transferred 
to an analysis sheet, where the study is continued. Wasted time 
of either hand, or both hands, is shown on the analysis sheet lined in 
red. Steps are taken to eliminate as largely as possible all waste time 
and unnecessary motion. A corrected operation is formulated, 
photographed, and analyzed, and the workers are trained to use the 
corrected method by projecting the new loop. The loops, and the 
analysis sheet taken from them, become permanent records of the 
machine, the process, and the time and motion involved. Each loop 
is filed in a humidifier cabinet with a card upon which has been 
catalogued the description and number of the loop. 



278 J. M. ALBERT 

These film loop records constitute a complete record of operations 
and equipment of great value to the industrialist. They bring time 
and motion studies together for analysis, and enable the sequence of 
motions to be studied and improved. Their use in job training for 
new employees must be obvious. Experienced operators who 
ordinarily are required to train the new workers may now remain at 
their work, while the new workers are trained in the best accepted 
method by means of the film loops. 

In the case of the large manufacturer whose plants may be located 
at various geographical points, duplicate loops sent to these scattered 
plants or assembly stations show, in a language impossible to misin- 
terpret, the management's approved method of operation; and as 
new and improved methods are developed, loops taken of the new 
process may be exchanged by the various plants. By the use of the 
loops, accurate Bedaux units, or B values, are set with a minimum 
of time and motion study. The system has been well received by 
labor, for the reason that it improves the accuracy of labor measure- 
ment and the establishment of correct fatigue allowances, and is 
regarded as an outstanding contribution to the field of industrial 
engineering. This equipment has been in actual use in applying 
Bedaux measurement and production control for the past year, and 
has made for itself a permanent place in time and motion studies and 
in job analysis. It has enabled us to measure and set accurate stand- 
ards for types of work which heretofore offered considerable technical 
difficulties for visual observation. 



WILLIAM KENNEDY LAURIE DICKSON 

1860-1935 

W. K. Laurie Dickson was born in France, of Scotch parentage, at 
Chateau St. Buc, Minihic-sur-Ranse in 1860. He came to the United 
States from England in 1879, and two years later was given a position 
by Thomas A. Edison in the Edison Electric Works, Goerk St., New 
York, N. Y., where he worked upon the standardization of electrical 
apparatus. Four years later, in 1885, he was transferred to Mr. 
Edison's private research laboratory at Newark, N. J. 

During the year 1887 he began work under Edison's supervision 
at the new laboratory building at Orange, N. J., upon a method of 
combining photography with the phonograph, or as Edison expressed 
it, "to devise an instrument that should do for the eye what the 
phonograph does for the ear, and that, by a combination of the two, 
all motion and sound could be recorded and reproduced simultane- 
ously. ' ' 

The experiments progressed rather slowly for lack of a suitable 
photographic recording material until December, 1888, when Dick- 
son obtained experimental samples of a thin, transparent, reliable 
photographic film from George Eastman at Rochester, N. Y. Several 
types of intermittent movement had previously been tried out, and 
a modified Maltese cross was adopted in the Autumn of 1888. 

Rapid progress was made with the design of the camera or "kineto- 
graph" during the Spring and Summer of 1889. A fast negative emul- 
sion was used at first, both for the negatives and the prints, but later 
a slow positive film was made available for printing. Several widths 
of film and picture sizes were used before the l 3 /g-inch film width and 
the 1 X 3 / 4 -inch picture size were adopted in 1889. These film and 
picture sizes remained the standard for the entire motion picture in- 
dustry for many years, until the introduction of the photographic 
sound-track, about 1928, forced the adoption of a smaller picture 
size. 

On October 6, 1889, Edison returned to his laboratory from an 
extended visit of several weeks in Europe. It was on that occasion 

279 



280 



G. E. MATTHEWS 



[J. S. M. P. E. 



that Dickson demonstrated for him the kineto-phonograph. This 
instrument consisted of a peep-hole kinetoscope modified to project 
a small picture from the continuously moving film. The pictures were 
synchronized with a phonograph record. 

Edison did not believe at that time that the whole idea would be 
more than a passing fad, and, therefore, the continuous-motion 
kinetoscope was designed and sold as a peep-hole device and its 




William Kennedy Laurie Dickson, 
1860-1935. 



audience was restricted to one person at a time. The film as finally 
adopted toward the end of 1889 had two rows of perforations, four 
to each picture, and these specifications have been used for motion 
pictures for the past 45 years. 

Dickson also devised equipment for developing and printing the 
film. He built the first motion picture studio in 1891-92, which came 
to be known as the "Black Maria," because of its tar-paper exterior 
covering. It was constructed upon a turntable so arranged that the 



Mar., 1936] WILLIAM KENNEDY LAURIE DlCKSON 281 

entire structure could be rotated so as to follow the sun. A section 
of the roof was made to fold back to admit direct sunlight on the 
actors. Most of the subjects photographed were single acts of leading 
vaudeville stars of that period 1889-95. Each motion picture 
print was forty-seven feet long, and was released through Messrs. 
Raff and Gammon of New York, who were agents for the kinetoscope. 

Dickson's work between the years 1887 and 1895, therefore, em- 
braced almost every phase of development of the motion picture, 
with the exception of a practical projection device developed by 
Thomas Armat in 1895-96. Summarized, these developments in- 
cluded an intermittent camera using perforated film ! 3 / 8 inches wide, 
sprocket wheels, a friction pulley, and a tension gate; a developing 
outfit; a printer and a non-intermittent viewing device. He also 
synchronized several pictures with the phonograph, and directed and 
produced the first motion pictures that were shown commercially. 

Although he left Edison's employ in 1895, he always praised his 
chief, and gave him and George Eastman the major credit for invent- 
ing the principal elements of the motion picture as it is known today. 

In 1933 at the request of the Historical Committee of this Society, 
Mr. Dickson prepared a detailed account of his work and illustrated 
it with several interesting hand sketches and photographs. 1 This 
account included a discussion of his association with the American 
Mutoscope and Biograph Company, and the famous Patents Com- 
pany that was formed in 1908. It describes also some of his experi- 
ences as a cameraman in Italy, where he was the first to make motion 
pictures of the Pope, and his photography of the Boer War. 

On October 16, 1933, W. K. L. Dickson was elected to Honorary 
Membership in the Society. By his death on September 30, 1935, 
we have lost a distinguished colleague whose contributions to the 
birth of motion pictures were real and lasting. 



GLENN E. MATTHEWS 



REFERENCE 



1 DICKSON, W. K. L.: "A Brief History of the Kinetograph, the Kineto- 
scope, and the Kineto- Phonograph," J. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., XXI (Dec., 1933), 
No. 6, p. 435. 



OFFICERS AND GOVERNORS OF THE SOCIETY 

1936 






L. A. JONES S. K. WOLF J. I. CRABTREE 

Engineering Vice-P resident Executive Vice-P resident Editorial Vice-President 




H. G. TASKER 

President 





O. M. GLUNT 
Financial Vice-P resident 
282 



A. N. GOLDSMITH 
Past-President 



W. C. KUNZMANN 

Convention Vice-President 



OFFICERS AND GOVFRNORS 



283 




J. H. KURLANDER 

Secretary 




T. E. SHEA 
Treasurer 






A. S. DICKINSON 
Governor 



H. GRIFFIN 

Governor 



A. C. HARDY 
Governor 





M. C. BATSEL 

Governor 



E. HUSE 
Governor 



284 



OFFICERS AND GOVERNORS 



SECTIONS OF THE SOCIETY 

1936 






L. W. DAVEE 

Chairman, Atlantic 

Coast Section 



C. H. STONE 

Chairman Mid- West 

Section 




G. F. RACKETT 

Chairman, Pacific 

Coast Section 



ATLANTIC COAST SECTION 
L. W. DAVEE, Chairman 



H. G. TASKER, Past-Chairman 
D. E. HYNDMAN, Sec.-Treas. 



M. C. BATSEL, Manager 
H. GRIFFIN, Manager 



MID-WEST SECTION 
C. H. STONE, Chairman 



E. J. COUR, Past-Chairman 
S. A. LUKES, Sec.-Treas. 



O. B. DEPUE, Manager 
B. E. STECHBART, Manager 



PACIFIC COAST SECTION 
G. F. RACKETT, Chairman 

E. HUSE, Past-Chairman C. W. HANDLEY, Manager 

H. W. MOYSE, Sec.-Treas. K. F. MORGAN, Manager 

(For addresses of officers and governors, see the reverse of the contents page} 



LIST OF MEMBERS* 



AALBERG, J. O. (M) 

157 S. Martel St., Los Angeles, Calif. 
ABRAMS, S. (A) 

10th & Allegheny Aves., Philadelphia, 

Pa. 
ABRIBAT, M. (M) 

Kodak Pat he Research Laboratory, 

Vincennes (Seine), France. 
ADATTE, A. L. (4) 

Pathe Exchange, Inc., Bound Brook, 

N.J. 
AHLUWALIA, B. S. (M) 

c/o K. Singh, Canal Deputy, Col- 
lector PWD, Jubbulpore, India. 
AIKAWA, S. (^4) 

Sendai Radio Broadcasting Station, 
32 Kita-Ichiban-Cho, Sendai, Ja- 
pan. 
AIKEN, C. C. (A) 

1 1 Wedgewood Walk, Merchant ville, 

N.J. 
ALBECKER, C. A. (A) 

1753 S. Bedford St., Los Angeles, 

Calif. 
ALBERT, G. (A) 

6 Rue Guil Raume Cell, Paris, 

France. 
ALBIN, F. G. (4) 

United Artists Studio Corp., 1041 
N. Formosa Ave., Hollywood, Calif. 
ALDERSON, R. G. (^4) 

13 Manor Drive, Mill Hill, London, 

N. W. 7, England. 
ALDRIDGE, K. W. (A) 

39 Stearns Road, Watertown, Mass. 
ALEXANDER, D. M. (M) 

1830 Wood Ave., Colorado Springs, 
Colo. 



ALEXANDER, J. M. (4) 

Audio Pictures, Ltd., 358-362 Ade- 
laide St., West, Toronto, Ontario, 
Canada. 
ALLER, J. (M) 

P. O. Box 1000, Hollywood, Calif. 
ALLEY, G. L. (A) 

Princeton, Missouri. 
ALLSOP, R. (F) 

Nalova, 19 Chelmsford Ave., Lind- 
field, Sydney, N. S. W., Australia. 
ALTIERE, E. S. A. (A) 

31 Woodman St., Providence, R. I. 
ALTMAN, F. E. (4) 

Hawk Eye Works, Eastman Kodak 

Co., Rochester, N. Y. 
AMATI, L. (A) 

Inst. of Physical Chemistry, Via 

Loredan 4, Padova, Italy. 
AMES, M. H. (A) 

1343 Thayer Ave., Los Angeles, Calif. 
ANDERS, H. (A) 

Jam Handy Picture Service, 2821 E. 

Grand Blvd., Detroit, Mich. 
ANDERSON, E. L. (4) 

U. S. S. Herbert 160, c/o Postmaster, 

New York, N. Y. 
ANDRES, L. J. (M) 

6811 Ridgeland Ave., Apt. 3, 

Chicago, 111. 
Aocm, C. (A) 

R. Konishi & Co., No. 1 3-Chome 
Muromachi Nihonbashiku, Tokyo, 
Japan. 
AOYAMA, K. (A) 

No. 389 Kyodo-Machi Setagaya-Ku, 

Tokyo, Japan. 
ARAGONES, D. (M) 

Lauria 86, Barcelona, Spain. 



* Italic letters in parentheses indicate grade of membership : 
(H) Honorary Member (M) Active Member 

(F) Fellow (A) Associate Member 

285 



286 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



[J. S. M. p. E. 



ARAKI, J. K. (A) 

P. O. Box 513, Honolulu, Hawaii. 
ARMAND, V. (A) 

Famous Players Canadian Corp., 
Ltd., Capitol Theater Building, 
Winnipeg, Canada. 
ARMAT, T. (H) 

1063 31st St., Washington, D. C. 
ARMSTRONG, H. L. (A) 

Allentown, N. J. 
ARNOLD, P. (M) 

AgfaAnsco Corp., Binghamton, N. Y. 
ARNSPIGER, V. C. (A) 

Electrical Research Products, Inc., 
250 West 57th St., New York, 
N. Y. 
ARORA, P. N. (A) 

Film City Sound Studios India Ltd., 
160 Tardio Road, Bombay, India. 
ASANO, S. (A) 

7-12 1 Chome Fujimicho, Kojima- 

chiku, Tokyo, Japan. 
ASCHEL, H. (A) 

G. M. Film, 12 Rue Carducci, Paris, 

France. 
ATKINSON, R. B. (^4) 

6706 Santa Monica Blvd., Los 

Angeles, Calif. 
ATKINSON, S. C. (A) 

Regina Photo Supply, Ltd., 1924 

Rose St., Regina, Sask., Canada. 
AUGER, E. (^4) 

RCA Manufacturing Co., Inc., 

Camden, N. J. 
AUSTRIAN, R. B. (A) 

RCA Manufacturing Co., Inc., 411 

Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y. 
AYERS, A. P., JR. (A) 

49 Pratt St., Glastonbury, Conn. 
AVIL, G. (A) 

16600 Westmoreland Road, Detroit, 
Mich. 

BACHMAN, C. J. (M) 

870 Broad St., Newark, N. J. 
BADGLEY, F. C. (F) 

Canadian Government Motion Pic- 
ture Bureau, Ottawa, Canada. 



BAKER, G. W. (M) 

20 McEldowny St., Chicago Heights, 

111. 
BAKER, J. O. (M) 

4311 W. Maple Ave., Merchantville, 

N.J. 
BAKER, R. J. (A) 

1911 Kalakaua Ave., Honolulu, 

Hawaii. 
BAKER, T. T. (A) 

12 E. 86th St., New York, N. Y. 
BAKER, W. R. G. (F) 

General Electric Co., Bridgeport 

Conn. 
BAKHSHI, M. N. (A) 

P. O. Box 5511, Bombay, India. 
BALI, D. N. (A) 

c/o R. Rallia Ram Bali Magistrate, 
Dinga Dist Gujrat, Punjab, India. 
BALL, J. A. (F) 

Drawer B, Hollywood, Calif. 
BALLANTYNE, R. S. (^4) 

219 N. 16th St., Omaha, Nebr. 
BALTIMORE, D. M. (A) 

315 Washington St., Elmira, N. Y. 
BAMFORD, W. B. (A) 

614 10th Avenue, Belmar, N. J. 
BANKS, C. (M) 

Industrial & Educational Films, 
N. Z., c/o Technical Publications, 
Ltd., 22-24 Brandon St., P. O. 
Box 1572, Wellington, C. 1, New 
Zealand. 
BARBER, C. E. (A) 

Box 1334, Oklahoma City, Okla. 
BARKELEW, J. T. (A) 

413 Edison Bldg., Los Angeles, Calif. 
BARKMAN, C. (A) 

Strand Theater, Cumberland, Md. 
BARROWS, T. C. (M) 

Metropolitan Theater, Boston, 

Mass. 
BARZEE, G. W. (^4) 

Western Electric Co., Caixa Postal 

494, Sao Paulo, Brazil. 
BASS, C. (M) 

Bass Camera Co., 179 W. Madison 
St., Chicago, 111. 



Mar., 1930] 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



287 



BATCHELOR, J. C. (A) 

515 Madison Ave., New York, 

N. Y. 
BATSEL, M. C. (F) 

RCA Manufacturing Co., Inc., Cam- 
den, N. J. 
BATTLE, G. H. (A) 
805 Davenport Road, Toronto, On- 
tario, Canada. 
BAUER, E. L. (A) 

121 Goldengate Ave., San Francisco, 

Calif. 
BAUER, K. A. (A) 

Carl Zeiss, Inc., 485 Fifth Ave., New 

York, N. Y. 
BAUMANN, H. C. (.4) 

829 Emerson Ave., Elizabeth, N. J. 
BEACH, F. G. (A) 

105 West 40th St., Room 511, New 

York, N. Y. 
BEAN, D. P. (A) 

The University of Chicago Press, 

5750 Ellis Avenue, Chicago, 111. 
B BARMAN, A. A. (^4) 

Fox Film Corp., 444 West 56th St., 

New York, N. Y. 
BECKER, A. (4) 

500 Pearl St., Buffalo, N. Y. 
BEDORE, R. P. (A) 

1750 N. Springfield Ave., Chicago, 

111. 
BEERS, N. T. (M) 

420 Clinton Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
BEGGS, E. W. (M) 

Westinghouse Lamp Company, 

Bloomfield, N. J. 
BEHR, H. D. (,4) 

135-07 234th Place, Laurelton, L. I., 

N. Y. 
BELL, A. E. (A) 

48 Conyingham Ave., West New 

Brighton, S. L, N. Y. 
BELLINGER, C. E. (A) 

5614 Chippewa St., St. Louis, 

Mo. 
BENDHEIM, E. McD. (A) 

19-22 22nd Drive, Astoria, L. I., 
N. Y. 



BENNETT, D. 

Motion Picture Division, U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 
BENNETT, R. C. (M) 

4327 Duncan Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 
BERG, A. G. (A) 

Hotel Carteret, 208 West 23rd St., 

New York, N. Y. 
BERG, B. (A) 

Fox Film Corp., 1401 N. Western 

Ave., Los Angeles, Calif. 
BERNDT, E. M. (M) 

112 East 73rd St., New York, N. Y. 
BERTIN, H. (M) 

79 Boulevard Haussmann, Paris, 

France. 
BEST, G. M. (A) 

c/o Warner Bros. Studios, Burbank, 

Calif. 
BETTELLI, F. J. (A) 

728 Vine St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
BETTS, W. L. (M) 

Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., 

463 West St., New York, N. Y. 
BHALCHANDRA, M. C. (A) 

Prakash Pictures, Visawa Road, 

Andheri, Bombay, India. 
BIBEN, B. F. (A) 

5011 Wynnfield Ave., Philadelphia, 

Pa. 
BIDDY, R. (A) 

2995 Taylor St., Detroit, Mich. 
BIELICKE, W. F. (F) 

Astro-Gesellschaft m. b. H., Berlin- 
Neuckolln, Lahnstr. 30, Germany. 
BIELICKE, W. P. (M) 

127 West 63rd St., New York, N. Y. 
BIRD, C. L. L. (A) 

228 Franklin St., Buffalo, N. Y. 
BISHOP, G. A., JR. (A) 

77 Conant St., Fall River, Mass. 

BlTTMANN, H. (A) 

Via Umbria 7, Rome, Italy. 
BLAIR, G. A. (F) 

Eastman Kodak Co., 343 State St., 
Rochester, N. Y. 



288 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



[J. S. M. p. E. 



BLAKE, E. E. (A} 

Kodak, Ltd., 63, Kingsway, W. C. 2, 

London, England. 
BLANCK, R. M. (M) 

Calle Mallorca 201, Barcelona, 

Spain. 
BLANCO, E. (A) 

Diego De Leon 39, Madrid, Spain. 
BLENKARNE, P. C. (A) 

Chancery Chambers, O'Connell St., 

Auckland, N. Z. 
BLESSINGTON, E. (A) 

1618 Argyle, Hollywood, Calif. 
BLINN, A. F. (A) 

1220 North Sycamore Ave., Holly- 
wood, Calif. 
BLIVEN, J. E. (M) 

P. O. Box 91, New London, Conn. 
BLOOM, R. B. (A) 

1105 Conewango Ave., Warren, Pa. 
BLOOMBERG, D. J. (If) 

RCA Manufacturing Company, Inc., 
411 Fifth Avenue, New York, 
N. Y. 
BLOOMER, K. V. (A} 

Mount Kisco National Bank, Mount 

Kisco, N. Y. 
BLUMBERG, H. (A) 

National Theater Supply Co., 1317 

Vine St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
BOEHM, H. L. (M) 

Lackierergasse 1, Vienna, IX, Aus- 
tria. 
BOLTON, W. A. (A) 

205 Haines Ave., Barrington, N. J. 
BOMAN, A. (^4) 

508 Summit Ave., Union City, N. J. 
BONN, L. A. (M) 

Chappaqua, N. Y. 
BORBERG, W. (A) 

26-80 30th St., Astoria, L. I., N. Y. 
BORGESON, L. G. (A) 

680 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, 

Calif. 
BOURNE, R. E. (A] 

1150 Burnaby St., Vancouver, 
Canada. 



BOYLEN, J. C. (M) 

Asst. Editor of Publications, Ca- 
nadian Pacific Ry. Co., Montreal, 
P. Quebec, Canada. 
BRADFORD, A. J. (F) 

12110 Kentucky Ave., Detroit, 

Mich. 
BRADLEY, J. G. (.4) 

The National Archives, Washington, 

D. C. 
BRADSHAW, A. E. (M) 

902 Sheridan Ave., Tacoma, Wash. 
BRADSHAW, D. Y. (M) 

Fox Hearst Corporation, 460 West 

54th St., New York, N Y. 
BRADY, R. F. (A) 

Pathescope Co. of America, Inc., 33 

West 42nd St., New York, N. Y. 
BRADY, S. S. (4) 

Hewlett Ave., East Patchogue, L. I., 

N. Y. 
BRAGGIO, J. C. (A) 

International Telephone & Telegraph 
Corp., Defensa 143, Buenos Aires, 
Argentina. 
BRENEMAN, G. H. (A} 

234 Franklin St., Buffalo, N. Y. 
BRENKERT, K. (M) 

Brenkert Light Projection Co., 7348 

St. Aubin Ave., Detroit, Mich. 
BREWSTER, J. R. (4) 

12 Howland St., Cambridge, Mass. 
BREWSTER, P. D. (F) 
Brewster Color Film Corp., 58 First 

St., Newark, N. J. 
BRICHTA, J. C. (A) 

11 Vojdesska 11, Prague, Czecho- 
slovakia. 
BROADHEAD, D. T. (A) 

Box 183, Wellsville, N. Y. 
BROCK, G. (M) 

528 Riverside Drive, New York, 

N. Y. 
BROCKWAY, W. W. (M) 

8910 David Ave., Los Angeles, Calif. 
BROOKS, G. E. (A) 

Box 95, Longton, Kansas. 



Mar., 1936] 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



289 



BROWN, J. C. (M) 

704 South Spring St., Los Angeles, 

Calif. 
BROWN, S. D. (4) 

528 Euclid St., Santa Monica, Calif. 
BUB, G. L. (A) 

U. S. Army Motion Picture Service, 
2nd & Arsenal St., Bldg. 3, 
St. Louis, Mo. 
BUCEK, H. (A) 

41 Schubertstr, Moedling, Austria. 
BUDDE, H. (M) 

Room 707, Ambassador Building, 

St. Louis, Mo. 
BUDDEN, P. H. (M) 

Commonwealth Film Laboratories, 
Ltd., 60 Wilton St., Surrey Hills, 
Sydney, Australia. 
BUENO, P. G. (A) 

S. I. C. E., Apartado 990, Madrid, 

Spain. 
BUENSOD, A. G. (M) 

Buensod-Stacey Air Conditioning, 
Inc., 60 E. 42nd St., New York, 
N. Y. 

BURCHETT, C. W. (M) 

Box 491, San Francisco, Calif. 
BUREL, L. H. (A) 

Villa Canaris Blancs, St. Jean Cap 

Ferret, A. M., France. 
BURGUNDY, J. J. (A) 

2434 Prospect Ave., New York, N. Y. 
BURNAP, R. S. (F) 

RCA Radiotron Co., Harrison, N. J. 
BURNAT, H. (A) 

70 Rue Lauriston, Paris, 16e, France. 
BURNETT, J. C. (F) 

Burnett-Timken Research Labora- 
tory, Alpine, N. J. 
BURNS, J. J. (A) 

31 Ridley Gardens, Toronto, On- 
tario, Canada. 
BURNS, S. R. (F) 

International Projector Corp., 90 

Gold Street, New York, N. Y. 
BUSCH, G. A. (M) 

76 Hillside Ave., Teaneck, N. J. 



BUSCH, H. (A) 

1306 So. Michigan Ave., Chicago, 

111. 
BUSCH, L. N. (M) 

Kodak Aktiengesellschaft, Fried- 
richshagenerstrasse 9, Berlin- 
Copenick, Germany. 
BUSH, A. J. (4) 

144 Nicholas Road, Chorlton-Cum- 

Hardy, Manchester, England. 
BUSHBY, T. R. W. (A) 

2 Davellen Oakley Road, North 

Bondi, N. S. W., Australia. 
BUSSE, F. (F) 

I. G. Farbenindustrie, Kamerawerk, 
Tegernseerlandstr. 161, Muen- 
chen, Germany. 
BUSSELL, E. J. (A) 

6342 West 6th St., Los Angeles, 

Calif. 
BUSICK, D. W. (M) 

2534 Vineyard Ave., Los Angeles, 
Calif. 

BUTTOLPH, L. J. (F) 

General Electric Vapor Lamp Co., 

410 8th St., Hoboken, N. J. 
BYRNE, W. W. (A) 

2054 East 67th St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 



CABIROL, C. (M) 

Pathescope, Ltd., 5 Lisle St., Leices- 
ter Sq., London, W. C. 2, England. 
CADDIGAN, J. L. (M) 

58 Barkeley St., Boston, Mass. 
CAHILL, F. E., JR. (M) 
Warner Bros. Theaters, Inc., 321 

West 44th St., New York, N. Y. 
CAMERON, J. R. (F) 
Woodmont, Conn. 
CANADY, D. R. (M) 

19570 So. Sagamore Road, Fairview 

Village, Cleveland, Ohio. 
CANTOR, O. E. (A) 

48 Linden Terrace, Leonia, N. J. 
CANTRELL, W. A. (A) 

503 East Prescot Road, Knotty Ash, 
Liverpool, England. 



290 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



[J. S. M. p. E. 



CAPSTAFF, J. G. (F) 

Eastman Kodak Co., Kodak Park, 

Rochester, N. Y. 
CARLSON, A. (A) 

250 S. Elmwood Ave., Burbank, 

Calif. 
CARLSON, F. E. (A) 

General Electric Co., Eng. Dep't., 

Nela Park, Cleveland, Ohio. 
CARPENTER, A. W. (^4) 

United Research Corp., Burbank, 

Calif. 
CARPENTER, E. S. (M) 

Escar Motion Picture Service, Inc., 
10008 Carnegie Ave., Cleveland, 
Ohio. 
CARPENTER, H. J. (A) 

Parkview Apts., Suite E, Brandon, 

Manitoba, Canada. 
CARRERE, J. G. (A) 

Studios De Neuilly, 42 Bis Blvd. du 
Chateau, Neuilly sur Seine, 
France. 
CARSON, W. H. (F) 

The Barclay, 111 E. 48th St., New 

York, N. Y. 
CARTER, J. C. (A) 

Linde Air Products Co., 205 East 

42nd St., New York, N. Y. 
CARTER, W. S. (A) 

381 Third Avenue, Ottawa, Canada. 
CARULLA, R. (M) 

1254 East 31st St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
CARVER, E. K. (F) 

Manufacturing Experiments Dep't., 
Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, 
N. Y. 
CASTAGNARO, D. (A) 

1726 75th St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
CATTELL, R. E. (A) 

26 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 
CAUMONT, N. (A) 

32-36 150th Place, Flushing, N. Y. 
CAVE, G. A. (M) 

1771 Hillcrest Ave., Glendale, Calif. 
CAVE, R. T. (A) 

10850 Bloomfield St., No. Holly- 
wood, Calif. 



CECCARINI, O. O. (M) 

Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios, Cul- 
ver City, Calif. 
CECCHI, U. (A) 

Cinemeccanica S. A., Viale Cam- 
pania 25, Milan, Italy. 
CELESTIN, W. E. (M) 

Keller-Dorian Color Film Co., 522 

Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y. 
GENDER, E. O. (M) 

National Theater Supply Co., 1560 

Broadway, New York, N. Y. 
CHAMBERS, G. A. (M) 

Eastman Kodak Co., 6706 Santa 
Monica Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. 
CHAMPION, C. H. (F) 

Chas. Champion & Co., Ltd., 60 
Wardour St., London, W. 1, 
England. 
CHANG, S. C. (A) 

Star Motion Picture Co., Ltd., 744 

Rue Bourgeat, Shanghai, China. 
CHAPMAN, A. B. (A) 

RCA Victor Company, Sante Fe 

Building, Dallas, Texas. 
CHAPMAN, C. T. (A) 

1212 Noyes St., Evanston, 111. 
CHASE, L. W. (A) 

Eastman Kodak Co., 6706 Santa 
Monica Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. 
CHATTER JEE, R. N. (A) 

RCA Institute, 75 Varick St., New 

York, N. Y. 
CHEFTEL, A. M. (M) 

22 Rue de Civry, Paris, Xvie, 

France. 
CHERETON, A. B. (A) 

3251 Monterey Ave., Detroit, Mich. 
CHIBAS, J. E. (A) 

Calle 25 y G Vedado, Havana, 

Cuba. 
CHILDS, J. A. (A) 

Box 211, Waterville, Maine. 
CHORINE, A. F. (M) 

Apartment 38, Blochin Str. 4-3, 
Leningrad, U. S. S. R. 



Mar., 1936] 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



291 



CHOW, K. (A) 
288 Bubbling Well Road, Shanghai, 

China. 
CHRETIEN, H. (F) 

23 Rue Preschez, St. Cloud, France. 
CHURCH, A. E. (A) 

4(5 Haverford Ave., Rochester, N. Y. 
CIFRE, J. S. (M) 

181 Wessagussett Road, North Wey- 

mouth, Mass. 
CLARK, J. P. (M) 

1228 Vine St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
CLARK, L. E. (M) 
2327 Glendon Ave , West Los 

Angeles, Calif. 
CLARK, W. (F) 

Research Laboratory, Eastman Ko- 
dak Co., Rochester, N Y. 
CLARKE, W. H. (A) 

29 Glede Road, Cheam, Surrey, 

England. 
CLEVELAND, H. B. (4) 

1808 Catalina Ave., Berkeley, Calif. 

COFFINBERRY, C. M. (/I) 

714 Underwood Bldg., San Fran- 
cisco, Calif. 
COHAN, E. K. (M) 

Columbia Broadcasting System, Inc., 
485 Madison Ave., New York, 
N. Y. 
COHEN, C. (A) 

1821 Roselyn St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
COHEN, J. (A) 

1250 51st St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
COHEN, J. H. (M} 
Atlantic Gelatine Co., Hill St., 

Woburn, Mass. 
COHEN, S. (A) 

1456 Chew St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
COLE, F. H., JR. (A) 

1358 S. Grand Ave., Los Angeles, 

Calif. 
COLEMAN, E. W. (A) 

Fox-West Coast Theaters, 988 Mar- 
ket St., San Francisco, Calif. 
COLES, F. A. (A) 

Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., 
463 West St., New York, N. Y. 



COLLINS, D. W. (A) 

1350 Whitney Ave., Hamden, Conn. 
COLLINS, M. E. (A) 

Box 108, Camden, N. J. 
COMI, E. G. (A) 

">3 Favre St., Mattapan, Mass. 
COMSTOCK, T. F. (A) 

Pathescope Co. of America, Inc., 33 
West 42nd St., New York, N. Y. 

CONTNER, J. B. (M) 

Blue Seal Sound Devices, Inc., 723 

Seventh Ave., New York, N. Y. 
COOK, A. A. (M) 

Bausch & Lomb Optical Co., Roches- 
ter, N. Y. 
COOK, E. D. (A) 

10 Media Road, Colwick, N. J. 
COOK, H. R., JR. (A) 

68 Harrington Ave., Westwood, N. J. 
COOK, O. W. (M) 

Eastman Kodak Company, Kodak 

Park Works, Rochester, N. Y. 
COOK, W. B. (F) 

Kodascope Libraries, 33 West 42nd 

St., New York, N. Y. 
COOLIDGE, P. E. (M) 

58 Berkley St., Boston, Mass. 
COOPER, J. A. (A) 

1909 Metropolitan Bldg., Toronto 2, 

Ontario, Canada. 
COOPER, M. F. (A) 

269 Kingston Road, Merton Park, 

London, S. W. 19, England. 
COPLEY, J. S. (-4) 

P. O. Box 6087, Cleveland, Ohio. 
CORBIN, R. M. (M) 

Kodak Japan, Ltd., 3 Nishiroku 
Chome Ginza, Kyobashi, P. O. 
Box 28, Tokyo, Japan. 

CORDONUIER, J. (A) 

131 Avenue de Suffren, Paris, 
France. 

CORRIGAN, J. T. (M} 

1819 G St., N. W., Washington, 
D. C. 

COTTET, A. (A) 

7 Av de La Porte Chaumont, Paris, 
Xixo, France. 



292 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



[J. S. M. P. E. 



COURCIER, J. L. (M) 
c/o J. E. Brulatour, Inc., 6700 Santa 

Monica Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. 
COURMES, M. (A) 

9 Rue Jacques Dulud, Neuilly-Sur- 

Seine, France. 
COUSINS, V. M. (A) 

Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., 

463 West St., New York, N. Y. 
COWLING, H. T. (A) 
4700 Connecticut Ave., N. W., 

Washington, D. C. 
Cox, L. R. (A) 

111 N. Canal St., Chicago, 111. 
COZZENS, L. S. (M} 

Dupont Film Mfg. Co., Parlin, N. J. 
CRABTREE, J. (F) 

Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., 

463 West St., New York, N. Y. 
CRABTREE, J.I. (F) 

Research Laboratory, Eastman Ko- 
dak Company, Rochester, N. Y. 
CRABTREE, T. H. (4) 
Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., 

463 West St., New York, N. Y. 
CRANE, J. E. (4) 

2316 So. Highland Ave., Hollywood, 

Calif. 

CRAWFORD, W. C. (4) 
46 Gorget Ave., Glasgow, W. 3, 

Scotland. 

CRENNAN, O. V. (^4) 
200 Eastchester Road, New Rochelle, 

N. Y. 
CROSS, C. E. (A) 

Cinesound Productions, Ltd., Ebley 
St., Waverley, Sydney, Australia. 
CROSS, W. E. (A) 

Hotel Hurth, Portsmouth, Ohio. 
CROWE, H. B. (A) 

Ritz Theater, Elizabethton, Tenn. 
CUNNINGHAM, O. J. (4) 

15381 Brewster Road, E. Cleveland, 

Ohio. 
CUNNINGHAM, R. G. (M) 

2409 Sixth St., Coytesville, N. J. 



CUNNINGHAM, T. D. (^4) 

732 Mt. Vernon Ave., Haddonfield, 

N.J. 
CURLE, C. E. (A) 

19 Fairview Drive, Battery Heights, 

Chattanooga, Tenn. 
CURTIS, E. P. (F) 

Eastman Kodak Co., 343 State St., 
Rochester, N. Y. 

CUTHBERTSON, H. B. (M} 

Paramount News, 544 West 43rd 
St., New York, N. Y. 



DAEHR, H. (A) 

I. G. Farbenindustrie Aktiengessel- 
schaft., Kine Technical Dept., 
Berlin, S. O. 36, Germany. 
DALOTEL, M. (M) 
29 Rue Pasteur, Colombes, Seine, 

France. 
DAN, D. Y. (A) 

Shanghai Sound Picture Co., 27 

Fusan Road, Shanghai, China. 
DANCE, H.R.U) 

5 Westbourne Crescent, Hyde Park, 

W. 2, London, England. 
DANIELSON, D. (4) 

1002 North Main St., Russell, 

Kansas. 
DARBY, E. (^4) 

2 Maidstone Park Rd. S. E. 1, 

Auckland, New Zealand. 
DASH, C. C. (M) 

Hertner Electric Co., 12690 Elm- 
wood Ave., Cleveland, Ohio. 
DAVEE, L. W. (F) 

Electrical Research Products, Inc., 
250 West 57th St., New York, 
N. Y. 
DAVIDGE, L. C. (F) 

Roy Davidge Film Laboratories, 
R. 400, 5225 Wilshire Blvd., Holly- 
wood, Calif. 
Davis, D. R. (A) 

RCA Victor Company, 1704 Wyan- 
dotte St., Kansas City, Mis- 
souri. 



Mar., 1936] 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



293 



DAVIS, J. B. (A) 
3 Riggs Court, N. W., Washington, 

D. C. 

Davis, S. I. (A) 
425 Montview Place, Wilkinburg, 

Pa. 
DE BEAULIEU, L. (A) 

6819 Simpson Ave., North Holly- 
wood, Calif. 
DE BRETAGNE, J. (A) 
Paris Studio Cinema, 50 Quai Point 
du Jeur, Billancourt, Seine, 
France. 
DEBRIE, A. (F) 

111-113 Rue St. Maur, Paris, 

France. 
DEFEO, L. (Af) 

Roma Villa Medioevale Torlonia, 
via Lazzaro Spallanzani La, Rome, 
Italy. 
DEFRENES, J. (M) 

1909 Buttonwood St., Philadelphia, 

Pa. 
DEGHUEE, C. M. (A) 

101 Liberty Ave., Mineola, L. I., 

N. Y. 

DEIVERNOIS, P. J. (A) 
2446 Rydal St., Crafton Heights, 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 
DELVALLE, G. A. (A) 

RCA Manufacturing Co., Inc., 

Camden, N. J. 
DEMALLIE, R. B. (M) 

Kodak Japan, Ltd., 3-Nishiro- 

kuchome, Ginza, Tokyo, Japan. 
DEMOS, G. (4) 

1428 N. Ogden Drive, Hollywood, 

Calif. 
DENAPOLI, A. C., JR. (M) 

2826 Decatur Ave., Bronx, N. Y. 
DENK, J. M. (A) 

2829 Holt St., Los Angeles, Calif. 
DENNEY, W. (A) 
223 West 18th St , Kansas City, 

Missouri. 
DENSMORE, R. E. (A) 

5244 Melrose Ave., Hollywood, 
Calif. 



DENTELBECK, C. (M) 
61 Albert St., Toronto, Ontario, 
Canada. 

DE PEREZ, J. (A) 

Sta. Maria La Redonda 61, Dep't P, 
Mexico, D. F. 

DEPUE, B. W. (M) 
Burton Holmes Lectures, Inc., 
7510 No. Ashland Ave., Chicago, 
111. 

DEPUE, O. B. (F) 

7512 North Ashland Ave., Chicago, 

DL 

DEROBERTS, R. (M) 
The Gevaert Co. of America, Inc., 
423 West 55th St., New York, 
N. Y. 

DETMERS, F. H. (A) 

5656 Fountain Ave., Los Angeles, 

Calif. 
DE URGOITI, R. M. (M) 

Filmofono, S. A., 4 Plaza del Callao, 
Madrid, Spain. 

DEUTSCHER, D. (4) 
33 Prospect Ave., Lynbrook, L. I., 

N. Y. 

DEVOE, E. M. (4) 
956 E. 156th St., Bronx, N. Y. 

DEVRY, H. A. (F) 

1111 Center St., Chicago, 111. 

DICKINSON, A. S. (F) 
Motion Picture Producers & Dis- 
tributors of America, Inc., 28 
West 44th St., New York, 
N. Y. 

DICKINSON, E. A. (A) 

10 Hawthorne Place, East Orange, 
N.J. 

DioiEE, L. J. J. (A) 

Societe Kodak- Pathe, 39 Ave. Mon- 
taigne, Paris, France. 

DILLEMUTH, H. G. (.4) 

79 Ivyhurst Road, Eggertsville, 
N. Y. 



294 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



[J. S. M. P. E. 



DIMMICK, G. L. (4) 

RCA Manufacturing Co., Inc., Eng. 

Bldg. 5, Camden, N. J. 
DINGA, E. W. (A) 
4514 43rd St., Long Island City, 

N. Y. 
Dix, H. W. (F) 

Austin & Dix, 120 Broadway, New 

York, N. Y. 
DOBSON, G. (M) 

494 Dwas Line Road, Clifton, N. J. 
DOBSON, H. T. (A) 

99 Normandy Blvd., Toronto, On- 
tario, Canada. 
DODDRELL, E. T., JR. (A) 

151 Wainui Road, Kaiti, Gisborne, 

New Zealand. 
DOIRON, A. L. (A) 

Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios, Cul- 
ver City, Calif. 
DONALD, J. McL. (4) 

Cutone Precision Engineers, Ltd., 
542 Manukau Road, Epsom, 
Auckland, New Zealand. 
DOWNES, A. C. (F) 

National Carbon Company, Inc., 

Box 6087, Cleveland, Ohio. 
DREHER, C. (F) 

RKO Studios, Inc., 780 Gower St., 

Hollywood, Calif. 
DUBRAY, J. A. (F) 

Bell & Howell Co., 716 No. La Brea 

Ave., Hollywood, Calif. 
DUDIAK, F. (A) 

Fairmont Theater, Fairmont, West 

Va. 
DUFFY, C. J. (A) 

86 Franklin St., Providence, R. I. 
DUISBERG, W. H. 04) 

Patent Research, Inc., 521 Fifth 

Ave., New York, N. Y. 
DUNNING, C. H. (F} 

Dunning Process Co., 932 No. La 

Brea Ave., Hollywood, Calif. 
DUNNING, O. M. (4) 

Thomas A. Edison, Inc., Orange, 
N.J. 



DURST, J. A. (4) 

2216 5th Ave., Los Angeles, Calif. 
DUSMAN, H. C. (A) 

213 N. Calvert St., Baltimore, Md. 
DWYER, A. J. (A) 

4327 Duncan Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 
DWYER, R. J. (A) 

180 Spruce Ave., Rochester, N. Y. 
DYKEMAN, C. L. (Af) 

Dyke Cinema Products Co., 133-12 

228th St., Laurelton, N. Y. 
DYSON, C. H. (A) 

47 New St., Brighton Beach, Mel- 
bourne, S. 5, Australia. 



EAGER, M. (A) 

75 Abbott Rd., Wellesley Hills, 

Mass. 
ECKLER, L. (M) 

Agfa Ansco Corp., Binghamton, 

N. Y. 
EDER, F. B. (M) 

Avenida 5, De Outubro, 201 R.-C. 

Do, Lishoa, Portugal. 
EDISON, T. M. (A) 

Thomas A. Edison, Inc., West 

Orange, N. J. 
EDOUART, A. F. (M} 

Paramount Publix Corp., 5451 Mara- 
thon St., Hollywood, Calif. 
EDWARDS, G. C. (F) 

49 Trafalgar Sq., Lynbrook, L. I., 

N. Y. 
EDWARDS, N. (4) 

23 William St., South Yarra, S. E. 1, 

Australia. 
EGROT, L. G. (M) 

52 Avenue Des Charmes, Vincennes 

(Seine), France. 
EHLERT, H. H. (A) 

H. E. R. Laboratories, Inc., 457 West 

46th St., New York, N. Y. 
EICH, F. L. (A) 

128 S. Laurel Ave., Los Angeles, 

Calif. 
ELDERKIN, J. K. (M) 

J45 Valley St., Belleville, N. J. 



Mar., 1936] 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



295 



ELLIS, E. P. (A) 

19 Curtis Place, Maple wood, N. J. 
ELLIS, F. E., JR. (A) 

717 W. Wells St., Milwaukee, Wis. 
ELLISON, M. (M) 

1402 3-4 Edgecliff, Los Angeles, 

Calif. 
ELMER, L. A. (M) 

Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., 

463 West St.. New York, N. Y. 
ELWELL, C. F. (M) 

Chestnut Close, Kingswood, Surrey, 

England. 
EMERSON, M. (4) 

3217 Corlear Ave., New York, N. Y. 
EMLEY, R. H. (A) 

134 Rodney Ave., New Brunswick, 

N.J. 
EMMER, J. E. (A) 

Y. M. C. A. Downtown, Room 641, 

St. Louis, Mo. 
ENDERLE, J. (.4) 

268 Western Ave., Albany, N. Y. 
ENGL, J. B. (F) 

97 Bismarkstrasse, Berlin-Charlot- 

tenburg, Germany. 
ENGLE, J. W. (A) 

Box 7, Merrick, N. Y. 
ESHELMAN, G. M., JR. (A) 

Hartville, Ohio. 
ESSIG, A. G. (A) 

924 Foulkrod St., Philadelphia. Pa. 
ESTEL, G. A., JR. (A) 
3407 E. Eighth St., Des Moines, 

Iowa. 

EVANS, G. W. (A) 

455 Duquesne Drive, Mount Leba- 
non, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
EVANS, P. H. (F) 

Vitaphone Corporation, 1277 East 

14th St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
EVANS, R. (F) 

Division of Motion Pictures, U. S. 
Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, 
D. C. 
EVANS, R. M. (F) 

Kodak Research Laboratory, East- 
man Kodak Co., Rochester, N. Y. 



FAITHFULL, G. 
Archibald Nettlefold Productions, 
The Studios, Hurst Grove, Wal- 
ton-on-Thames, England. 
FALQUET, A. (A) 

Kodak S. P. z. o. o., 5 Place Napo- 
leon, Warsaw, Poland. 
FAMULENER, K. (4) 
590 Fort Washington Ave., New 

York, N. Y. 
FAN, W. S. (4) 

United Photoplay Services, Ltd., 
Passage No. 1980 Avenue Joffre 
House No. 1, Shanghai, China. 
FARNHAM, R. E. (F) 

General Electric Co., Nela Park, 

Cleveland, Ohio. 
FARRAND, C. L. (F) 

United Research Corp., Burbank, 

Calif. 
FARVER, B. R. (A) 

711 18th Ave., Honolulu, Hawaii. 
FAULKNER, T. (M) 

145 W. 55th St., New York, N. Y. 
FAUST, A. (A) 

Recreation Office, Schofield Bks., 

Honolulu, T. Hawaii. 
FAZALBHOY, Y. A. (A) 

Putla Mansion, Darabshaw Rd., Off 
Napean Sea Road, Bombay, 6, 
India. 
FELTHOUSEN, A. J. (A) 

515 Walnut Drive, Glendale, Calif. 
FENIMORE, R. W. (M) 

2332 Tuxedo St., Detroit, Mich. 
FERGUSON, D. C. (A) 

P. O. Box 7, Memphis, Tenn. 
FERNANDEZ, M. A. (A) 

Ave. Rep. Argentina 91-93, Mexico, 

D. F., Mexico 
FERRENA, W. C. (A) 

P. O. Box 111, Honolulu, Hawaii. 
FIELD, A. (A) 

37 Rue Condorcet, Paris, France. 
FIELD. W. J. (A) 

45-11 43rd Ave., Long Island City, 
N. Y. 



296 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



[J. S. M. p. E. 



FIELDS, G. B. (4) 

5638 Holmes St., Kansas City, Mo. 
FINARDI, E. V. (A) 
44 Viale Vittorio Emanuele, Ber- 
gamo, Italy. 
FINN, J. J. (M) 

580 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y. 
FISCH, L. B. (M) 

526 West 26th St., New York, N. Y. 
FISHER, A. (M ) 

570 Lexington Ave., New York, 

N. Y. 
FISHOFF, L. A. (^4) 

142 Blvd. Versailles, Suresnes 

(Seine), France. 
FITZPATRICK, J. M. S. (A) 

Kodak, Ltd., Wealdstone, Middle- 
sex, England. 
FLACK, F. (M) 

M-G-M Studios Precision Machine 

Shop, Culver City. Calif. 
FLANAGAN, J. T. (M) 

Tri-State Motion Picture Co., 620 
Superior Ave., West, Cleveland, 
Ohio. 
FLANNAGAN, C. (F) 

Electrical Research Products, Inc., 
250 West 57th St., New York, 
N. Y. 
FLEISCHER, M. (F) 

Fleischer Studios, 1600 Broadway, 

New York, N. Y. 
FLINT, A. (M) 

8 Jochum Avenue, Larchmont, N. Y. 
FLINT, A. B. (4) 

31 Rathay St., Vic Park W., Aus- 
tralia. 
FLORY, L. P. (M) 

Boyce-Thompson Institute, 1086 N. 

Broadway, Yonkers, N. Y. 
FOLEY, T. E. (A) 

Box 682, Kelowna, B. C., Canada. 
FOOTE, P. C. (A) 

Bell & Howell Co., 4045 No. Rock- 
well St., Chicago, 111. 
FORD.W. B. (A) 

3 Belmont House, Candover St., 
London, W. 1, England. 



FOREMAN, S. (A) 

5837 Gregory Ave., Hollywood, 
Calif. 

FORSYTH, S. L. (4) 

100 Clay Avenue, Rochester, N. Y. 
FOSTER, L. L. (A) 

Capitol Theater Supply Co., 28 

Piedmont St., Boston, Mass. 
FOSTER, W. D. (F) 

Kinatome Patents Corp., 45 North 

Broad St., Ridgewood, N. J. 
FOUNTAIN, A. (A) 

Kings Theater, Gisborne, New Zea- 
land. 
FOURNIER, G. (A) 

89 Notre Dame East, Montreal, 

P.Q., Canada. 
FOUTE, G. P. (A) 

143 East 24th St., New York, N. Y. 
FRACKER, E. G. (M) 

Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., 
463 West St., New York, 
N.Y. 
FRANK, J., JR. (M) 

RCA Manufacturing Co., Inc., Cam- 
den, N. J. 
FRANTZ, G. F. (A) 

417 Ogden St., Denver, Colo. 
FRASCH, H. H. (A) 

4228 W. Normandy, Dallas, Texas. 
FRAYNE, J. G. (F) 

Electrical Research Products, Inc., 
7046 Hollywood Blvd., Los 
Angeles, Calif. 
FRAZIER, L. (^4) 

713 l /2 Keeler St., Boone, La. 
FREEDMAN, A. E. (T 7 ) 

De Luxe Laboratories, Inc., 441- 
461 West 55th St., New York, 
N.Y. 
FREEMAN, A. B. (4) 

2425 N. 54th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
FREERICKS, B. (M) 
8956 Dicks St., W. Hollywood, 

Calif. 
FREIMANN, F. (70 

Electro Acoustic Products Co., 2131 
Bueter Road, Fort Wayne, Ind. 



Mar., 1936] 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



297 



FRENCH, R. R. (Af) 

40 West 97th St., New York, N. Y. 
FREUND, K. (4) 

12730 Hanover St., Los Angeles, 

Calif. 
FRIEDL, G., JR. (Af) 

Electrical Research Products, Inc., 
250 W. 57th St., New York, 
N. Y. 
FRIEND, H. H. (Af) 

Cinaudagraph Corp., 2109 43rd Ave., 

Long Island City, N. Y. 
FRITTS, E. C. (F) 

Eastman Kodak Co., 343 State St., 

Rochester, N. Y. 
FUNATSU, H. K. (A) 

P. O. Box 1194, Honolulu, Hawaii. 
FUNK, J. J. (A) 

1350 Elurdale Ave., Chicago, 111. 



GAGE, H. P. (F) 

Corning Glass Works, Corning, N. Y. 
GAGE, O. A. (Af) 

Corning Glass Works, Corning, N. Y. 
GAGLIARDI, G. (4) 

385 Pleasant Ave., Grantwood, N. J. 
GALLO, R. (A) 

Quigley Publications, 1790 Broad- 
way, New York, N. Y. 
GANSTROM, R. G. (4) 

31117 Plymouth Road, R 2, Wayne, 

Mich. 
GARDINER, F. R. (A) 

165 North High St., Columbus, 

Ohio. 
GARLING, W. F. (Af) 

RCA Photophone Ltd., Electra 
House, Victoria Embankment, 
London, W. C. 2, England. 
GASKI, T. J. (A) 

26 Henry Ave., Palisade Park, N. J. 
GATHERCOLE, J. (A) 

16 Northolm Edgware, Middlesex, 

England. 
GATY, J. P. (A) 

62-10 Woodside Ave., Woodside, 
L. I., N. Y. 



GAVER, E. M. (A) 

Jam Handy Picture Service, 6227 

Broadway, Chicago, 111. 
GEIB, E. R. (F) 

National Carbon Company, Inc., 

Box 6087, Cleveland, Ohio. 
GELB, L. (A) 

205 Beach 73rd St., Arverne, Queens, 

N. Y. 

GELMAN, J. N. (M) 
c/o National Theater Supply Co., 
1637 Central Parkway, Cincinnati, 
Ohio. 
GENOCK, E. P. (4) 

28 Dorset Road, Merton Park, 

Surrey, S. W. 19, England. 
GENT, E. W. (Af) 

Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., 

463 West St., New York, N. Y. 
GEORGE, H. H. (A) 

1006 N. Elcentro Ave., Los Angeles, 

Calif. 

GEORGENS, G. R. (M) 
3109 17th St., N. E., Washington, 

D. C. 
GERCKE, C. (A) 

1421 East 28th St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
GERMAINE, M. (A) 

1191 Coney Island Ave., Brooklyn, 

N. Y. 

GERMAN, W. J. (Af) 
J. E. Brulatour, Inc., 154 Crescent 

St., Long Island City, N. Y. 
GERNOLLE, N. (A) 

Paris Studio Cinema, 50 Quai Pont 
du Jeur, Billancourt (Seine), 
France. 
GEYER, W. (M) 

Am. Treptower Park 59, Berlin, So. 

36, Germany. 
GIBBONS, J. M. (A) 

825 Nantasket Ave., Allerton, Mass. 
GIBSON, G. H. (A) 
J. E. Brulatour, Inc., 6700 Santa 
Monica Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. 
GIESKIENG, M. W. (4) 

1704 Wyandotte St., Kansas City, 
Missouri. 



298 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



[J. S. M. p. E. 



GIHBSSON, L. (A) 

J. L. Nerlien, Ltd., Nedre Slotsgate 

13, Oslo, Norway. 
GILBERT, F. C. (M) 

150 Penn Ave., Crestwood, N. Y. 
GILES, R. H. (M) 

3044 West 159th St., Cleveland, 

Ohio. 
GILL, K. (A) 

Regent Theater, Te Aroha, New 

Zealand. 
GILLETTE, M. E. (M} 

2832 Van Ness St., N. W., Washing- 
ton, D. C. 
GILMOUR, J. G. T. (A) 

Visual Instruction Section, General 
Electric Co., Schenectady, N. Y. 
GILSDORF, W. R. (A) 

2112 Payne Ave., Cleveland, Ohio. 
GITHENS, A. S. (A) 

623 N. Columbus Ave., Mount 

Vernon, N. Y. 
GLASSER, N. (M) 

Warner Bros. Theaters, 932 F St., 

N. W., Washington, D. C. 
GLAUBER, S. (4) 

2062 East 37th St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
GLEASON, C. H. (A) 

14 North Hancock St., Lexington, 

Mass. 
GLICKMAN, H. (M) 

789 Saint Marks Ave., Brooklyn, 

N. Y. 
GLUNT, O. M. (F) 

Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., 

463 West St., New York, N. Y. 
GOEBEL, J. J. (A) 

1375 Brooklyn Ave., Brooklyn, 

N.Y. 
GOGATE, G. G. (A) 

169 Vincent Road, Dadar Bombay, 

14, India. 
GOLDEN, N. D. (A) 

Motion Picture Section, Bureau of 
Foreign and Domestic Commerce, 
Dept. of Commerce, Washington, 
D. C. 



GOLDFARB, H. (M) 

5255 Virginia St., Los Angeles, 
Calif. 

GOLDHAMER, S. A. (A) 

1920 Bloor W., Apt. 11, Toronto, 

Ontario, Canada. 
GOLDIN, H. (A) 

Northern Electric Co., Ltd., 1261 
Shearer St., Montreal, P. Quebec, 
Canada. 
GOLDMAN, M. (A) 

1417 Avenue K, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

GOLDSCHNEIDER, G. (A) 

United Research Corp., Burbank, 

Calif. 
GOLDSMITH, A. N. (F) 

444 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y. 
GOODMAN, A. (A) 

Service Division, RCA Manufactur- 
ing Co., Inc., Camden, N. J. 
GOOKIN, F. M. (A) 

22 Eddy St., N. Attleboro, Mass. 
GORDON, I. (^4) 

104 Bittman St., Akron, Ohio. 
GOSHAW, I. R. (M) 

c/o Warner Bros. Pictures, Inc., 

Burbank, Calif. 
GOVE, K. G. (A) 

P. O. Box 468, Scotch Plains, N. J. 
GRAHAM, H. 04) 

546 Lincoln St., Denver, Colo. 
GRASS, R. L. (A) 

1064 East 28th St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
GREEN, N. B. (F) 

Eastman Kodak Co., Eng. Dept., 

Camera Wks., Rochester, N. Y. 
GREEN, R. B. (A) 

Moller Apartments, Hagerstown, 

Maryland. 
GREENE, C. L. (F) 

2722 Harriet Ave., Minneapolis, 

Minn. 
GREENE, P. E. (A) 

112 No. Munn Ave., East Orange, 

N.J. 
GREGORY, C. L. (A) 

76 Echo Ave., New Rochelle, N. Y. 



Mar., 193G] 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



299 



GRIFFIN, H. (F) 

International Projector Corp., -90 

Gold St., New York, N. Y. 
GRIFFITH, L. M. (M) 

8000 Blackburn Ave., Los Angeles, 

Calif. 
GRIFFITHS, P. H. (M) 

Briar Lea, NorbreckRd., Blackpool, 

Lanes., England. 
GRIGNON, F. J. (A) 

1416 Troy Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
GROTE, W. G. (A) 

Paramount Productions, Inc., 5451 
Marathon St., Hollywood, Calif. 
GROVER, H. G. (M) 

570 Lexington Ave., New York, N. Y. 
GROVES, I. R. (A} 

34 Hobart Ave., Summit, N. J. 
GRUSSING, H. (A) 

1968 S. Vermont Ave., Los Angeles, 

Calif. 
GUERIN, B. C., JR. (A) 

80 Love Lane, Shanghai, China. 
GUERRERO, E. S. (Af) 

433 1 /2 N. Figueroa St., Los Angeles, 

Calif. 
GUINTINI, C. (A) 

P. O. Box 411, Los Banos, Calif. 

GUNDELFINGER, A. M. (M) 

201 N. Occidental Blvd., Los Ange- 
les, Calif. 
GUPTA, D. K. (A) 

41 Hazra Road, Calcutta, India. 
GUTH, A. (A) 

21311 Murdoch Ave., St. Albans, 
Hollis, L. I., N. Y. 



HACKEL, J. (M) 

53 W. 57th St., New York, N. Y. 
HAEFELE, N. C. (M) 

417 St. Paul St., Baltimore, Md. 
HALBERTSMA, N. A. (4) 

Philips' Glowlampworks, Ltd., Eind- 
hoven, Holland. 
HALL, F. M. (M) 

Bell & Howell Co., 11 West 42nd St., 
New York. N. Y. 



HALPIN, D. D. (A) 

19 West 44th St., New York, N. Y. 
HAMILTON, D. W. (A) 

362 Maxwell Road, Pollokshields, 

Glasgow, Scotland. 
HAMILTON, S. H. (A) 

633 W. Murphy St., Lima, Ohio. 
HAMILTON, V. P. (A) 

Bell & Howell Company, 1801 

Larchmont Ave., Chicago, 111. 
HAMPTON, L. N. (M) 

246 E. Tremont Ave., Bronx, N. Y. 
HANDA, D. (A) 

c/o S. R. Handa Roads Engineer, 

Jaipur State, Rajputana, India. 
HANDA, G. C. (A) 

D. 96, Model Town, Lahore, Punjab, 

India. 
HANDLEY, C. W. (M) 

1960 West 84th St., Los Angeles, 

Calif. 
HANNA, C. R. (F) 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co., 

East Pittsburgh, Pa. 
HANNAN, J. H. (A) 

P. O. Box 41, Golden, Colo. 
HANSEN, E. H. (M) 

6059 Santa Monica Blvd., Holly- 
wood, Calif. 
HARCUS, W. C. (M) 

14410 Burbank Blvd., Van Nuys, 

Calif. 
HARDINA, E. (A) 

Warner Bros. Pictures, Inc., 1277 

East 14th St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
HARDING, H. V. (A) 

186 Pinehurst Ave., New York, N. Y. 
HARDMAN, W. F. (A) 

St. Charles Hotel, Pierre, So. 

Dakota. 
HARDY, A. C. (F) 

Mass. Inst. of Technology, Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 
HARLEY, J. B. (A) 

Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., 
463 West St., New York, N. Y. 



300 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



[J. S. M. p. E- 



HARLOW, J. B. (M) 

Electrical Research Products, Inc., 
250 West 57th St., New York, 
N. Y. 
HARPER, E. R. (M) 

650 North Bronson Ave., Los 

Angeles, Calif. 
HARRINGTON, T. T. (M) 

320 62nd St., Oakland, Calif. 
HARRIS, C. E. (A) 

108 Seaman Ave., Baldwin, N. Y. 
HARRIS, E. (^4) 

338 Walmer Road, Toronto, Ontario, 

Canada. 
HARRISON, H. C. (F) 

94 Bayview Ave., Port Washington, 

L. I., N. Y. 
HART, K. R. M. (A) 

P. N. Russell School of Eng., Uni- 
versity of Sydney, N. S. W.. 
Australia. 
HARUKI, S. (.F) 

Fuji Photo Film Company, Nr. 

Odahara, Kanaga waken, Japan. 
HARVEY, A. E. (A) 

Harvey Amusement Co., Newman, 

Calif. 
HAYTHORNE, R. N. 04) 

The National Archives, Washington, 

D. C. 
HEACOCK, F. C. (A) 

434 N. Parkman Ave., Los Angeles, 

Calif. 
HECK, F. P. (M) 

Da-Lite Screen Co., Inc., 2723 N. 

Crawford Ave., Chicago, 111. 
HEIDEGGER, H. F. (A) 

1158 Schenectady Ave., Brooklyn, 

N. Y. 
HELBLING, W. E. (A) 

Western Electric Co. Orient, Ltd., 

P. O. Box 234, Tokyo, Japan. 
HELLO WELL, T. (A) 

50 Clyde St., Bondi North, Sydney, 

N. S. W., Australia. 
HENABERY, J. E. (A) 

8310 35th Ave., Jackson Heights, 
L. I., N. Y. 



HENEY, J. E. (M) 

127 Centennial Ave., Cranford, N. J. 
HENKEL, J. F. (A) 

53-06 70th St., Maspeth, N. Y. 
HENNESSY, W. W. (A) 

250 Mamaroneck Ave., White Plains, 

N. Y. 
HENSMAN, H. G. (A) 

3025 Cardiff Ave., Los Angeles, 

Calif. 
HERRIOTT, W. (A) 

Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., 

463 West St., New York, N. Y. 
HERTNER, J. H. (M) 

12690 Elmwood Ave., Cleveland, 

Ohio. 
HESS, H. P. (A) 

5 Klusstr., Zurich 7, Switzerland. 
HEWSON, J. H. (A) 

478 Sunnyside Ave., Ottawa, 

Canada. 
HIATT, A. (M) 

Pathe News, Inc., 35 West 45th St., 

New York, N. Y. 
HICKMAN, C. N. (A) 

35-36 79th St., Jackson Heights, 

L. I., N. Y. 
HICKMAN, K. (F) 

Eastman Kodak Co., Kodak Park, 

Rochester, N. Y. 
HIGGINS, T. G. (A) 

69 Gouett St., Randwick, Sydney, 

Australia. 
HILL, M. H. (A) 

Butler's, Inc., 415 Market St., 

Wilmington, Del. 
HIRASAWA, I. (A) 

86 Takabancho Meguro-Ku, Tokyo, 

Japan. 
HIRZEL, A. (A) 

2011 Bancroft Parkway, Wilming- 
ton, Del. 
HOAD, T. C. (A) 

118 Beresford Ave., Toronto, On- 
tario, Canada. 
HOCH, W. C. (A) 

1030 Monument St., Pacific Pali- 
sades, Calif. 



Mar., 1936] 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



301 



HOCHHEIMER, R. (M) 

65 West 95th St., New York, N. Y. 
HODGSON, W. (A) 

Regent Theater, Wairoa, Hawke's 

Bay, New Zealand. 
HOFFMAN, L. B. (M) 

Mitchell Camera Corp., 665 N. 
Robertson Blvd., W. Hollywood, 
Calif. 
HOGE, F. D\ (F) 

Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., 
463 West St., New York, N. Y. 

HOHMEISTER, F. (A) 

1166 Alicia Ave., West Englewood, 

N.J. 
HOLDEN, H. C. (M) 

c/o Leo Eiserman, Grandview Ave., 

Fairfield, Conn. 
HOLLANDER, H. (M) 

Hotel Alexander, 250 West 103rd 
St., New York, N. Y. 

HOLMAN, A. J. (M) 

57 North 22nd St., East Orange, 

N.J. 
HOLSLAG, R. C. (M) 

120 West 228th St., New York, 

N. Y. 

HOPKINS, J. J. (M) 
29-41 167th St., Flushing, L. I., 

N. Y. 
HOPKINS, T. L. (A) 

929 Randolph St., N. W., Apt. 2, 

Washington, D. C. 
HOPPIN, C. (A) 

145 Bis Rue D'Alesia, Paris, 14, 

France. 
HORNIDGE, H. T. (M) 

Kiddle Margeson & Hornidge, 36 

West 44th St., New York, N. Y. 
HORNSTEIN, J. C. (M} 

630 Ninth Ave., New York, N. Y. 
HORSTMAN, C. F. (M) 

Radio-Keith-Orpheum Corp., 1560 

Broadway, New York, N. Y. 
HOTCHKISS, F. H. (M) 

Societe de Materiel Acoustique, 
1 Blvd. Haussmann, Paris, France. 



HOWELL, A. S. (F) 

Bell & Howell Co., 4045 N. Rockwell 

St., Chicago, 111. 
Hsu, S. F. (A) 
Star Motion Picture Co., Ltd., 744 

Rue Bourgeat, Shanghai, China. 
HUBBARD, B. J. (M) 

340 Westmont Ave., Westmont, 

N.J. 

HUBBARD, R. C. (F) 
669 So. 5th Ave., Mount Vernon, 

N. Y. 
HUDSON, G. (A) 

Ilford Limited, Selo Works, Brent- 
wood, Essex, England. 
HUDSON, W. (A) 

2165 So. 83rd St., West Allis, Wis. 
HULAN, A. G. (A) 

5607 Merrimac Ave.. Dallas, Texas. 
HUMPHREY, G. H. (A) 

Adcraft Film Co., 1312 Oswego St., 

Utica, N. Y. 
HUNT, F. L. (F) 

Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., 
463 West St., New York, N. Y. 
HUNT, H. H. (A) 

2312 Cass St., Detroit, Mich. 
HUSE, E. (F) 

Eastman Kodak Co., 6706 Santa 

Monica Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. 
HYNDMAN, D. E. (F) 

Eastman Kodak Co., 350 Madison 
Ave., New York, N. Y. 



INGMAN, T. M. (M) 

6100 Glen Oaks, Hollywood, Calif. 
IRBY, F. S. (M) 

151 E. 83rd St., New York, N. Y. 
IVES, F. E. (H) 

1753 No. 15th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
IVINS, C. F. (A) 

Pathescope Co. of America, Inc., 
33 West 42nd St., New York, 
N. Y. 
IWAO, W. F. (A) 

P. O. Box 386, Waipahu, Oahu, Ter. 
Hawaii. 



302 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



[J. S. M. P. E 



JACHONTOW, E. G. (M) 

Karpovka 19, Apt. 41, Leningrad, 

22, U. S. S. R. 
JADAV, B. V. (A) 

Motion Picture Society of India, 
Kitab Mahal, 192 Hornby Road, 
Fort Bombay, India. 
JAMES, F. E. (M) 

General Electric Co., 5201 Sante Fe 

Ave., Los Angeles, Calif. 
JAMIESON, H. V. (M) 

2212 Line Oak Co., Dallas, Texas. 
JARRETT, G. J. (M) 

Metropolitan Motion Picture Co., 
1745 Grand Blvd., E., Detroit, 
Mich. 
JAY, R. L. (M) 

Jay's Film Service, 17 Blythswood 
Square, Glasgow, C. 2, Scotland. 
JECKELL, W. H. R. (A) 

805 Davenport Rd., Toronto, On- 
tario, Canada. 
JEFFERY, F. A. (^4) 

9 Giles St., Toorak, Adelaide, So. 

Australia. 
JENNINGS, D.V. (A) 

Company B, 17th Infantry, Fort 

Crook, Nebr. 
JERMAIN, H. F. (M) 

130 Johnson Ave., Teaneek, N. J. 
JOACHIM, H. E. A. (M} 

Zeiss-Ikon A. G., Schandauerstr. 76, 

Dresden, A. 21, Germany. 
JOHN, W. E. (M) 

Standard Bank of S. A. Ltd., North- 
umberland Ave., London, W. C. 1, 
England. 
JOHNSON, B. W. (A) 

45-11 43rd Ave., Apt. 3-C, Long 

Island City, N. Y. 
JONES, J. G. (F) 

Eastman Kodak Co., Kodak Park, 

Rochester, N. Y. 
JONES, L. (A) 

106-28 95th St., Ozone Park, L. L, 
N. Y. 



JONES, L. A. (F) 

Research Laboratory, Eastman Ko- 
dak Co., Rochester, N. Y. 
JONES, L. G. (A) 

4l2 l / 2 Willaman Drive, Los Angeles, 

Calif. 
JOY, D. B. (F) 

National Carbon Co., Inc., Fostoria, 

Ohio. 
JOY, J. M. (M} 

12 Fairview Ave., Nepperhan 

Heights, Yonkers, N. Y. 
JUDGE, P. E. (A) 

22 Fay Avenue, Peabody, Mass. 

KALLMAN, K. (A) 

229 West 20th St., New York, N. Y. 
KALMUS, H. T. (F) 

Drawer B, Hollywood, Calif. 
KAMEI, K. (A) 

396-2 Miyananoue Morigu, Nishi- 

nomiya-City, Japan. 
KANO, J. H. (A) 

1495 Araiziku Omori-Ku 2, Tyome, 

Tokyo, Japan. 
KAPLAN, L. ( M) 

Panama Canal Dept., Motion Pic- 
ture Service, Quarry Heights, 
Canal Zone. 
KARATZ, T. (M) 

38 Glenwood Ave., Minneapolis, 

Minn. 
KASAI, K. (A] 

7, Matsueda-cho, Kanda-ku, Tokio, 

Japan. 
KAYE, L. K. (A) 

Vernon House, Park Place, St. 
James St., London, S. W. 1, Eng- 
land. 
KEITH, C. R. (M) 

Electrical Research Products, Inc., 
250 W. 57th St., New York, N. Y. 
KELBER, M. (A) 

5 Ave. du Colonel Bonnet, Paris, 

16e, France. 
KELLER, A. C. (4) 

Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., 
463 West St., New York, N. Y. 



Mar., 1936] 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



303 



KELLEY, J. H. (A) 
223 West 18th St., Kansas City, 

Mo. 

KELLOGG, E. W. (A) 
RCA Manufacturing Co., Inc., Cam- 
den, N. J. 
KENDE, G. (M) 

210 Sixth Ave., New York, N. Y. 
KERKOW, H. (A} 
270 Riverside Drive, New York, 

N. Y. 
KERMAN, E. W. (A) 

1477 Cory Drive, Dayton, Ohio. 
KERRIN, J. A. (4) 

138 Deloraine Ave., Toronto, On- 
tario, Canada. 
KERSHAW, C. (F) 

A. Kershaw & Son, 200 Harehills 

Lane, Leeds, England. 
KERST, W. D. (A} 

Bell & Howell Co., 11 West 42nd St., 

New York, N. Y. 
KEUFFEL, C. W. (Jlf) 

Keuffel & Esser Co., 3rd & Adams 
St., Hoboken, N. J. 

KlENNINGER, J. F. (Jlf) 

Drawer B, Hollywood, Calif. 
KILTON, G. C. (A] 

901 Hamlin St., N. E., Washington, 
D. C. 

KlMBALL, H. R. (M) 

3847 Goldwyn Terrace, Culver City, 
Calif. 

KlMBERLEY, P. (M) 

National Screen Service, Ltd., 25 
Denmark St., W. C. 2, London, 
England. 
KING, H. V. (A) 

British Lion Studios, Beaconsfield, 

Bucks, England. 
KING, P. A. (A) 

Box 117, Irondale, Ala. 
KING, R. P. (A) 

1059 Finan St., Honolulu, T. Hawaii. 
KING, T. P. (A) 

280 Martenze St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
KLAUSSEN, B. (A} 

332 Stratford Road, Brooklyn, N. Y. 



KLEBER, J. O. (M) 

15 West 16th St., New York, N. Y. 
KLEERUP, B. J. (M} 

Society for Visual Education, 327 S. 

La Salle St., Chicago, 111. 
KNOX, H. G. (F) 

Electrical Research Products Corp., 
250 West 57th St., New York, 
N.Y. 
Kocsis, P. (A) 

74 Van Cortlandt Park, S., Bronx, 
N.Y. 

KOHLER, J. J. (A) 

4542 44th St., Sunnyside, L. I., 

N.Y. 
KONDO, T. (A) 

951 Zoshigaya Cho 7 Chome, 

Toshima-Ku, Tokyo, Japan. 
KOSSMAN, H. R. (A) 

Andre Debrie, Inc., 115 West 45th 
St., New York, N. Y. 

KOTTE, J. J. (A) 

Philips' Glowlampworks, Cinema 

Dept., Eindhoven, Holland. 
KRAEMER, G 1. (M) 

16 Rue de Chateaudun, Asnieres, 
Seine, France. 

KRASNA-KRAUS, A. (M) 

Filmtechnik, Friedrichstrasse 46, 

Berlin, S. W. 68, Germany. 
KREHLEY, G. A. (4) 

4 B 4 Palisades Towers, Palisades 

Park, N. J. 
KREUZER, B. (M) 

RCA Manufacturing Co., Inc., 411 

Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y. 
KRUGERS, G. E. A. (M) 

P. O. Box 817, Hong Kong, China. 
KRUSE, W. F. (A) 

1820 Eye St., N. W., Washington, 
D. C. 

KUNZMANN, W. C. (F) 

National Carbon Co., Inc., Box 6087, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

KURLANDER, J. H. (F) 

283 Hillside Ave., Nutley, N. J. 
KURTZ, J. A. (A) 

97 Brooklyn Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 



304 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



[J. S. M. P. E. 



LACHAPELLE, L. (M) 

Consolidated Amusement Co., Ltd., 
P. O. Box 2425, Honolulu, Hawaii. 
LAIR, C. (M) 

Kodak-Pathe, 30 Rue des Vignerons, 

Vincennes, France. 
LAKEWITZ, F. S. (4) 

3360 154th St., Flushing, L. L, N. Y. 
LAL, G. D. (M) 

The Gramophone, Ltd., Civil Lines, 

Delhi, India. 
LAMB, E. E. (M) 

Bell & Howell Co., 320 Regent St., 

London, W. 1, England. 
LAMB, R. T. (A) 

382 Summit Ave., Leonia, N. J. 
LAMBERT, K. B. (F) 

Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios, Cul- 
ver City, Calif. 
LAN, W. S. (4) 

1980 Ave. Joffre, Shanghai, China. 
LANE, A. L. (M) 

4205 La Salle Ave., Culver City, 

Calif. 
LANE, G. (M} 

Audio Productions, Inc., 250 West 

57th St., New York, N. Y. 
LANE, W. H. (M) 

189 Patterson Ave., Ottawa, On- 
tario, Canada. 
LANG, A. (A) 

105 Arden St., New York, N. Y. 
LANGFORD, L. P. (M) 

11733 Edgewater Drive, Lake wood, 

Ohio. 
LANSING, D. W. (A} 

RCA Manufacturing Co., Inc., Cam- 
den, N. J. 
LAPAT, E. P. (A) 

1618 E. 15th St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
LAPORTE, N. M. (F) 

Paramount Publix Corp., 1501 

Broadway, New York, N. Y. 
LARSEN, P. J. (F) 

United Research Corp., Burbank, 

Calif. 
LARSON, I. J. (A) 

420 Lowell St., Manchester, N. H. 



LARUE, M. W. (A) 

6157 N. Artesian Ave., Chicago, 111. 
LAWLEY, H. V. (M) 

The Lawley Apparatus Co., Ltd., 26 
Church St., Charing X Road, 
London, W. 1, England. 
LAWRENCE, J. F. (A) 

96 Ohio St., Rochester, N. Y. 
LAWRENCE, T. (M) 

23, Rue de Tournon Paris, 6, France. 
LAY, M. W. (A) 

The United Photoplay Services, Ltd., 
Passage No. 1980, Avenue Joffre, 
House No. 1, Shanghai, China. 
LEARN ARD, H. P. (4) 

Consolidated Amusement Co., Hono- 
lulu, Hawaii. 
LECOQ, J. (.4) 

116 Rue de la Convention, Paris, 

15E, France. 
LEE, A. A. (A) 

Gaumont British Picture Corp. of 
America, 1600 Broadway, New 
York, N. Y. 
LEISHMAN, E. D. (M) 

Radio Keith Pictures, Ltd., P. O. 

Box 454, Calcutta, India. 
LENIGAN, T. E. (4) 

160-15 7th Ave., Beechhurst, Long 

Island, N. Y. 
LENTZ, H. R. (A) 

4502 Saturne St., Los Angeles, Calif. 
LENZ, F. (A) 

116-40 227th St., St. Albans, L. L, 

N. Y. 
LEROY, C. (A) 

Hotel Belmont, East 40th & Euclid 

Ave., Cleveland, Ohio. 
LESHING, M. S. (F) 

Fox Film Corp., 1401 N. Western 

Ave., Hollywood, Calif. 
LESLIE, F. (A) 

33 Champs Elyesee, Paris, France. 
LESTER, H. M. (A) 

1 Pershing Square, New York, N. Y. 
LEVENTHAL, J. F. (F) 

175 Varick St., New York, N. Y. 



Mar., 1936] 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



305 



LEVINSON, N. (M) 

1761 No. Van Ness Ave., Hollywood, 

Calif. 
LEWBEL, S. (A) 

184 South King St., Honolulu, 

Hawaii. 
LEWIN, G. (M) 

1573 E. 35th St., Brooklyn, N. J. 
LEWIS, B. C. (A) 

Northern Electric Co., 1261 Shearer 

St., Montreal, Canada. 
LEWIS, W. W. (A) 

3030 Cabrillo St., San Francisco, 

Calif. 
LICHTE, H. (F) 

Tautenburgerstr. 33, Berlin, Lank- 
witz, Germany. 

LlNDERMAN, ROBERT G. (M) 

205 Edison Bldg., 5th and Grand 

Aves., Los Angeles, Calif. 
LINGG, A. (4) 

c/o I. G. Farbenindustrie Aktien- 
gesellschaft, Camerawerk, Tegern- 
seerlandstr. 161, Munich, Ger- 
many. 
LINS, P. A. (M) 

Madison Mart, Inc., 403 Madison 

Ave., New York, N. Y. 
LIPMAN, H. H. (M) 

74 Van Braam St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
LITTLE, W. F. (F) 

Electrical Testing Lab., 80th St. & 
East End Ave., New York, N. Y. 

LlVADARY, J. P. (4) 

2028 Cahuenga Ave., Hollywood, 
Calif. 

LlVERMAN, C. (A) 

9 Rue Paul Feval, Paris, France. 
LOHR, J. F. (M) 

Gyarmat U 52, Budapest, VII, 

Hungary. 
LOOTENS, C. L. (M} 

933 Seward St., Hollywood, Calif. 
LOTT, H. O. (A) 

25-15 Ditmars Blvd., Long Island 

City, N. Y. 
LOY, L. C. (A) 

2018 llth St., Detroit, Mich. 



LUBAO, R. (A} 

9 Grove St., W. Somerville, Mass. 
LUCAS, G. S. C. (M) 

British Thomson-Houston Co., Ltd., 

Rugby, England. 
LUCID, F. J., JR. (A) 

Paramount Productions, Inc., Holly- 
wood, Calif. 
LUDLAM, J. M. (A) 

U. S. S. Whitney, San Diego, Calif. 
LUKE, E. (M) 

Kenton House, Upper Shirley Road, 

Croydon, Surrey, England. 
LUKES, S. A. (M) 

6145 Glenwood Ave., Chicago, 111. 
LUMIERE, L. (H) 

156 Blvd. Bineau A. Neuilly, Paris, 
France. 

LUMMERZHEIM, H. J. (M) 

I. G. Farbenindustrie Aktiengesell- 
schaft, Berlin, S. O. 36, Germany. 
LUNDAHL, T. (M) 

253 Cumberland St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
LUNDIE, E. S. (.4) 

c/o The Vitaphone Corp., 1277 E. 
14th St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

LUTTER, H. (A) 

59 Peck Avenue, Newark, N. J. 
LYON, L. H. (A) 

c/o Atlas Powder Co., Wilmington, 
Del. 



MAAS, A. R. (A) 

A. R. Mass Chemical Co., 308 E. 

Eighth St., Los Angeles, Calif. 
MACDONALD, A. F. (A) 

9 Seventh Ave., Haddon Heights, 

N.J. 
MACILVAIN, K. H. (A) 

41 Nassau Ave., Malverne, L. I., 

N. Y. 
MACLEOD, J. S. (M) 

Metro - Goldwyn - Mayer Pictures, 
1540 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 
MACLEOD, K. A. (A) 

933 Heliotrope Drive, Hollywood, 
Calif. 



306 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



[J. S. M. P. E. 



MACNAIR, W. A. (F) 

Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., 

463 West St., New York, N. Y. 
MACOMBER, W. W. (A) 

Box 3304, Chicago, 111. 
MAIRE, H. J. (M} 

5640 Kingsessing Ave., Philadelphia, 

Pa. 
MALHTRA, M. N. (A) 

Jai Krishanian St., Machhi Hatta 

Bazar, Lahore, India. 
MANCHEE, A. W. (M) 

91 Prospect St., East Orange, N. J. 
MANHEIMER, J. R. (M) 

E-J Elec. Installation Co., 227 East 

45th St., New York, N. Y. 
MANN, R. G. (A) 

Pathe News, 35 West 45th St., New 

York, N. Y. 
MANPOH, K. (-4) 

c/o J. O. Studio, Ltd., Uzumassa, 

Kyoto, Japan. 
MAR, S. T. (A) 

73/245 Rue Bourgeat, Shanghai, 

China. 
MARCHESSAULD, C. E. (4) 

151-22 85 Drive, Jamaica, L. I., 

N. Y. 
MARESCHAL, G. (A) 

30 Rue de la Garenne Sevres, Seine 

et Oise, France. 
MARETTE, J. (F) 

Pathe Cinema, 8 Rue Leconte de 

Lisle, Paris, France. 
MARGOSSIAN, M. (A) 

2837 Minna Ave., Oakland, Calif. 
MARKS, L. (^4) 

Independent Theater Supply Co., 
354 West 44th St., New York, 
N. Y. 
MARSH, H. N. (A) 

Technical Division, Hercules Powder 

Co., Wilmington, Del. 
MARSHALL, F. R. (A) 

109 Gates Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
MASAOKA, K. (A) 

82 Shimokamotakagicho Sakyoku, 
Kyoto, Japan. 



MASON, C. (A) 

702 Bloomfield Ave., Nutley, N. J. 
MASTER, R. P. (A) 

312 W. 34th St.. New York, N. Y. 
MASUTANI, R. (A) 

Kinutamura Kitatamagun, Tokyo, 

Prefecture, Japan. 
MATHEWSON, E. G. (.4) 

141 Fourth St., New Toronto, On- 
tario, Canada. 
MATHOT, J. A. (M) 

Eclair Tirage, 34A 42 Av. d'Enghein, 
Epinay Sur Seine, Seine, France. 
MATHUR, R. D. (A) 

c/o Gauri Daval, Ganesh Flour Mills 

Co., Ltd., Lyallpur, India. 
MATSUZAWA, M. (A) 

5-848 Kitazawa Setagayaku, Tokyo, 

Japan. 
MATTESON, N. (A) 

U. S. Army Motion Picture Service, 
Bldg. 3, 2nd & Arsenal Sts., St. 
Louis, Mo. 
MATTHEWS, B. (A) 

1449 N. Spaulding Ave., Chicago, 
111. 

MATTHEWS, G. E. (F) 

Research Laboratory, Eastman Ko- 
dak Co., Rochester, N. Y. 
MAURAN, J. (A) 

537 Statler Bldg., Boston, Mass. 
MAURER, J. A. (A) 

320 West 83rd St., New York, N. Y. 
McAuLEY, J. E. (F) 

554 W. Adams St., Chicago, 111. 

MCBURNEY, J. W. (M) 

41 Floral Avenue, Binghamton, 
N. Y. 

McCLINTOCK, N. (A) 

144 7th Ave., Highland Park, New 

Brunswick, N. J. 
MCCLELLAND, T. H. (A) 

137 Rawdon St., Brantford, Ontario, 

Canada. 
McCoRD, C. T. (A) 

187 Madeira Ave., Chillicothe, Ohio. 



Mar., 1936] 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



307 



MCCROSKEY, H. E. (M) 

5451 Marathon St., Hollywood, 
Calif. 

McCULLOUGH, R. (F) 

1833 S. Vermont Ave., Los Angeles, 

Calif. 
MCDOWELL, J. B. (A) 

Agfa, Ltd., 1-4 Lawrence St., High 
Street, London, W. C. 2, England. 
McGiNNis, F. J. (A) 

Box 2387, Palm Beach, Fla. 

MCGLINNEN, E. J. (A) 

Fox Theater, Detroit, Mich. 
McGuiRE, J. (A) 
398 Huron Ave., Ottawa, Ontario, 

Canada. 
McGuiRE, P. A. (F) 

International Projector Corp., 90 

Gold St., New York, N. Y. 
McKEE, T. A. (A) 

1518 Wilder Ave., Honolulu, Hawaii. 

MCKINNEY, H. J. (A) 

National Theater Supply Co., 211 

Columbus Ave., Boston, Mass. 
MCLARTY, H. D. (A) 

145 Kinsey Ave., Kenmore, N. Y. 
MC.LEMORE, J. R. (A) 

828 Gates Ave., Norfolk, Va. 

McMASTER, D. (F) 

Kodak, Ltd., Wealdstone, Middle- 
sex, England. 
McMATH, R. R. (M) 

Motors Metal Mfg. Co., 5936 Mil- 
ford Ave., Detroit, Mich. 
McNABB, J. H. (F) 

Bell & Howell Co., 1801 Larchmont 
Ave., Chicago, 111. 

McNAMARA, D. T. (A) 

7 Baker Ave., East Lexington, Mass. 
McRAE, D. (10 

99 Melrose St., Melrose, Mass. 
MECHAU, E. (F) 

Albrechtstrasse, 60A, Berlin, Su- 

dende, Germany. 
MEES, C. E. K. (F) 

Eastman Kodak Co., Kodak Park, 
Rochester, N. Y. 



MEHTA, H. S. (M) 

c/o Dr. Deshmukh Lane, Third 
Floor, Lilawati Terrace, Bombay, 
4, India. 
MELVILLE, W. (A) 

General Delivery, Los Angeles, Calif. 
MESSITER, H. M. (A) 

P. O. Box 165, Scarsdale, N. Y. 
METZGER, M. (4) 

Associated Screen News, Ltd., 
Western Ave. & Delcarie Blvd., 
Montreal, Quebec, Canada. 
MEYER, H. (F} 

6372 Santa Monica Blvd., Holly- 
wood, Calif. 
MIEHLING, R. (M} 

1788 Amsterdam Ave., New York, 

N. Y. 
MILI, G. (A) 

Westinghouse Lamp Co., Bloomfield, 

N.J. 
MILLER, A. J. (M) 

1460 Jefferson St., West Englewood, 

N.J. 
MILLER, A. W. (A) 

47 Westfield Ave., E., Roselle Park, 

N.J. 

MILLER, J. A. (F) 
46-27 193rd St., Flushing, L. I.. 

N. Y. 
MILLER, O. E. (A) 

452 Electric Ave., Rochester, N. Y. 
MILLER, R. (A) 

1045 S. Liberty St., Salem, Oregon. 
MILLER, R. A. (M) 

Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., 

463 West St., New York, N. Y. 
MILLER, R. L. (A} 

7635 Grand River Ave., Detroit, 

Mich. 
MILLER, R. P. (4) 

926 Cordova St., Burbank, Calif. 
MILLER, V. E. (A) 

1247 N. Detroit St., Hollywood, 

Calif. 
MILLER, W. C. (F) 

Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Culver City, 
Calif. 



308 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



[J. S. M. P. E. 



MlNNERLY, N. H. (A) 

158-03 Sanford Ave., Flushing, 

N. Y. 
MINO, T. J. (A) 

c/o M. Numoto, 1063 Yukigaya Cho, 

Omori Ku, Tokyo, Japan. 
MISENER, G. C. (M) 

100 Beverley Heights, Rochester, 

N. Y. 
MISTRY, D. L. (M) 

24 Nepean Road, Malabar Hill, 

Bombay, 6, India. 
MISTRY, M. L. (M) 

24 Nepean Road, Malabar Hill, 

Bombay, 6, India. 
MITCHELL, G. A. (F) 

666 No. Robertson Blvd., West 

Hollywood, Calif. 
MITCHELL, G. S. (M} 

Academy of Motion Picture Arts & 
Sciences, Suite 1201, Taft Bldg., 
Hollywood, Calif. 
MITCHELL, M. N. (^4) 

116 1st Street, Rochester, N. Y. 
MITCHELL, R. F. (F) 

4230 N. Winchester Ave., Chicago, 

111. 
MOLE, P. (F) 

Mole-Richardson, Inc., 941 North 
Sycamore Ave., Hollywood, Calif. 
MOLS, P. M. (4) 

10564 Bradbury Road, Los Angeles, 

Calif. 
MONKS, C. H. (,4) 

Pitts Bay Road, Bermuda. 
MOORE, T. (M) 

The Westchester, Washington, D. C. 
MORENO, R. M. (M) 

Dupont Film Mfg. Corp., Parlin, 

N.J. 
MORGAN, K. F. (F) 

Electrical Research Products, Inc., 
7046 Hollywood Blvd., Los 
Angeles, Calif. 
MORRAL, F. R. (A) 

Provenza 361, Barcelona, Spain. 
MORRIS, L. P. (A) 

1532 West 4th St., Marion, Ind. 



MORTON, T. (4) 

Kodak, Ltd., Postafiok 146, Buda- 
pest, IV, Hungary. 
MOSKOWITZ, J. H. (A) 

Amusement Supply Co., 341 West 

44th St., New York, N. Y. 
MOTWANE, V. G. (M) 

192 Hornby Road, Fort, P. O. Box 

459, Bombay, India. 
MOYSE, H. W. (F) 

Smith & Aller, Ltd., 6656 Santa 

Monica Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. 
MUELLER, E. (A) 

Hofzeili 14, Vienna, 19, Austria. 
MUELLER, W. A. (M) 

5011 No. Ambrose Ave., Hollywood,, 

Calif. 
MULLER, C. (A) 

87-60 113th St., Richmond Hill, 

L. I., N. Y. 
MULLER, J. P. (M) 

3425 Locust St., Kansas City, 

Mo. 
MURDOCH, S. E. (A} 

3 Cabramatta Rd., Mosman, Syd- 
ney, N. S. W., Australia. 
MURPHY, G. D. (A) 

R. F. D. No. 3, Rockville, Md. 
MURRAY, A. P. (4) 

1702 Centre St., West Roxbury, 

Mass. 
MYERS, W. D. (A) 

P. O. Box 703, Wheeling, W. Va. 



NADELL, A. (M) 

494 Hendrix St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
NAGASE, T. (M) 

D. Nagase & Co., Ltd., 7 Itachibori- 
Minamidori-Nishiku, 1 Chome, 
Osaka, Japan. 
NARBUT, L. A. (A). 

555 Pleasant St., Norwood, Mass. 
NARIAN, S. (A) 

East India Importing Co., 230 Fifth 

Ave., New York, N. Y. 
NATAN, B. I. (A) 

6 Rue Francoeur, Paris, France. 



Mar., 1936] 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



309 



NEILL, C. B. (A) 

724 Roselawn Ave., S. Hills, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. 
NELSON, E. W. (A) 

3910 Wellington Ave., Chicago, 111. 
NELSON, O. (M) 

National Cash Register Co., Dayton, 

Ohio. 
NEU, O. F. (M) 

Neumade Products Corp., 442 West 

42nd St., New York, N. Y. 
NICHOLIDES, E. C. (A) 

Sonotone Corporation, 19 West 44th 

St., New York, N. Y. 
NICHOLSON, R. F. (F) 

Phi Gamma Delta Club, 106 West 
56th St., New York, N. Y. 

NlCKOLAUS, J. M. (F) 

Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios, Cul- 
ver City, Calif. 
NIELSEN, J. F. (4) 

United Research Corp.. Burbank, 

Calif. 
NIEMANN, H. P. (A) 

American Askania Corp., 1603 So. 

Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. 
NIEPMANN, C. H. (M) 

Kandem Electrical Ltd., 711 Fulham 
Road, London, S. W. 6, England. 
NIGAM, C. S. (A) 

East India Film Co., Regent Park 

Tollygunge, Calcutta, India. 
NIVISON, W. S. (A) 

410 West 24th St., New York, N. Y. 
NIXON, I. L. (F) 

Bausch & Lomb Optical Co., Roches- 
ter, N. Y. 
NORLING, J. A. (M) 

Loucks & Norling, 245 West 55th 

St., New York, N. Y. 
NORRISH, B. E. (M) 

5155 Western Ave., Montreal, Que- 
bec, Canada. 
NORTON, R. (4) 

2013 No. 63rd St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
NORWOOD, D. W. (M) 

Chanute Field, Rantoul, 111. 



OAKLEY, N. F. (M) 

Dupont Film Mfg. Corp., Parlin 
N.J. 

O'BOLGER, R. E. (M) 

Eastman Kodak Co., 24 Yuen Ming 

Yuen Road, Shanghai, China. 
O'BRIEN, B. C. (A) 

10 Fairview Heights, Rochester, 
N. Y. 

O'BRIEN, M. D. (A) 

417 Park Ave., Merrick, N. Y. 
OHTA, V. (A) 

1 Tsukudocho Ushigomeku, Tokyo, 
Japan. 

O'KEEFE, G. A. (A) 

404 East 55th St.. New York. N. Y. 
OLDHAM, C. (A) 

11 Russell Road, Norwich, Conn. 
O'LEARY, J. S. (A) 

69 Greenfield Ave., Ardmore, Pa. 
OLIVER, W. J. (A) 

328A 8th Ave., West Calgary, Al- 
berta, Canada. 
OLLINGER, C. G. (4) 

1810 Clark Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
OLMSTEAD, L. B. (A) 

United Research Corp., Burbank, 

Calif. 
OLSON, O. E. (A) 

Local 164 IATSE, 344 Commerce 

Bldg., Milwaukee, Wis. 
ORAM, E. (A) 

51 Lawrence Gardens, Mill Hill, 

N. W. 7, London, England. 
ORBAN, R. F. (M) 

Bucaresti, Str. Nic. Balcescu, 2-IV, 

Roumania. 
OSAWA, Y. (M) 

J. Osawa & Co., Ltd.. Sanjo Kobashi, 

Kyoto, Japan. 
OSBORNE, A. W. (M} 

"Hilton" North Drive, Ruislip, 

Middlesex, England. 
OSMAN, D. E. (A) 

46 Whitchurch Gardens, Edgware, 
Middlesex, England. 



310 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



U. S. M. p. E. 



OSTER, E. (A) 

Columbia Pictures Corp., 1433 
Gower St., Camera Dept., Holly- 
wood, Calif. 
OSWALD, C. G. (A) 

149 East 36th St., New York, N. Y. 
OWENS, F. H. (A) 

2647 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 
OWNBY, L. C. (A) 

121 Goldengate Ave., San Francisco, 
Calif. 

PACENT, L. G. (F) 

Pacent Engineering Corp., 79 Madi- 
son Ave., New York, N. Y. 
PACHOLKE, F. (A) 

508 Winthrop Ave., Jackson, Mich. 
PADEN, C. B. 04) 

146 Leaven worth St., San Francisco, 

Calif. 

PALMER, M. W. (M) 
468 Riverside Drive, New York, 

N. Y. 
PARKINS, C. F. (M) 

Studio Film Laboratories, Ltd., 80 
Wardour St., London, W. 1, 
England. 
PARLEY, W. C. (A) 

RCA Photophone, Ltd., 57 Charles 

St., Cardiff, Wales. 
PARRIS, R. C. (A) 
Pocasset, Mass. 
PARRISH, H, C. (A) 

State Shopping Block, Market St., 
4th Floor, Sydney, N. S. W., 
Australia. 
PARSHLEY, C. W. (A) 

University Theater, Cambridge, 

Mass. 
PATEL, K. K. (A) 

1598 Raipur Zadken, St. Ahmedabad, 

India. 
PATEL, M. B. (A) 

Krishna & Gujrat Studios, 162 
DadarRd., Dadar, Bombay, India. 
PATTON, G. E. (M} 

51 Eastbourne Ave., Toronto, On- 
tario, Canada. 



PAULINI, E. T. (A) 

2471 University Ave., Bronx, N. Y. 
PECK, W. H. (A) 

51 Vesey St., New York, N. Y. 
PERRY, C. (4) 

P. O. Box 351, Manila, Phillipine 

Islands. 
PERRY, H. D. (A) 

870 Broad St., Newark, N. J. 
PERSE, I. S. (A) 

Capitol Motion Picture Supply 
Corp., 630 Ninth Ave., New York, 
N. Y. 
PETERSON, F. W. (M) 

c/o I. G. Farbenindustrie Aktien- 
gesellschaft Kinetechnische Abteil- 
ung, Berlin, S. O. 36, Germany. 
PETTERS, W. K. (A) 

3820 Benton St., N. W., Washing- 
ton, D. C. 
PFANNENSTIEHL, H. (M) 

Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., 

463 West St., New York, N. Y. 
PFEIFF, C. (If) 

131-55 229th St., Laurelton, L. I., 

N. Y 
PHATAK, R. K. (A) 

c/o V. N. Ambdekar, 14 Ghatks- 
parwata's Bldg., Mugbhat Gir- 
gaon, Bombay, India. 

PHELPS, L. G. (M) 

Phelps-Films, Inc., 27 Harmon St., 

New Haven, Conn. 
PHILIPP, J. F. (A) 

Crosene Corporation, 52 Vanderbilt 

Ave., New York, N. Y. 
PHILLIPS, J. H., JR. (A) 

1455 Gordon St., Hollywood, Calif. 
PHILLIPPS, L. C. (F) 

Hotel President, 907 West 2nd St., 

Los Angeles, Calif. 
PINTO, O. D. (A) 

Caixa Postal 3296, Rio de Janeiro, 

Brazil. 
PIROVANO, L. (A) 

219 Harvard St., Brookline, Mass. 



Mar., 1936] 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



311 



PLANSKOY, L. (M) 

c/o Dr. Silverman, 142 Camden 
Road, London, N. W. 1, England. 
POHL, W. E. (4) 

Drawer B, Hollywood, Calif. 
PONDE, D. B. (A) 

Roerich Museum, Room 605, 103rd 
St. & Riverside Drive, New York, 
N. Y. 
PONTIUS, R. B. (A) 

Jesus College, Oxford, England. 
POOLE, G. F. (A) 
30 McCullough St., Pollocshields, 

Glasgow, Scotland. 
POPOVICI, G. G. (M) 

2975 Marion Ave., Bronx, N. Y. 
PORTER, G. C. (A) 

Box 1, Wortendyke, N. J. 
PORTER, L. C. (F} 

General Electric Co., Engineering 
Dept., Nela Park, Cleveland, 
Ohio. 
PRATT, J. A. (A) 

Room 932, Earle Bldg., Washington, 

D. C. 

PRAUTSCH, J. H. (A) 
Technicolor Motion Picture Corp., 
823 N. Seward St., Hollywood, 
Calif. 
PREDDEY, W. A. (A) 

187 Golden Gate Ave., San Fran- 
cisco, Calif. 
PRESGRAVE, C. (A ) 
P. O. Box 4372, Chestnut Hill, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
PRESIDENT, THE (H) 
Royal Photographic Society, 35 
Russel Square, London, W. C. 1, 
England. 

PRESIDENT, THE (H) 
Societe Francaise de Photographic, 
Rue de Clichy 51, Paris, 9 erne, 
France. 
PRESIDENT, THE (IF) 

Deutsche Kinotechnische, Gesell- 
schaft, Stallschreiberstr. 33, Hog- 
gachtungsvoll, Berlin, S. W. 19, 
Germany. 



PRICE, A. F. (M) 

Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., 

463 West St., New York, N. Y. 
PRICE, G. W. (A) 
2406 Montclair Ave., Cleveland, 

Ohio. 
PRILIK, M. R. (4) 

2007 Davidson Ave., Bronx, N. Y. 
PRINCE, L. S. (4) 

261 Seaman Ave., New York, N. Y. 
Pu, M. N. (A) 

Burmese Favourite Co., 51 Sule 
Pagoda Road, Rangoon, Burma, 
India. 

PULLER, G. (4) 

32 Park Ave., Port Washington, 
L. L, N. Y. 

QUICK, C. J. (M) 
49 Vaughan St., Ottawa, Ontario, 

Canada. 
QUINLAN, W. (M} 

Fox Film Corp., 1401 Northwestern 
Ave., Hollywood, Calif. 

RABINOWITZ, D. J. (A) 

M. Rabinowitz & Sons, Inc., 1373 

Sixth Ave., New York, N. Y. 
RACKETT, G. F. (F) 

Drawer B, Hollywood Station, 

Hollywood, Calif. 
RAMSAYE, T. (F) 

Motion Picture Herald, 1790 Broad- 
way, New York, N. Y. 
RAMSEY, R. W. (A) 

Carolina Hotel, Winston-Salem, 

N. C. 

RANKIN, J. D. (A) 
Tarkio, Missouri. 
RASMUSSEN, R. T. (M) 

Beaded Screen Corp., Roosevelt, 

N. Y. 
RAVEN, A. L. (M) 

Raven Screen Corp., 147 East 24th 

St., New York, N. Y. 
RAY, M. (A) 

1906 Avenue M, Brooklyn, N. Y. 



312 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



[J. S. M. p. E. 



RAY, R. H. (If) 

Ray-Bell Films, Inc., 2267 Ford Rd., 

St. Paul, Minn. 
RAYTON, W. B. (F) 

Bausch & Lomb Optical Co., Roches- 
ter, N. Y. 
READ, E. A. (A) 

1128 Clarendon Ave., N. W., Canton, 

Ohio. 
REEB, O. G. L. (M) 

Berlin, 0. 17, Rotherstr., 20-23, Ger- 
many. 
REEVES, A. (M) 

Hollywood Motion Picture Equip- 
ment Co., Ltd., 645 N. Martel 
Ave., Hollywood, Calif. 
REICHARD, E. H. (A) 

25 Fulton St., Weehawken, N. J. 
REIFSTECK, C. N. (F) 

Engineering Dept., RCA Manu- 
facturing Co., Inc., Camden, N. J. 
REITH, A. J. (A) 

12 Codman Hill Ave., Dorchester, 

Mass. 
REMERSHIBD, H. W. (M) 

907 N. Edinbourgh, Hollywood, 

Calif. 
RENIER, A. H. (4) 

Renier Mfg. Co., 940 N. 21st St., 

Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 
RENKE, A. (A) 

45 Horatio St., New York, N. Y. 
RENWICK, F. F. (F) 

Ilford Limited, Ilford, Essex, Eng- 
land. 
REPP, W. H. (M} 

Projection Optics Co., Inc., 330 

Lyell Ave., Rochester, N. Y. 
REYNOLDS, J. L. (M) 

Electrical Research Products, Inc., 
250 West 57th St., New York, 
N. Y. 
RICHARD, A. J. (M) 

544 West 43rd St., New York, N. Y. 
RICHARD, J. (A) 

Washington Apartments, Vancouver, 
B. C., Canada, 



RICHARDSON, E. C. (M) 

Mole-Richardson, Inc., 941 N. Syca- 
more Ave., Hollywood, Calif. 
RICHARDSON, F. H. (F) 

3 Tudor Lane, Scarsdale, N. Y. 
RICHMOND, J. (A) 

5725 Windsor Place, Philadelphia, 
Pa. 

RlCHTER, A. (A) 

920 Kelly St., Bronx, N. Y. 
RICKARDS, H. B. (A) 

2900 E. Gd. Blvd., Detroit, Mich. 
RICKER, M. (M) 

United Research Corp., Burbank, 
Calif. 

RlDGWAY, D. W. (4) 

780 Gower St., Los Angeles, Calif. 
RIES, P. D. (A) 

National Carbon Co., Inc., Room 
1229, 30 East 42nd St., New York, 
N. Y. 
RIFKIN, J. L. (M) 

3444 Knox Place, Bronx, N. Y. 
RILEY, R. (A) 

823 Seward St., Hollywood, Calif. 
RINALDY, E. S. (A) 

Chester, N. J. 

RlSEWICK, W. J. (A) 

358 Adelaide St., W., Toronto, 

Ontario, Canada. 
RIST, K. (A) 

3210 Avenue P, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Rizzo, C. (A) 

255 N. 13th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
ROBERT, A. R. (4) 

Rambla de Cataluna 69, Barce- 
lona, Spain. 
ROBERTS, F. W. (4) 

1365 E. 14th St., Apartment 3D, 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 
ROBILLARD, P. M. (M) 

RCA Photophone, Inc., 411 Fifth 

Ave., New York, N. Y. 
ROCHOWICZ, S. (4) 

Chimielna 29 M. 29, Warsaw, 
Poland. 



Mar., 1936] 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



313 



ROCK, J. B. (A) 

1228 E. McMillan St., Cincinnati, 

Ohio. 
ROCKVAM, A. O. (A) 

790 Clinton Ave., Newark, N. J. 
ROCKWELL, H. P., JR. (A) 

Weston Electrical Instrument Corp., 
614 Frelinghuysen Ave., Newark, 
N.J. 

RODWELL, L. A. (4) 

47-17 39th St., Long Island City, 
N. Y. 

ROGALLI, N. J. (A) 

2753 Cruger Ave., 1, Bronx, N. Y. 
ROGER, H. (A) 

Sandy Hook, Conn. 
ROGERS, F. B. (M) 
404 East 55th St., Apt. 15A, New 

York, N. Y. 
ROGERS, F. B. (A) 

404 East 55th St., New York, N. Y. 
ROGERS, J. E. (M) 

"Cluny," Deacon Hill Road, Elstree 

(Herts), England. 
ROLAND, E. C. (A) 

Ilex Optical Co., 726 Portland Ave., 

Rochester, N. Y. 
ROLLINS, F. S., JR. (A) 

372 W. 250th St., New York, N. Y. 
ROSE, S. G. (M) 

527 West Fourth St., Davenport, 

Iowa. 
ROSEMAN, I. (M) 

Kodak A. G., Markgrafenstrasse 7-6, 

Berlin, Germany. 
ROSENSWEIG, M. (M) 

H. E. R. Laboratories, Inc., 457 West 
46th St., New York, N. Y. 

ROSENTHAL, A. (A) 

Zimmerstrasse 35, Berlin, S. W. 68, 

Germany. 
Ross, A. (A) 
363 Vincent Ave., Lynbrook, L. I., 

N. Y. 
Ross, C. (M) 

Motion Picture Lighting & Equip- 
ment Co., 244 West 49th St., 
New York, N. Y. 



Ross, C. H. (A) 

6508 80th Ave., Glendale, L. I., 

N. Y. 
Ross, E. (M) 

United Research Corp., Burbank, 

Calif. 
Ross, O. A. (M) 

198 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 
Rossi, P. (A) 

Piazza Rondini 48, Rome, Italy. 
ROSSITER, D. R. (M) 

442 North Illinois St., Indianapolis, 

Ind. 
ROUSE, J. J. (M) 

Kodak Australasia Pty., Ltd., 379 
George St., Sydney, N. S. W., 
Australia. 
ROWSON, S. (F) 

62 Shaftesbury Ave., London, W. 1, 

England. 
RUBIN, H. (F) 

Paramount Publix Corp., Paramount 

Bldg., New York, N. Y. 
RUBLY, H. C. (A) 

890 Ridgewood Road, Millburn, 

N.J. 
RUDOLPH, W. F. (M) 

Paramount Productions, Inc., 5451 

Marathon St., Hollywood, Calif. 
RUOT, M. (F) 

Kodak, Ltd., Kingsway, London, 

E. C. 2, England. 
RUSSELL, K. B. (A) 

3632 Detroit Ave., Toledo, Ohio. 
RUSSELL, W. F. (M) 

Hall & Connolly, Inc., 24 Van Dam 

St., New York, N. Y. 
RUTH, C. E. (A) 

282 W. Palm St., Altadena, Calif. 

RUTTENBERG, J. (A) 

Roosevelt Hotel, Hollywood, Calif. 
RYAN, H. (A) 

8053 S. Paulina St., Auburn Park 

Sta., Chicago, 111. 
RYDER, L. L. (M} 

Paramount Publix Corp., 5451 
Marathon St., Hollywood, Calif. 



314 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



[J. S. M. P. E. 



SACHTLEBEN, L. T. (A) 

RCA Manufacturing Co., Inc., Bldg. 

5, Room 308, Camden, N. J. 
SAEKI, R. E. (A) 

22 Kuritaya, Kanagawa-Ku, Yoko- 
hama, Japan. 
SAILLIARD, J. H. (A) 

Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., 

463 West St., New York, N. Y. 
SALVING, S. (A) 

2070 East 22nd St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
SAMUELS, I. (M) 

Automatic Devices Co., 737 Hamil- 
ton St., Allentown, Pa. 
SANDSTONE, J. (^4) 

Ford Hotel, Buffalo, N. Y. 
SANDVIK, O. (F) 

Research Laboratory, Eastman Ko- 
dak Co., Rochester, N. Y. 
SANTEE, H. B. (F) 

Electrical Research Products, Inc., 
250 West 57th St., New York, 
N. Y. 
SARGENT, R. (A) 

Automatic Film Laboratories, Ltd., 
513 Dowling St., Moore Park, 
Sydney, Australia. 
SATTAN, G. D. (A) 

125 Terrace Ave., Hasbrouck 

Heights, N. J. 
SAUNDERS, R. (M) 

1023 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 
SAVINA, J. F. (A) 

7 Jay St., Cambridge, Mass. 
SAWYER, J. W. (^4) 

14 Groveland Ave., Buffalo, N. Y. 
SCANLON, E. J. (A) 

40 x /2 Lyman St., Holyoke, Mass. 
SCARLETT, J. J. Y. (A) 

West Buttlands, Woodside Road, 
Beaconfields (Bucks), England. 

SCHABBEHAR, E. A. (4) 

358 Village Ave., Rockville Centre, 

N. Y. 

SCHAEFER, J. M. (M) 

Balaban & Katz Theaters, 408 N. 
Ashland Ave., Chicago, 111. 



SCHAEFFER, F. H. (A) 

De Luxe Laboratories, Inc., 441 West 
55th St., New York, N. Y. 

SCHARMANN, P. G. (A) 

1181 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 
SCHEIBELL, G. B. (4) 

Wired Radio, Inc., Ampere, N. J. 

SCHLANGER, B. (If) 

67 West 44th St., New York, N. Y. 
SCHMID, F. (M) 

C. P. Goerz American Optical Co., 
317 East 34th St., New York, 
N. Y. 
SCHMIDT, W. A. (F) 

Agfa Ansco Corp., Binghamton, 

N. Y. 
SCHMIDT, W. E. (A) 

Ritz Theater, Scranton, Pa. 
SCHMINKEY, H. K. (A) 

821 Wellington St., Baltimore, 

Md. 
SCHMITZ, E. C. (M) 

Kodak Co., 39 Avenue Montaigne, 

Paris, France. 
SCHMITZ, W. J. (A) 

61 Oakdale Blvd., Royal Oak. Mich. 
SCHOTOFER, C. H. (A) 

836 North 34th St., Camden, N. J. 
SCHROTT, P. R. von (A) 

Getreidemarkt, 9, Vienna, IV, Aus- 
tria. 

SCHWENGELER, C. E. (M) 

34-14 Parsons Blvd., Flushing, L. I., 

N. Y. 
SCOTT, D. W. (M) 

52 Clark St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
SCOTT, W. B. (A) 

National Carbon Co., Inc., Carbon 
Sales Division, 2118 Carbide & 
Carbon Bldg., Chicago, 111. 
SCRIVEN, E. O. (F) 

Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., 

463 West St., New York, N. Y. 
SEASE, V. B. (F) 

Parlin, N. J. 
SEIFFERT, S. A. (^4) 

P. O. Box 65, Easton, Pa. 



Mar., 1936] 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



315 



SERRURIER, I. (Af) 

Moviola Co., 1451 Gordan St., 

Hollywood, Calif. 
SHAFER, L. J. (.4) 

703 Finance Bldg.. Cleveland, Ohio. 
SHALKHAUSER, E. G. (M) 

147 Cooper St., Peoria, 111. 
SHANTARAM, V. (M) 

Prabhat Film Co., Prabhat Kagar, 

Poona, India. 
SHAPIRO, A. (Af) 

Ampro Corporation, 2839-51 No. 

Western Ave., Chicago, 111. 
SHEA, T. E. (F) 

Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., 

463 West St., New York, N. Y. 
SHEARER, B. F. (A) 

2318 2nd Ave., Seattle, Wash. 
SHEPPARD, S. E. (F) 

Eastman Kodak Co., Kodak Park, 

Rochester, N. Y. 
SHIELDS, W. B. (A) 

War Dept., Signal Corps., Photo- 
graphic Lab., The Army War 
College, Washington, D. C. 
SHIMAZAKA, K. (A) 

1128 Higashi 2-Chome, Magome- 

machi, Omoriku, Tokyo, Japan. 
SHIRAS, A. (A) 

4841 Ellsworth Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
SHIRODKAR, G. N. (^4) 

Hardoli House, Hindu Colony, Da- 

dar, Bombay, India. 
SHNIPKIN, D. (A) 

1665 Morris Ave., Bronx, N. Y. 
SHORNEY, C. R. (A) 

59 Grenadier Road, Toronto, On- 
tario, Canada. 
SHOTWELL, H. H. (A} 

1008 South Boulevard, Greenwood, 

Miss. 
SHULTZ, E. P (A) 

1016 No. Sycamore Ave., Holly- 
wood, Calif. 
SIEGEL, J. (A) 

1522 N. Maraposa St., Hollywood, 
Calif. 



SIGNOR, G. H. (A) 

101 Palmer Ave., Kenmore, N. Y. 
SILENT, H. C. (F) 

Electrical Research Products, Inc., 
7048 Hollywood Blvd., Holly- 
wood, Calif. 
SINCLAIR, A. T. (A) 

RCA Photophone, Ltd., Electra 
House, Victoria Embankment, 
London, W. C. 2, England. 
SKINNER, C. R. (A) 

290 Turk St., San Francisco, Calif. 
SKITTRELL, J. G. (M) 

Olympic Kinematograph Labora- 
tory, School Road, London, W. 10. 
England. 
SLY, E. C. (M) 

627 First Ave., N. Minneapolis, 

Minn. 
SMACK, J. C. (A) 

S. S. White Dental Mfg. Co., 152 

West 42nd St., New York, N. Y. 
SMITH, A. C. (A) 

Cinesound Productions, Ltd., 65 
Elbley St., Waverley, N. S. W., 
Australia. 
SMITH, F. (A) 

1346 Clay Ave., Bronx, N. Y. 
SMITH, H. B. (M) 

42 Cooper St., West Springfield, 

Mass. 
SMITH, I. (A) 

147 Columbia Road, Dorchester, 

Mass. 
SMITH, J. E. (M) 

P. O. Box 3046, Washington, D. C. 
SMITH, J. W. W. (A) 

Ilford, Ltd., Cine Service Dept., 
National House, Wardour St., 
London, W. 1, England. 
SMITH, K. R. (A) 

272 Frances St., Teaneck, N. J. 
SMITH, R. A. (A) 

635 No. 7th St., Milwaukee, Wis. 
SMOLINSKJ, B. P. (A) 

6206 Winans Drive, Los Angeles, 
Calif. 



316 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



[J. S. M. P. E. 



SOHONI, B. A. (Af) 

Deccan Electric, 931 Sadashiv, 

Poona 2, India. 
Soi, B. M. (A) 

22 Darya Ganj, Delhi, India. 

SOLOW, S. P. (A) 

2720 Hudson Blvd., Jersey City, 
N.J. 

SONTAGH, J. R. (A) 

178 Yale Road, Audubon, N. J. 
SOPER, W. E. (A) 

P. O. Box 245, Ottawa, Canada. 
SPACE, K. F. (A) 

111 de Russey St., Binghamton, 

N. Y. 
SPAIN, C. J. (M) 

Electrical Research Products, Inc., 
7046 Hollywood Blvd., Holly- 
wood, Calif. 
SPARKS, F. (A) 

Amalgamated Theaters, Ltd., Queen 
St., Auckland, Cl., New Zea- 
land. 
SPENCE, J. L., JR. (F) 

Akeley Camera, Inc., 175 Varick St., 
New York, N. Y. 

SPONABLE, E. I. (F) 
277 Park Ave., Apartment 2W, 

New York, N. Y. 
SPRADLING, J. W. (A) 

Box 282, Burt, Iowa. 
SPRAGUE, A. (A) 

Regent Theater Apts., Main St., 
St. John, New Brunswick, Can- 
ada. 
SPRAY, J. H. (F) 

Ace Film Laboratories, Inc., 1277 E. 

14th St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
STAFFORD, J. W. (A) 

10317 Rossbury Place, Los Angeles, 
Calif. 

STAUD,C.J.(M) 

Eastman Kodak Co., Kodak Park, 
Rochester, N. Y. 



STECHBART, B. E. (F) 

Bell & Howell Co., 1801 Larchmont 

Ave., Chicago, 111. 
STEDEROTH, F. F. (A) 

41 Watessing Ave., Bloomfield, 

N.J. 
STEED, R. C., JR. (A) 

Nuhaka, Gisborne, New Zealand. 
STEELE, L. L. (M) 

S. M. Chemical Co., 514 West 57th 

St., New York, N. Y. 
STEELY, J. D. (A) 

801 Third St., Marietta, Ohio. 
STEINER, R. (4) 

51 West 10th St., New York, 

N. Y. 
STEINER, W. J. F. (A) 

4 Villa Eugene-Manuel, Paris, 

France. 
STEINHOF, E. G. (M} 

145 W. 55th St., New York, N. Y. 
STEPONAITIS, A. (4) 

23 Cooley Place, Mt. Vernon, N. Y. 
STODTER, C. S. (M) 

War Dept., Signal Corps Photo- 
graphic Lab., Fort Humphries, 
D. C. 
STOLLER, H. M. (F) 

Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., 

463 West St., New York, N. Y. 
STONE, C. H. (M) 

Suite 1020, 205 W. Wacker Drive, 

Chicago, 111. 
STONE, J. H. (A) 

31 Reid Ave., Port Washington, 

N.Y. 

STONE, W. P. (A) 
Asheboro, N. C. 
STORTY, F. J. (4) 

Loew's Palace Theater, Washington, 

D. C. 
STRETCH, A. T., JR. (4) 

207 Academy St., Trenton, N. J. 
STRICKLER, J. F. (M} 

2900 East Grand Blvd., Detroit, 
Mich. 



Mar., 1936] 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



317 



STRINGER, J. (A) 

226 Millwood Rd., Toronto, Ontario, 

Canada. 
STROCK, R. O. (M) 

Eastern Service Studios, Inc., 35-11 

:;:>th Ave., Astoria, L. I., N. Y. 
STRONG, H. H. (F) 

Strong Electric Co., 2501 LaGrange 

St., Toledo, Ohio. 
STRUSS, K. (F) 

1343 North Orange Grove Ave., 

Hollywood, Calif. 
STUBBS, J. A. (4) 

2343 9th St., Boulder, Colo. 
STUPRICH, P. (A) 

10th & Allegheny Ave., Philadelphia, 
Pa. 

SUBEDAR, P. C. (A) 

168 Vincent Road, Dadar, Bombay, 

14, India. 
SUGIURA, R. (Jlf) 

H. Konishi & Co., 18 Honcho 2- 
Chome, Nihonbashi-Ku, Tokyo, 
Japan. 
SUMNER, S. (M) 

1434 Massachusetts Ave., Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 
SUNDE, H. E. (A) 

RCA Manufacturing Co., Inc., Bldg. 

2, Floor 41, Camden, N. J. 
SUTARIA, S. F. (A) 

Lalit Kunj, Amboli Road, Andheri, 

India. 
SWARTZ, E. M. (M) 

Keystone Mfg. Co., 228 A St., 

Boston, Mass. 
SWETT, W. C. (M) 

705 Hollywood Security Bldg., 

Hollywood, Calif. 
SWIST, T. P. (A) 

306 Lowell St., Manchester, N. H. 



TALWAR, R. C. (A) 

500 Riverside Drive, New York, N. Y. 
TAMAMURA, K. (.4) 

7 ligura Katamachi, Azabu-Ku, 
Tokyo, Japan. 



TANAKA, E. (A) 

Katamachi Omuro, Ukyoku, Kyoto, 

Japan. 
TANN, W. L. (4) 

3420 89th St., Jackson Heights, 

N. Y. 
TANNBY, J. A. (M) 

Sales on Sound Corp., 1600 Broad- 
way, New York, N. Y. 
TAPLIN, J. (A) 

4 Tappan Road, Wellesley, Mass. 
TASKER, H. G. (F) 

United Research Corp., Burbank, 

Calif. 
TA VERNIER, R. (A) 

1737 N. Campbell Ave., Chicago, 111. 
TEITEL, A. (A) 

Protecto Films, Inc., 105 West 40th 

St., New York, N. Y. 
TEJERO-SANZ, M. (A) 

Western Electric Co. of Spain. 
Plaze de Catalun 22, Barcelona, 
Spain. 
TENDULKAR, H. D. (M) 

25 Bhan Daji Bhwan Bhan Daji 
Road, Matunga, Bombay, 19, 
India. 
TERPENING, L. H. (M) 

224 East 23rd St., New York, N. Y. 
TERRANEAU, R. (F) 

c/o George Humphries & Co., 71-77 
Whitfield St., London, W. 1, 
England. 
TERRY, R. V. (Af) 

Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., 

463 West St., New York, N. Y. 
TETZLAFF, E. F. (4) 

4 Shady Way, Rochester, N. Y. 
THALLMAYER, H. J. (4) 

Kreindlgasse 17, Vienna, XIX, Aus- 
tria. 
THAYER, W. L. (A) 

Paramount Publix Corp., 5451 Mara- 
thon St., Hollywood, Calif. 
THEISEN, W. E. (M) 

8649 Lookout Mt. Rd., Los Angeles 
Calif. 



318 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



[J. S. M. p. E. 



THEREMIN, W. (.4) 

Ste Lianofilm, 12 Rue Danicourt, 

Malakoff, Seine, France. 
THOMAS, A. R. (A) 

Princess Theater, Shelbyville, Tenn. 
THOMAS, J. L. (A) 

13360 Lauder Ave., Detroit, Mich. 
THOMAS, W. F. (A) 

352 Drexel Ave., South, Detroit, 

Mich. 
THOMPSON, F. B. (A) 

1611 N. Sierra Bonita Ave., Holly- 
wood, Calif. 
THOMPSON, L. (A) 

B. M. A. Bldg., Kansas City, Mo. 
THOMPSON, V. E. (A) 

1016 North Cole Ave., Los Angeles, 

Calif. 
THOMPSON, W. S. (A) 

c/o The Vitaphone Corp., 1277 

E. 14th St., Brooklyn, N.Y. 
TICKNER, A. J. (A) 

452 N. Los Robles Ave., Pasadena, 

Calif. 
TIMMER, A. L. (A) 

Leeuweriklaan 5, Eindhoven, Hol- 
land. 
TIZIAN, S. L. (A) 

282 Cypress Ave., New York, N. Y. 
TORNEY, R. G. (A) 

218 Sadashiv Peth, Poona, No. 2, 

India. 
TORNOVSKY, I. M. (^4) 

RCA Victor Co. of China, P. O. Box 

1802, Shanghai, China. 
TOTH, A. F. (A) 

1628 First Ave., New York, N. Y. 
TOUZE, G. (M) 

Pathe Pictures, Ltd., 103 Wardour 

St., London, W. 1, England. 
TOWNSEND, L. M. (A) 

125 Merchants Road, Rochester, 

N.Y. 
TREACY, C. S. (A) 

United Research Corp., Burbank, 

Calif. 
TRENTINO, V. (A) 

Via Ardea 11, Rome, Italy. 



TRIMBLE, L. S. (A) 

5301 West Blvd., Los Angeles, Calif. 
TRONOLONE, N. (M) 

1059 Briar Way, Palisade, N. J. 
TSUCHIHASHI, H. (A) 

60 Misono-Machi, Kamata-Ku, 

Tokyo, Japan. 
TUCK, F. A. (M) 

111 Kingshill Ave., Kenton Harrow, 
Middlesex, England. 

TUCKERMAN, L. P. (A) 

3518 Farragut Rd., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
TULPAN, S. (.4) 

H. E. R. Laboratories, Inc., 437 West 

46th St., New York, N. Y. 
TURNBULL, A. D. (M) 

Northern Electric Co., Ltd., 1261 

Shearer St., Montreal, Canada. 
TURVEY, C. F. (A) 

3173 18th St., N. W., Washington, 

D. C. 
TUTTLE, C. M. (F) 

Research Laboratory, Eastman Ko- 
dak Co., Rochester, N. Y. 
TUTTLE, H. B. (M) 

Eastman Kodak Co., 343 State St., 

Rochester, N. Y. 
TYLER, K. (A) 

1217 Newkirk Ave., Flatbush, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 



UNDERBILL, C. R., JR. (^4) 

708 2nd Ave., Westmont, Johnstown. 

Pa. 
UNDERBILL, J. L. (M) 

R. C. A. Photophone, Ltd., Film 
House, Wardour St., London, 
England. 



VALLEN, E. J. (A) 

225 Bluff St., Akron, Ohio. 
VAN BREUKELEN, J. (A} 

Philips Cine Sonor, Inc., Eindhoven. 

Holland. 
VAN VLEET, F. S. (A) 

1217 Grant Ave., York, Nebr 






Mar., 1936] 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



319 



VAUGHAN, R. (M) 

Filtncraft Laboratories, 35-39 Mis- 
senden Rd., Camperdown, Syd- 
ney, Australia. 
VENARD, C. L. (A) 

702 S. Adams St., Peoria, 111. 
VERLINSKY, V. (4) 

Amkino Corp., 723 Seventh Ave., 

New York, N. Y. 
VICTOR, A. F. (F) 

Victor Animatograph Co., 242 West 

55th St., New York, N. Y. 
VIETH, L. (A) 

Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., 

463 West St., New York, N. Y. 
VINSEN, S. E. (A) 

25 Bourke St., Kilbirnie, Wellington, 

New Zealand. 
VOLCK, A. G. (M) 

9441 Wilshire Boulevard, Beverly 

Hills, Calif. 
VOLF, C. A. (A) 

48 West 48th St., New York, N. Y. 



WADDELL, J. H. (A) 

18 Curtiss Place, New Brunswick, 

N.J. 
WADDINGHAM, A. G. (M) 

Kromocolor, Inc., Hackensack P.O., 

New Jersey. 
WADE, F. H. (A) 

537 59th St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
WAGNER, B. (A) 

856 South 16th St., Newark, N. J. 
WAGNER, V. C. (A) 

908 North 4th Ave., Knoxviile, 

Tenn. 
WALL,;. M. (F) 

J. M. Wall Machine Co., 101 Court 

St., Syracuse, N. Y. 
WALL, W. I. (A) 

309 West 109th St., New York, N. Y. 
WALLER, F. (M) 

R. F. D. 3, Huntington, L. I., N. Y. 
WALTER, H. L. (A) 

Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., 
463 West St., New York, N. Y. 



WALTERS, H. (A) 

136 N. Windsor Ave., Atlantic City, 

N.J. 
WARD, E. J. (M) 

553 Denise Road, Rochester, N. Y. 
WARD, J. S. (F) 

Electrical Research Products, Inc., 
250 West 57th St., New York, 
N. Y. 
WARMISHAM, A. (F) 

Taylor, Taylor & Hobson, Strough- 

ton St., Leicester, England. 
WASCHNECK, K. (M) 

Aktiengesellschaft Fur Film Fabrika- 
tion, Victoria-Strasse 13-18, Ber- 
lin-Tempelhof, Germany. 
WATKINS, R. H. (A) 

P. O. Box 233, Winona, Minn. 
WATKINS, S. S. A. (F) 

Western Electric Co., Bush House, 
Aldwych, London, W. C. 2, 
England. 
WATSON, E. M. (A) 

Lamp Development Laboratories, 
General Electric Co., Nela Park, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 
WATSON, J. S., JR. (F) 

6 Sibley Place, Rochester, N. Y. 
WEBER, C. M. (F) 

Weber Machine Corp., 55 Bengal 

Terrace, Rochester, N. Y. 
WEBBER, A. C. (A) 

"Devonia" 1, Addiscombe Close, 

Kenton, Middlesex, England. 
WEIL, N. (A) 

P. O. Box 1472, Atlanta, Ga. 
WELMAN, V. A. (M) 

207 Finance Bldg., Cleveland, Ohio. 
WENTE, E. C. (F) 

Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., 

463 West St., New York, N. Y. 
WENZ, A. (A) 

1305 Dorchester Road, Brooklyn, 

N. Y. 
WENZEL, M. (A) 

2509 So. State St., Chicago, 111. 



320 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



[J. S. M. P. E. 



WERNLEIN, C. E. (4) 

United Research Corp., Burbank, 

Calif. 
WEST, A. B. (A) 

21 Oak St., Lexington, Mass. 
WESTHEIMER, J. (A) 

721 So. Genesee St., Los Angeles, 

Calif. 
WESTON, J. C. (A) 

66-20 53rd Ave., Maspeth, L. I., 

N. Y. 
WESTWATER, W. (M) 

Research Laboratories, Eastman Ko- 
dak Co., Rochester, N. Y. 
WHEELER, E. A. (A) 

116 Clifford St., Gisborne, New Zea- 
land. 
WHEELER, W. L. (4) 

Tokomaru Bay, New Zealand. 
WHITE, D. R. (F) 

Redpath Laboratory, Dupont Film 

Mfg. Corp., Parlin, N. J. 
WHITMORE, W. (M) 

Western Electric Co., 195 Broadway, 

New York, N. Y. 
WIDDOWS, C. G. (4) 

20 Malthouse Sq., Beaconsfield, 

Bucks, England. 
WIGGIN, L. J. (A) 

38-35 208th St., Bayside, L. I., 

N. Y. 
WILD, G. (M) 

2 Place Jean - Baptiste - Clement, 

Paris, 18E, France. 
WILD, S. J. (A) 

545 Valle Vista Ave., Oakland, 

Calif. 
WILDING, W. A. (A) 

398 East Avenue, Pawtucket, R. I. 
WILDUNG, F. H. (If) 

708 Butternut St., N. W., Washing- 
ton, D. C. 
WILLARD, T. W. (A) 

130 W. 46th St., New York, 

N. Y. 
WILLIAMS, A. T. (M) 

Weston Electrical Instrument Corp., 
Frelinghuysen Ave., Newark, N. J. 



WILLIAMS, G. A. (A) 

21 Linden Gardens, London W. 2 

England. 
WILLIAMS, S. B. (4) 

366 Clermont Ave., Brooklyn, 

N. Y. 
WILLIAMSON, T. H. (4) 

18 Priory Court, West Hampstead, 

London, N. W. 6, England. 
WILLIFORD, E. A. (/O 

National Carbon Co., Inc., 30 E. 

42nd St., New York, N. Y. 
WILLIS, F. C. (M) 

Passaic Ave., RFD, Caldwell, 
N. J. 

WlLLMAN, R. C. (M) 

RCA Manufacturing Co., Inc., Cam- 
den, N. J. 
WILMOT, H. T. (A) 

c/o Edwin Carewe Productions, 
1040 No. Las Palmas, Hollywood, 
Calif. 
WILSON, C. K. (M) 

The Vitaphone Corp., 1277 East 14th 

St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
WILSON, S. K. (A) 

12 Whitehall Rd., Harrow, Middle- 
sex, England. 

WlNKELMAN, H. (A) 

1233 Wheeling Ave., Zanesville, 
Ohio. 

WlNKLER, F. W. (A) 

Box 757, Massapequa, Long Island, 

N. Y. 
WINN, C. B., JR. (A) 

421 East J St., Ontario, Calif. 

WlNTERMAN, C. (M) 

Topical Films Co., Ltd., Brent 
Laboratories, No. Circular Road, 
London, N. W. 2, England. 
WISE, A. G. (M) 

8970 West 24th St., Los Angeles, 
Calif. 

WlSSMANN, J. (.4) 

Rockland Ave., New Springville, 

S. I., N. Y. 
WITT, E. H. (A) 

355 E. 197th St., Euclid, Ohio. 



Mar., 1936] 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



321 



WJTTELS, J. M. (A) 

2222 Harriet Ave., Minneapolis, 

Minn. 

WOLCOTT, E. A. (M) 
2065V4 Hillhurst Ave., Hollywood, 

Calif. 
WOLF, S. K. (F) 

Electrical Research Products, Inc., 
250 West 57th St., New York, 
N. Y. 
WOLFE, W. V. (A) 

304 S. Canon Dr., Beverly Hills, 

Calif. 
WOLFERZ. A. H. (M) 

Weston Electric Instrument Corp., 
614 Frelinghuysen Ave., Newark, 
N.J. 
WOLFF, E. H. (A) 

17, Audley Road, Hauger Hill, 

Baling, London, W. 5, England. 
WONG, H. S. (.4) 

P. O. Box 1931, Shanghai, China. 
WONG, T. (A) 

Eastman Kodak Co., 185 Yuen 
Ming Yuen Rd., Shanghai, China. 
WOOD, E. W. (A} 

15 34th St., Woodcliff, N. J. 
WOOD, W. H. (A) 

522 E. 14th St., Bartlesville, Okla- 
homa. 
WOODWARD, E. K., JR. (A) 

New Palama Theater, Honolulu, 

Hawaii. 
WORRALL, G. H. (A) 

Mitchell Camera Corp., 665 N. 
Robertson Blvd., West Hollywood, 
Calif. 
WORSTELL, R. E. (A) 

General Electric Co., Engineering 
Dept., Nela Park, Cleveland, 
Ohio. 
WRATTEN, I. D. (F) 

Kodak, Ltd., Kingsway, London, 

England. 
WRIGHT, A. (4) 

Palais Pictures, St. Kilda S. 2, 
Melbourne, Australia. 



WUTKE, L. M. (A) 

1938 Victoria Ave., Los Angeles, 

Calif. 
WYATT, C. (A) 

Portia St., Stratford, N. Z. 
WYND, C. L. A. (M) 

Eastman Kodak Co., Kodak Park, 
Rochester, N. Y. 

YAGER, H. B. (M) 

61 Morton St., New York, N. Y. 
YAHR, M. J. (A) 

108 Richey Ave., W. Collingswood, 

N.J. 
YASUI, S. (A) 

Katabiragaoka Uzamasa Ukyoku, 

Kyota, Japan. 
YECK, F. A. (A) 

17 Howard Place, Jersey City, N. J. 
YESENSKIY, A. P. (A) 

V. J. IF Naval Air Station, San 

Diego, Calif. 
YOUNG, H. A. (A) 

818 55th St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
YOUNG, M. G. (A) 

6511 Willoughby Ave., Hollywood, 

Calif. 
YOUNGER, C. A. (A) 

107 Ravenhurst Ave., Staten Island, 
N. Y. 

ZANETTI, E. (4) 

355 West 34th St., New York, N. Y. 
ZATORSKY, E. F. (4) 

Seward Hotel, Seward Ave., Detroit, 

Michigan. 
ZAUGG, A. (A) 

1830 Ridgeley Drive, Los Angeles, 

Calif. 
ZELONY, E. M. (M) 

220 West 42nd St., New York, N. Y. 
ZEPPELIN, H. V. (A) 

Western Electric Co. of Spain, 
Plaza de Cataluna 22, Barcelona, 
Spain. 
ZERK, O. U. (M) 

3206 Palmolive Bldg., Chicago, 111. 



322 LIST OF MEMBERS 

ZlEBARTH, C. A. (Af) ZUBER, J. G. (M) 

1801 Larchmont Ave., Chicago, 111. Bell & Howell Co., 1801 Larchmont 

ZIPSER, S. (A) Ave., Chicago, 111. 

1019 Farnam St., Los Angeles, Calif. ZUMAR, A. B. (4) 

ZOELTSCH, W. F. (A) 178 Goulburn Ave., Ottawa, On- 

921 Bergenline Ave., Union City, tario, Canada. 
N.J. 






LIST OF MEMBERS 
(Arranged geographically) 



Alabama 

KING, P. A. U) 

California 

AALBERG, J. O. (M) 
ALBECKER, C. A. (A) 
ALBIN, F. G. (A) 
ALLER, J. (M) 
AMES, M. H. (A) 
ATKINSON, R. B. (A) 
BALL, J. A. (F) 
BARKELEW, J. T. (A) 
BAUER, E. L. (A) 
BERG, B. (A) 
BEST, G. M. (A) 
BLINN, A. F. (A) 
BORGESON, L. G. (A) 
BROCKWAY, W. W. (M) 
BROWN, J. C. (M) 
BROWN, vS. D. (A) 
BURCHETT, C. W. (M) 
BUSICK, D. W. (M) 
BUSSELL, E. J. 04) 
CARLSON, A. (^4) 
CARPENTER, A. W. (A) 
CAVE, G. A. (M) 
CAVE, R. T. (A) 
CECCARINI, O. O. (M) 
CHAMBERS, G. A. (M) 
CHASE, L. W. (A ) 
CLARK, L. E. (M) 
CLEVELAND, H. B. (A) 

COFFINBBRRY, C. N. (A) 

COLE, F. H., JR. (A) 
COLEMAN, E. W. (A) 
COURCIER, J. L. (M) 
CRANE, J. E. (A) 
DAVIDGE, L. C. (F) 



DE BEAULIEU, L. (A) 
DEMOS, G. (A ) 
DENK, J. M. (A) 
DENSMORE, R. E. (A ) 
DETMERS, F. H. (A ) 
DOIRON, A. L. (A ) 
DREHER, C. (F) 
DUBRAY, J. A. (F) 
DUNNING, C. H. (F) 
DURST, J. A. (A) 
EDOUART, A. F. (M) 
EICH, F. L. (A) 
ELLISON, M. (M) 
FARRAND, C. L. (F) 
FELTHOUSEN, A. J. (A) 
FLACK, F. (M) 
FOREMAN, S. (A) 
FRAYNE, J. G. (F) 
FREERICKS, B. (M) 
FREUND, K. (A) 
GEORGE, H. H. (A) 
GIBSON, G. H. (A ) 

GOLDFARB, H. (M) 
GOLDSCHNEIDER, G. (A) 

GOSHAW, I. R. (M) 
GRIFFITH, L. M. (M) 
GROTE, W. G. (A) 
GRUSSING, H. (A) 
GUERRERO, E. S. (M) 
GUINTINI, C. (A) 

GUNDELFINGER, A. M. ( 

HANDLEY, C. W. (M) 
HANSEN, E. H. (M) 
HARCUS, W. C. (M) 
HARPER, E. R. (M) 
HARRINGTON, T. T. (M) 
HARVEY, A. E. (A) 
HEACOCK, F. C. (A) 
HENSMAN, H. G. (A) 
HOCH, W. C. (A) 



323 



324 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



[J. S. M. p. E. 



HOFFMAN, L. B. (M) 
HUSE, E. (F) 
INGMAN, T. M. (M ) 
JAMES, F. E. (If) 
JONES, L. G. (A) 
KALMUS, H. T. (F) 

KlENNINGER, J. F. (M) 
KlMBALL, H. R. (M} 

LAMBERT, K. B. (F) 
LANE, A. L. (M) 
LARSEN. P. J. (F) 
LENTZ, H. R. (4) 
LESHING, M. S. (F) 
LEVINSON, N. (M) 
LEWIS, W. W. (A) 

LlNDERMAN, R. G. (M) 
LlVADARY, J. P. 04) 

LUCID, F. J., JR. (A) 

LUDLAM, J. M. (A) 

MAAS, A. R. (A) 
MACLEOD, K. A. (A) 
MARGOSSIAN, M. (4) 

McCROSKEY, H. E. (M) 
MCCULLOUGH, R. (F) 

MELVILLE, W. (A) 
MEYER, H. (F} 
MILLER, R. P. (A) 
MILLER, V. E. (A) 
MILLER, W. C. (F) 
MITCHELL, G. A. (F) 
MITCHELL, G. S. (M ) 
MOLE, P. (F) 
MOLS, P. M. (A) 
MORGAN, K. F. (F) 
MOYSE, H. W. (F) 
MUELLER, W. A. (M ) 

NlCKOLAUS, J. M. (F) 

NIELSEN, J. F. (A) 
OLMSTEAD, L. B. (^4) 
OSTER, E. (4) 
OWNBY, L. C. (A) 
PADEN, C. E. (A) 
PHILLIPS, J. H., JR. (A) 
PHILLIPPS, L. C. (F) 
POHL, W. E. (A) 
PRAUTSCH, J. H. (A) 
PREDDEY, W. A. 04) 
QUINLAN, W. (Af) 



RACKETT, G. F. (F) 
REEVES, A. (M) 
REMERSCHIED, H. W. (M ) 
RICHARDSON, E. C. (M) 
RICKER, M. (M) 
RIDGWAY, D. W. (A) 

RlLEY, R. (A) 

Ross, E. (M) 
RUDOLPH, W. F. (M) 
RUTH, C. E. (A) 

RUTTENBERG, J. (A) 

RYDER, L. L. (If) 
SERRURIER, I. (M ) 
SHULTZ, E. P. (4) 
SIEGEL, J. 04) 
SILENT, H. C. (F) 
SKINNER, C. R. 04) 
SMOLINSKI, B. P. 04) 
SPAIN, C. J. (M} 
STAFFORD, J. W. (A ) 
STRUSS, K. (F) 
SWETT, W. C. (M) 
TASKER, H. G. (F) 
THAYER, W. L. 04) 
THEISEN, W. E. (Jf) 
THOMPSON, F. B. 04) 
THOMPSON, V. E. 04) 
TICKNER, A. J. 04) 
TREACY, C. S. (A) 
TRIMBLE, L. S. 04) 
VOLCK, A. G. (M) 
WERNLEIN, C. E. 04) 
WESTHEIMER, J. (A ) 
WILD, S. J. 04) 
WILMOT, H. T. (A) 
WINN, C. B., JR. (A) 
WISE, A. G. (M) 
WOLCOTT, E. A. (Jf) 
WOLFE, W. V. (4) 

WORRALL, G. H. (A) 

WUTKE, L. M. (A) 
YESENSKIY, A. P. (^4) 
YOUNG, M. G. (A) 
ZAUGG, A. 04) 
ZIPSER, S. 04) 

Colorado 
ALEXANDER, D. M. (M) 






Mar., 1936J 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



325 



FRANTZ, G. F. (A) 
GRAHAM, H. (-4) 
HANNAN, J. H. (X) 
STUBBS, J. A. (A) 

Connecticut 

AYERS, A. P., JR. (A) 
BAKER, W. R. G., (F) 
BLIVEN, J. E. (Jlf) 
CAMERON, J. R. (F) 
COLLINS, D. W. (4) 
HOLDEN, H. C. (Jlf) 
OLDHAM, C. (4) 
PHELPS, L. G. (M} 
ROGER, H. (A) 

Delaware 
HILL, M. H. (A) 

HlRZEL, A. (A) 

LYON, L. H. (A) 
MARSH, H. N. (A) 

District of Columbia 

ARMAT, T. (H] 
BENNETT, D. (M) 
BRADLEY, J. G. (A) 
CORRIGAN, J. T. (M ) 
COWLING, H. T. (A) 
DAVIS, J. B. (A) 
EVANS, R. (F) 
GEORGENS, G. R. (Jlf) 
GILLETTE, M. E. (Jlf) 
GLASSER, N. (M) 
GOLDEN, N. D. (A) 
HAYTHORNE, R. N. (4 
HOPKINS, T. L. (A) 
KILTON, G. C. (A) 
KRUSE, W. F. (A) 
MOORE, T. (Jlf) 
FETTERS, W. K. (4) 
PRATT, J. A. (A) 
SHIELDS, W. B. (A) 
SMITH, J. E. (Jlf) 
STODTER, C. S. (Jlf) 
STORTY, F. J. (A) 



TURVEY, C. F. (Jlf) 

WlLDUNG, F. H. (Jlf) 

Florida 

McGiNNis, F. J. (A) 

Georgia 
WEIL, N. (A) 

Illinois 

ANDRES, L. J. (M) 
BAKER, G. W. (Jlf) 
BASS, C. (Jlf) 
BEAN. D. P. (A} 
BEDORE, R. P. (A) 
BUSCH, H. (A) 
CHAPMAN, C. T. (A) 
Cox, L. R. U) 
DEPUE, B. W. (Jlf) 
DEPUE, O. B. (F} 
DEVRY, H. A. (F) 
FOOTE, P. C. 04) 
FUNK, J. J. (A) 
GAVER, E. M. (A) 
HAMILTON, V. P. (A) 
HECK, F. P. (Jlf) 
HOWELL, A. S. (F) 
KLEERUP, B. J. (Jlf) 
LARUE, M. W. (A) 
LUKES, S. A. (Jlf) 
MACOMBER, W. W. (A) 
MATTHEWS, B. (A) 
McAuLEY, J. E. (F) 
MCNABB, J. H. (F) 
MITCHELL, R. F. (F) 
NELSON, E. W. (4) 

NlEMANN, H. P. (A) 

NORWOOD, D. W. (Jlf) 
RYAN, H. (A) 
SAUNDERS, R. (M) 

SCHAEFER, J. M. (Jlf) 

SCOTT, W. B. (A) 
SHALKHAUSER, E. G. (Jlf) 
SHAPIRO, A. (Jlf) 
STECHBART, B. E. (F} 
STONE, C. H. (Jlf) 



326 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



[J. S. M. P. E. 



TA VERNIER, R. (A) 
VENARD, C. L. (A) 
WENZEL, M. (A) 
ZERK, O. U. (M) 
ZIEBARTH, C. A. 
ZUBER, J. G. (M) 

Indiana 

FREIMANN, F. (F) 
MORRIS, L. P. (A) 
ROSSITER, D. R. (M) 

Iowa 

ROSE, S. G. (M) 
SPRADLING, J. W. (A) 

Kansas 

BAKER, H. W. (M) 
BROOKS, G. E. (A) 
DANIELSON, D. 04) 

Louisiana 
FRAZIER, L. 04) 

Maine 

CHILDS, J. A. (A) 

Maryland 

BARKMAN, C. 04) 
DUSMAN, H. C. (A) 
GREEN, R. B. 04) 
HAEFELE, N. C. (M) 
MURPHY, G. D. (A) 
SCHMINKEY, H. K. (A ) 

Massachusetts 

ALDRIDGE, K. W. 04) 
BARROWS, T. C. (M) 
BISHOP, G. A., JR. 04) 
BREWSTER, J. R. 04) 
CADDIGAN, J. L. (M ) 
CIFRE, J. S. (M) 
COHEN, J. H. (M ) 
COMI, E. G. 04) 



COOLIDGE, P. E. (A) 
EAGER, M. (A) 
FOSTER, L. L. 04) 
GIBBONS, J. M. 04) 
GLEASON, C. H. (A) 
GOOKIN, F. M. (A) 
HARDY, A. C. (F) 
JUDGE, P. E. 04) 
LUBAO, R. (A} 
MAURAN, J. (4) 

McKlNNEY, H. J. (A) 
MCNAMARA, D. T. (A) 

McRAE, D. (Af) 
MURRAY, A. P. 04) 
NARBUT, L. A. (A) 
PARRIS, R. C. 04) 
PARSHLEY, C. W. (A) 
PIROVANO, L. (A) 
REITH, A. J. 04) 
SAVINA, J. F. (A) 
SCANLON, E. J. (A ) 
SMITH, H. B. (M) 
SMITH, I. (A) 
SUMNER, S. (M) 
SWARTZ, E. M. (M) 
TAPLIN, J. 04) 
WEST, A. B. (A) 

Michigan 

ANDERS, H. 04) 
AVIL, G. (A) 
BIDDY, R. 04) 
BRADFORD, A. J. (F) 
BRENKERT, K. (M) 
CHERETON, A. B. 04) 
FENIMORE, R. W..(M) 
GANSTROM, R. G. (-4) 
HUNT, H. H. (A) 
JARRETT, G. J. (M) 
LOY, L. C. (A) 

MCGLINNEN, E. J. (A) 

MCMATH, R. R. (M) 
MILLER, R. L. 04) 
PACHOLKE, F. 04) 
RICHARDS, H. B. (A} 
SCHMITZ, W. J. (A) 
STRICKLER, J. F. (M) 
THOMAS, J. L. (A ) 



Mar., 1936] 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



327 



THOMAS, W. F. (A) 
ZATORSKY, E. F. (A) 

Minnesota 

GREENE, C. L. (F) 
KARATZ, T. (M) 
RAY, R. H. (M) 
SLY, E. C. (M) 
WATKINS, R. H. (A) 
WITTELS, J. M. (4) 

Mississippi 
SHOTWELL, H. H. (A) 

Missouri 

ALLEY, G. L. (A) 
BELLINGER, C. E. (A) 
BENNETT, R. C. (M) 
BUB, G. L. (A) 
BUDDE, H. (M) 
DAVIS, D. R. (A) 
DENNEY, W. (4) 
DWYER, A. J. (A) 
EMMER, J. E. (A) 
FIELDS, G. B. (A) 

GlESKIENG, M. W. (4) 

KELLEY, J. H. (-4) 
MATTESON, N. (A) 
MULLER, J. P. (M) 
RANKIN, J. D. (A) 
THOMPSON, L. (-4) 

Nebraska 

BALLANTYNE, R. S. (^4 
JENNINGS, D. V. (A) 
VAN VLEET, F. S. (A) 

New Hampshire 

LARSON, I. J. (-4) 
SWIST, T. P. (-4) 

New Jersey 

ADATTE, A. L. (-4) 
AIKEN, C. C. (A) 



ARMSTRONG, H. L. (A) 
AUGER, E. (A) 
BACHMAN, C. J. (M) 
BAKER, J. O. (M) 
BAMFORD, W. B. (A) 
BATSEL, M. C. (F) 
BAUMANN, H. C. (-4) 
BEGGS, E. W. (M) 
BOLTON, W. A. (A ) 

BOMAN, A. (4) 

BREWSTER, P. D. (F) 
BURNAP, R. S. (F) 
BURNETT, J. C. (F) 
BUSCH, G. A. (AT) 

BUTTOLPH, L. J. (F) 

CANTOR, C. E. (4) 
COLLINS, M. E. 04) 
COOK, E. D. (A) 
COOK, H. R., JR. (A) 
COZZENS, L. S. (M) 
CUNNINGHAM, R. G. (M) 
CUNNINGHAM, T. D. (A ) 
DELVALLE, G. A. (A ) 
DICKINSON, E. A. 04) 
DIMMICK, G. L. (A ) 
DOBSON, G. (M ) 
DUNNING, O. M. 04) 
EDISON, T. M. (A) 
ELDERKIN, J. K. (M) 
ELLIS, E. P. 04) 
EMLEY, R. H. (A) 
FOSTER, W. D. (F) 
FRANK, J., JR. (M) 
GAGLIARDI, G. 04) 
GASKI, T. J. (A) 
GOODMAN, A. (^4) 
GOVE, K. G. 04) 
GREENE, P. E. (A) 
GROVES, I. R. (A) 
HENEY, J. E. (M) 

HOHMEISTER, F. 04) 
HOLMAN, A. J. (M) 
HUBBARD, B. L. (M) 
JERMAIN, H. F. (M) 

KELLOGG, E. W. (A) 
KEUFFEL, C. W. (M) 
KREHLEY, G. A. (A} 

KURLANDER, J. H. (F) 



328 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



[J. S M. P. E. 



LAMB, R. T. (A) 
LANSING, D. W. (A) 
LOOTENS, C. L. (M) 
LUTTER, H. (A) 
MACDONALD, A. F. 04) 
MANCHEE, A. W. (M ) 
MASON, C. 04) 

MCCLINTOCK, N. 04) 

MILI, G. (A) 
MILLER, A. J. (Af) 
MILLER, A. W. (A) 
MORENO, R. M. (M) 
OAKLEY, N. F. (M) 
PERRY, H. D. (A) 
PORTER, G. C. C4) 
REICHARD, E. H. (A) 
REIFSTECK, C. N. (F) 
RINALDY. E. S. (-4) 
ROCKVAM, A. O. (4) 
ROCKWELL, H. P., JR. (^4 

RUBLY,H. C. (A) 

SACHTLEBEN, L. T. (4) 
SATTAN, G. D. (A) 

SCHEIBELL, G. B. (4) 
SCHOTOFER, C. H. (;4) 

SEASE, V. B. (F) 
SMITH, K. R. (A) 
SOLOW, S. P. (A) 
SONTAGH, J. R. (A) 
STEDEROTH, F. F. 04) 
STRETCH, A. T., JR. (4) 
SUNDE, H. E. (A) 
TRONOLONE, N. (M) 
WADDELL, J. H. (A) 
WADDINGHAM, A. G. (M) 
WAGNER, B. 00 
WALTERS, H. (4) 
WHITE, D. R. (F} 
WILLIAMS, A. T. (M) 
WILLIS, F. C. (Af) 
WILLMAN, R. C. (M) 
WOLFERZ, A. H. (M) 
WOOD, E. W. 04) 
YOHR, M. J. (A) 
YECK, F. A. (A) 

ZOELTSCH, W. F. 04) 



New York 

ALTMAN, F. E. (4) 
ANDERSON, E. L. 04) 
ARNOLD, P. (M) 
ARNSPIGER, V. C. (A} 
AUSTRIAN, R. B. 04) 
BAKER, T. T. 0*) 
BALTIMORE, D. M. 04) 
BATCHELOR, J. C. 04) 
BAUER, K. A. (A) 
BEACH, F. G. (A) 
BEARMAN, A. A. (A) 
BECKER, A. 04) 
BEERS, N. T. (M) 
BEHR, H. D. 04) 
BELL, A. E. (A) 
BENDHEIM, E. McD. 04) 
BERG, A. G. 01) 
BERNDT, E. M. (M) 
BETTS, W. L. (M) 
BIELICKE, W. P. (M) 
BIRD, C. L. L. 04) 
BLAIR, G. A. (F) 
BLOOMBERG, D. J. (M) 
BLOOMER, K. V. 04) 
BONN, L. A. (M ) 

BORBERG, W. 04) 

BRADSHAW, D. Y. (M) 
BRADY, R. F. (A) 
BRADY, S. S. (-4) 
BRENEMAN, G. H. 04) 
BROADHEAD, D. T. 04) 
BROCK, G. (Jf) 
BUENSOD, A. G. (M) 
BURGUNDY, J. J. 04) 
BURNS, S. R. (F) 
BYRNE, W. W. (A) 
CAHILL, F. E., JR. (M ) 
CAPSTAFF, J. G. (F) 
CARSON, W. H. (F) 
CARTER, J. C. (A} 
CARULLA, R. (M) 
CARVER, E. K. (F) 
CASTAGNARO, D. 04) 
CATELL, R. E. (A) 
CAUMONT, N. 04) 
CELESTIN, W. E. (M) 



Mar., 1936] 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



GENDER, E. O. (M) 
CHATTERJEE, R. N. (A) 
CHURCH, A. E. (A) 
CLARK, W. (F) 
COHAN, E. K. (M) 
COHEN, J. (4) 
COLES, F. A. (4) 
COMSTOCK, T. F. (A) 

CONTNER, J. B. (M) 

COOK, A. A. (M) 
COOK, O. W. (M) 
COOK, W. B. (F) 
COUSINS, V. M. 04) 
CRABTREE, J. (F) 
CRABTREE, J. I. (F) 
CRABTREE, T. H. (.4) 
CRENNAN, O. V. (A) 
CURTIS, E. P. (F) 

CUTHBERTSON, H. B. (M) 

DAVEE, L. W. (F) 
DEGHUEE, C. M. (A) 
DENAPOLI, A. C. f Jr. (M ) 
DEROBERTS, R. (M} 
DEUTSCHER, D. (A) 
DEVOE, E. M. (A) 
DICKINSON, A. S. (F) 
DILLEMUTH, H. G. 04) 
DINGA, E. W. (A) 
Dix, H. W. (F) 
DUISBERG, W. H. (A) 
DWYER, R. J. (A) 
DYKEMAN, C. L. (M) 
ECKLER, L. (M) 
EDWARDS, G. C. (F) 
EHLERT, H. H. (A) 
ELMER, L. A. (M) 
EMERSON, M. 04) 
ENDERLE, J. 04) 
ENGLE, J. W. (.4) 
EVANS, P. H. (F) 
EVANS, R. M. (F) 
FAMULENER, K. (4) 
FAULKNER, T. (AT) 
FIELD, W. J. U) 
FINN, J. J. (M) 
FISCH, L. B. (Jkf) 
FISHER, A. (M) 



FLANNAGAN, C. (F) 
FLEISCHER, M. (F) 
FLINT, A. (M) 
FLORY, L. P. (M) 
FORSYTH, S. L. (A) 
FOUTE, G. P. (A) 
FRACKER, E. G. (M) 
FREEDMAN, A. E. (F) 
FRIEDL, G., JR. (M} 
FRENCH, R. R. (M) 
FRIEND, H. H. (M) 
FRITTS, E. C. (F) 
GAGE, H. P. (F) 
GAGE, O. A. (M) 
GALLO, R. (A) 
GATY.J. P. 04) 
GELB, L. (A) 
GENT, E. W. (M) 
GERCKE, C. (4) 
GERMAINE, M. (.4) 
GERMAN, W. J. (M) 
GILBERT, F. C. (M) 
GILMOUR, J. G. T. (A) 

GlTHENS, A. S. (A) 

GLAUBER, S. (A) 
GLICKMAN, H. (M) 
GLUNT, O. M. (F) 
GOLDMAN, M. (4) 
GOLDSMITH, A. N. (F) 
GRASS, R. L. (A) 
GREEN, N. B. (F) 
GREGORY, C. L. 04) 
GRIFFIN, H. (F) 
GRIGNON, F. J. (A) 
GROVER, H. G. (JO 
GUTH, A. 04) 
HACKEL, J. (M) 
HALL, F. M. (M) 
HALPIN, D. D. (A) 
HAMPTON, L. N. (M) 
HARDINA, E. (A ) 
HARDING, H. V. (A) 
HARLEY, J. B. (A) 
HARLOW, J. B. (M) 
HARRIS, C. E. (A) 
HARRISON, H. C. (F) 
HEIDEGGER, H. F. (A) 
HENABERY, J. E. (A) 



330 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



[J. S. M. P. E. 



HENKEL, J. F. (4) 
HENNESSY, W. W. (A) 
HERRIOTT, W. (A) 
HIATT, A. (M) 
HICKMAN, C. N. (A) 

HlCKMAN, K. (F) 
HOCHHEIMER, R. (M) 

HOGE, F. D. (F) 
HOLLANDER, H. (M) 
HOLSLAG, R. C. (M) 
HOPKINS, J. J. (M) 
HORNIDGE, H. T. (M) 

HORNSTEIN, J. C. (M) 
HORSTMAN, C. F. (M) 
HUBBARD, R. C. (F) 

HUMPHREY, G. H. (A) 
HUNT, F. L. (F) 
HYNDMAN, D. E. (F) 
IRBY, F. S. (M) 
IVINS, C. F. (A) 
JOHNSON, B. W. (A) 
JONES, J. G. (F) 
JONES, L. (A) 
JONES, L. A. (F) 
JOY, J. M. (M) 
KALLMAN, K. (A) 
KEITH, C. R. (M) 
KELLER, A. C. (A) 
KENDE, G. (Af) 
KERKOW, H. (A) 
KERST, W. D. (A) 
KING, T. P. (A) 
KLAUSSEN, B. (A) 
KLEBER, J. O. (M) 
KNOX, H. G. (F) 
Kocsis, P. (A) 
KOHLER, J. J. (A) 
KOSSMAN, H. R. (A) 
KREUZER, B. (M) 
KURTZ, J. A. (A) 
LAKEWITZ, F. S. (A) 
LANE, G. (M) 
LANG, A. (A) 
LAPAT, E. P. (A) 
LAPORTE, N. M. (F) 
LAWRENCE, J. F. (A) 
LEE, A. A. (A) 
LENIGAN, T. E. (A) 



LENZ, F. (A) 
LESTER, H. M. (A) 
LEVENTHAL, J. F. (F) 
LEWIN, G. (M) 
LINS, P. A. (M) 
LITTLE, W. F. (F} 
LOTT, H. O. (A) 

LUNDAHL, T. (M) 

LUNDIE, E. S. (A) 
MACILVAIN, K. H. (A) 
MACLEOD, J. S. (Af) 
MACNAIR, W. A. (F) 
MANHEIMER, J. R. (Af) 
MANN, R. G. (A} 
MARCHESSAULD, C. E. (A) 
MARKS, L. (A) 
MARSHALL, F. R. (A) 
MASTER, R. P. (A) 
MATTHEWS, G. E. (F) 
MAURER, J. A. (A) 

MCBURNEY, J. W. (M) 

McGuiRE, P. A. (F) 
MCLARTY, H. D. (A) 
MEES, C. E. K. (F) 
MESSITER, H. M. (A) 
MIEHLING, R. (M) 
MILLER, J. A. (F) 
MILLER, O. E. (A) 
MILLER, R. A. (M) 
MINNERLY, N. H. (A) 

MlSENER, G. C. (M) 

MITCHELL, M. N. (A) 
MOSKOWITZ, J. H. (A} 

MULLER, C. (A) 

NADELL, A. (Af) 
NARIAN, S. (A) 
NEU, O. F. (M) 

NlCHOLIDES, E. C. (A) 

NICHOLSON, R. F. (F) 
NIVISON, W. S. (A) 
NIXON, I. L. (F) 

NORLING, J. A. (Af) 

O'BRIEN, B. C. (A) 

O'BRIEN, M. D. (4) 
O'KEEFE, G. A. (A} 

OSWALD, C. G. (A) 
OWENS, F. H. (A) 
PACENT ; L. G. (F) 



Mar., 1936] 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



331 



PALMER, M. W. (M) 
PAULINI, E. T. (4) 
PECK, W. H. (A) 
PERSE, I. S. (A) 
PFANNENSTIEHL, H. (M) 
PFEIFF, C. (Af) 
PHILIPP, J. F. (A) 
PONDE, D. B. (A) 
POPOVICI, G. G. (M) 
PRICE, A. F. (M) 
PRILIK, M. R. (A) 
PRINCE, L. S. (A) 
PULLER, G. (A) 
RABINOWITZ, D. J. (A) 
RAMSAYE, T. (F) 
RASMUSSEN, R. T. (M) 
RAVEN, A. L. (M) 
RAY, M. (A) 
RAYTON, W. B. (F) 
RENKE, A. (A) 
REPP, W. H. (M) 
REYNOLDS, J. L. (M) 
RICHARD, A. J. (M) 
RICHARDSON, F. H. (F) 
RICHTER, A. (A) 
RIES, P. D. (A) 
RIFKIN, J. L. (M) 
RIST, K. (A) 
ROBERTS, F. W. (A) 

ROBILLARD, P. M. (M) 

RODWELL, L. A. (A) 

ROGALLI, N. J. (A) 

ROGERS, F. B. (A) 
ROGERS, F. B. (A) 
ROLAND, E. C. (A) 
ROLLINS, F. S., JR. (A) 
ROSENSWEIG, M. (M) 
Ross, A. (A) 
Ross, C. (Af) 
Ross, C. H. (A) 
Ross, O. A. (M) 
RUBIN, H. (F) 
RUSSELL, W. F. (Af) 
SAILLIARD, J. H. (4) 
SALVING, S. (A) 
SANDSTONE, J. (A) 
SANDVIK, O. (F) 
SANTEE, H. B. (F) 



SAWYER, J. W. (A) 

SCHABBEHAR, E. A. (A) 
SCHAEFFER, F. H. (A) 
SCHARMANN, P. G. (4) 
SCHLANGER, B. (M) 
SCHMID, F. (Af) 

SCHMIDT, W. A. (F) 

SCHWENGELER, C. E. (M) 

SCOTT, D. W. (M} 
SCRIVEN, E. O. (F) 
SHEA, T. E. ( F) 
SHEPPARD, S. E. (F) 
SHNIPKIN, D. (4) 
SIGNOR, G. H. (A) 
SMACK, J. C. (4) 
SMITH, F. (A) 
SPACE, K. F. (A) 
SPENCE, J. L., JR. (F) 
SPONABLE, E. I. (F) 
SPRAY, J. H. (F) 
STAUD, C. J. (Af) 
STEELE, L. L. (M) 
STEINER, R. (4) 
STEINHOF, E. G. (M) 
STEPONAITIS, A. (A) 
STOLLER, H. M. (F) 
STONE, J. H. (A) 
STROCK, R. O. (Af) 
TALWAR, R. C. (A) 
TANN, W. L. (A) 
TANNEY, J. A. (M) 
TEITEL, A. (A) 
TERPENING, L. H. (Af) 
TERRY, R. V. (M) 
TETZLAFF, E. F. (A) 
THOMPSON, W. S. (A) 
TIZIAN, S. L. (A) 
TOTH, A. F. (A) 
TOWNSEND, L. M. (A) 

TUCKERMAN, L. P. (A) 

TULPAN, S. (A) 
TUTTLE, C. M. (F) 
TUTTLE, H. B. (Af) 
TYLER, K. (A) 
VERLINSKY, V. (4) 
VICTOR, A. F. (F) 
VIETH, L. (A) 
VOLF, C. A. (A) 



332 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



[J. S. M. P. E. 



WADE, F. H. (A) 
WALL, J. M. (F) 
WALL, W. I. (A) 
WALLER, F. (M) 
WALTER, H. L. (A) 
WARD, E. J. (M) 
WARD, J. S. (F) 
WATSON, J. S., JR. (F) 
WEBER, C. M. (F) 
WENTE, E. C. (F) 
WENZ, A. (A) 
WESTON, J. C. (A) 
WESTWATER, W. (M} 
WHITMORE, W. (M) 
WIGGIN, L. J. (A) 

WlLLARD, T. W. (A) 

WILLIAMS, S. B. (4) 
WILLIFORD, E. A. (F) 
WILSON, C. K. (M) 
WINKLER, F. W. (A} 

WlSSMANN, J. (A) 

WOLF, S. K. (F) 
WYND, C. L. A. (M) 
YAGER, H. B. (M) 
YOUNG, H. A. (4) 
YOUNGER, C. A. (A) 
ZANETTI, E. (A) 
ZELONY, E. M. (M} 

North Carolina 

RAMSEY, R. W. (A) 
STONE, W. P. (A) 

Ohio 

CANADY, D. R. (M) 
CARLSON, F. E. (4) 
CARPENTER, E. S. (If) 
COPLEY, J. S. (A) 
CROSS, W. E. (A) 
CUNNINGHAM, O. J. (.4) 
DASH, C. C. (M) 
DOWNES, A. C. (70 
ESHELMAN, G. M., JR. (A) 
FARNHAM, R. E. (F) 
FLANAGAN, J. T. (M) 
GARDINER, F. R. (A) 
GEIB, E. R. (70 



GELMAN, J. N. (M) 
GILES, R. H. (M) 
GILSDORF, W. R. (A) 
GORDON, I. (A) 
HAMILTON, S. H. (A) 
HERTNER, J. H. (If) 
JOY, D. B. (F) 
KERMAN, E. W. (A} 
KUNZMANN, W. C. (F) 
LANGFORD, L. P. (M) 
LEROY, C. (A) 
McCoRD, C. T. (A) 
NELSON, O. (M) 
PORTER, L. C. (70 
PRICE, G. W. (A) 
READ, E. A. (A) 
ROCK, J. B. (A) 
RUSSELL, K. B. (A) 
SHAFER, L. J. (A) 
STEELY, J. D. (A) 
STRONG, H. H. (70 
VALLEN, E. J. (A) 
WATSON, E. M. (A) 
WELMAN, V. A. (M) 

WlNKELMAN, H. (A) 

WITT, E. H. (A) 

WORSTELL, R. E. (4) 

Oklahoma 

BARBER, C. E. (A) 
WOOD, W. H. (A) 

Oregon 

MILLER, R. (A) 

Pennsylvania 

ABRAMS, S. (A) 
BETTELLI, F. J. (A) 
BIBEN, B. F. (A) 
BLOOM, R. B. (4) 
BLUMBERG, H. (.4) 
CLARK, J. P. (M) 
COHEN, C. (A) 
COHEN, S. (A) 
DAVIS, S. I. (A) 
DEFRENES, J. (M) 



Mar., 1936] 

DEIVERNOIS, P. J. (4) 
ESSIG, A. G. (A) 
EVANS, G. W. (A) 
FREEMAN, A. B. (4) 
HANNA, C. R. (F) 
IVES, F. E. (tf) 
LIPMAN, H. H. (M) 
MAIRE, H. J. (M} 
NEILL, C. B. (A) 
NORTON, R. (4) 
O'LEARY, J. S. (A) 
OLLINGER, C. G. (A) 
PRESGRAVE, C. (4) 
RICHMOND, J. (A} 
Rizzo, C. (A) 
SAMUELS, I. (M) 
SCHMIDT, W. E. (4) 
SEIFFERT, S. A. (A) 
SHIRAS, A. (A) 
STUPRICH, P. (4) 
UNDERBILL, C. R., JR. (A) 

Rhode Island 

ALTIERB, E. S. A. (A) 
DUFFY, C. J. (A} 
WILDING, W. A. (^4) 

South Dakota 
HARDMAN, W. F. (4) 

Tennessee 

CROWE, H. B. (A) 
CURLE, C. E. (A) 
FERGUSON, D. C. (4) 
THOMAS, A. R. (A} 
WAGNER, V. C. (A) 

Texas 

CHAPMAN, A. B. (4) 
FRASCH, H. H. (A) 
HULAN, A. G. (A) 
JAMIESON, H. V. (M) 

Virginia 

McLEMORE, J. R. (A) 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



333 



Washington 

BRADSHAW, A. E. (M) 
SHEARER, B. F. (A) 

West Virginia 

DUDIAK, F. (A) 
MYERS, W. D. (A) 

Wisconsin 

ELLIS, F. E., JR. (4) 
HUDSON, W. (4) 
OLSON, O. E. (4) 
RENIER, A. H. (A) 
SMITH, R. A. (A) 

Argentina 
BRAGGIO, J. C. (A) 

Australia 

ALLSOP, R. (F) 
BUDDEN, P. H. (M) 
BUSHBY, T. R. W. (A) 
CROSS, C. E. (A) 
DYSON, C. H. (4) 
EDWARDS, N. (A) 
FLINT, A. B. (A) 
HART, K. R. M. (A) 
HELLO WELL, T. (4) 
HIGGINS, T. G. (A) 
JEFFERY, F. A. (4) 
MURDOCH, S. E. (^4) 
PARRISH, H. C. (A) 
ROUSE, J. J. (M) 
SARGENT, R. (4) 
SMITH, A. C. (A) 
VAUGHAN, R. (M) 
WRIGHT, A. (A) 

Austria 

BOEHM, H. L. (M} 
BUCEK, H. (A) 
MUELLER, E. (A) 

SCHROTT, P. R. VON (A) 

THALLMAYER, H. J. (A} 



334 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



Lf. S. M. P. E. 



Bermuda 

MONKS, C. H. (A) 

Brazil 

BARZEE, G. W. (4) 
PINTO, O. D. (4) 

Canada 

ALEXANDER, J. M. (A) 
ARMAND, V. (A) 
ATKINSON, S. C. (A) 
BADGLEY, F. C. (F) 
BATTLE, G. H. (A) 
BOURNE, R. E. (4) 
BOYLEN, J. C. (M) 
BURNS, J. J. (A) 
CARPENTER, H. J. (4) 
CARTER, W. S. (A) 
COOPER, J. A. (A) 
DENTELBECK, C. (M) 
DOBSON, H. T. (A) 
FOLEY, T. E. (A} 

FOURNIER, G. (A) 
GOLDHAMER, S. A. (A) 
GOLDIN, H. (A) 

HARRIS, E. (A) 
HEWSON, J. H. (A) 
HOAD, T. C. (A) 
JECKELL, W. H. R. (A) 
KERRIN, J. A. (A) 
LANE, W. H. (M) 
LEWIS, B. C. (A) 
MATHEWSON, E. G. (.4) 
MCCLELLAND, T. H. (A) 
McGuiRE, J. (A) 
METZGER, M. (4) 
NORRISH, B. E. (M) 
OLIVER, W. J. (A) 
PATTON, G. E. (M) 
QUICK, C. J. (M) 
RICHARD, J. (4) 
RISEWICK, W. J. (A) 
SHORNEY, C. R. (-4) 
SOPER, W. E. (A) 
SPRAGUE, A. (A) 
STRINGER, J. (A) 



TURNBULL, A. D. (M) 
ZUMAR, A. B. (A) 

Canal Zone 

KAPLAN, L. (M) 

China 

CHANG, S. C. (A) 
CHOW, K. (A) 
DAN, D. Y. (A) 
FAN, W. S. (A) 
GUERIN, B. C., JR. (A) 
Hsu, S. F. (A) 
KRUGERS, G. E. A. (M) 
LAN, W. S. (A) 
LAY, M. W. (A) 
MAR, S. T. (A) 

O'BOLGER, R. E. (M) 
TORNOVSKY, I. M. (A) 

WONG, H. S. U) 
WONG, T. (A) 

Cuba 

CHIBAS, J. E. (A) 

Czechoslovakia 
BRICHTA, J. C. (A) 

England 

ALDERSON, R. G. (A) 
BLAKE, E. E. (A) 
BUSH, A. J. (A) 
CABIROL, C. (M} 
CANTRELL, W. A. (A) 
CHAMPION, C. H. (F) 
CLARKE, W. H. (A) 
COOPER, M. F. (A) 
DANCE, H. R. (A) 
ELWELL, C. F. (M) 
FAITHFULL, G. (M) 
FITZPATRICK, J. M. S. (A) 
FORD, W. B. (A) 
GARLING, W. F. (M) 
GATHERCOLE, ]. (A) 
GENOCK, E. P. (4) 
GRIFFITHS, P. H. (M) 






Mar., 1936] 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



335 



HUDSON, G. (,4) 
JOHN, W. E. (M) 
KAYE, L. K. (A) 
KERSHAW, C (F) 

KlMBERLEY, P. ( M ) 

KING, H. V. (A) 
LAMB, E. E. (M) 
LAWLEY, H. V. (M) 
LUCAS, G. S. C. (M) 
LUKE, E. (M) 
MCDOWELL, J. B. (4) 

McMASTER, D. (F) 
NlEPMANN, C. H. (M) 

ORAM, E. (A) 
OSBORNE, A. W. (M) 
OSMAN, D. E. (A) 
PARKINS, C. F. (M) 
PLANSKOY, L. (M) 
PONTIUS, R. B. (A) 
RENWICK, F. F. (F) 
ROGERS, J. E. (M) 
ROWSON, S. (F) 
Ruox, M. (F) 
SCARLETT, J. J. Y. (A) 
SINCLAIR, A. T. (4) 
SKITTRELL, J. G. (Af) 
SMITH, J. W. W. (A) 
TERRANEAU, R. (F) 
TOUZE, G. (M) 
TUCK, F. A. (M) 
UNDERBILL, J. L. (M) 
WARMISHAM, A. (F) 
WATKINS, S. S. A. (F) 
WEBBER, A. C. (A) 
WIDDOWS, C. G. (A) 
WILLIAMS, G. A. (A) 
WILLIAMSON, T. H. (A) 
WILSON, S. K. (4) 

WlNTERMAN, C. (M) 

WOLFF, E. H. (A) 
WRATTEN, I. D. (F) 

France 

ABRIBAT, M. (M) 
ALBERT, G. (A) 
ASCHEL, H. (4) 
BERTIN, H. (M) 
BUREL, L. H. (A) 



BURNAT, H. (A) 

CARRERE, J. G. (A) 
CHEFTEL, A. M. (M) 
CHRETIEN, H. (F) 
CORDONUIER, J. (A) 

COTTET, A. (A) 

COURMES, M. (A) 
DALOTEL, M. (AT) 
DE BRETAGNE, J. (4) 
DEBRIE, A. (F) 
DIDIEE, L. J. J. (A) 
EGROT, L. G. (M) 
FIELD, A. (A) 
FISHOFF, L. A. (A) 
GERNOLLE, N. (A) 
HOPPIN, C. (A) 
HOTCHKISS, F. H. (M) 
KELBER, M. (A) 
KRAEMER, G. I. (M) 
LAIR, C. (M) 
LAWRENCE, T. (M) 
LECOQ, J. (4) 
LESLIE, F. (A) 
LIVERMAN, C. (A) 

LUMIERE, L. (IT) 

MARESCHAL, G. (4) 
MARETTE, J. (Af) 
MATHOT, J. A. (M) 
NATAN, B. I. (A) 
SCHMITZ, E. C. (M) 
STEINER, W. J. F. (A) 
THEREMIN, W. (A) 
WILD, G. (M) 

Germany 

BIELICKE, W. F. (F) 
BUSCH, L. N. (M) 
BUSSE, F. (F) 
DAEHR, H. (4) 
ENGL, J. B. (F) 
GEYER, W. (M) 
JOACHIM, H. E. A. (M) 
KRASNA-KRAUS, A. (M) 
LICHTE, H. (F) 

LlNGG, A. (A) 
LUMMERZHEIM, H. J. (M) 

MECHAU, E. (F) 



336 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



[J. S. M. P. E. 



PETERSON, F. W. 
REEB, O. G. L. (Af) 

ROSEMAN, I. (Af) 
ROSENTHAL, A. (.4) 

WASCHNECK, K. (M) 

Hawaii 

ARAKI, J. K. (A) 
BAKER, R. J. (4) 
FARVER, B. R. (4) 
FAUST, A. U) 
FERRENA, W. C. (4) 
FUNATSU, H. K. (A) 
IWAO, W. F. (A) 
KING, R. P. (A) 
LA CHAPELLE, L. (M) 
LEARNARD, H. P. (4) 
LEWBEL, S. (-4) 
MCKEE, T. A. (4) 
WOODWARD, E. K., JR. (.4) 

Holland 

HALBERTSMA, N. A. (<4) 
KOTTE, J. J. (A) 
TIMMER, A. L. (A) 
VAN BREUKELEN, J. (-4) 

Hungary 

LOHR, J. F. (M) 
MORTON, T. (A) 

India 

AHLUWALIA, B. S. (M) 
ARORA, P. N. 04) 
BAKHSHI, M. N. 04) 
BALI, D. N. (A) 
BHALCHANDRA, M. C. (A) 
FAZALBHOY, Y. A. 04) 
GOGATE, G. G. (4) 
GUPTA, D. K. 04) 
HANDA, D. (A) 
HANDA, G. C. 04) 
JADAV, B. V. (A) 
LAL, G. D. (Af) 
LEISHMAN, E. D. (M) 



MALHTRA, M. N. (A) 
MATHUR, R. D. (.4) 
MEHTA, H. S. (M) 
MISTRY, D. L. (M) 
MISTRY, M. L. (M) 
MOTWANE, V. G. (M) 

NlGAN, C. S. (A) 

PATEL, K. K. (.4) 
PATEL, M. B. (A) 
PHATAK, R. K. (A) 
Pu, M. N. U) 
SHANTARAM, V. (M) 
SHIRODKAR, G. N. (A) 
SOHONI. B. A. (Af) 
Soi, B. N. (A) 
SUBEDAR, P. C. (A) 

SUTARIA, S. F. (A) 

TENDULKAR, H. D. (Af) 
TORNEY, R. G. 04) 

Italy 

AMATI, L. (A) 

BlTTMANN, H. (A) 

CECCHI, U. 04) 
DE FEO, L. (M) 
FINARDI, E. V. (A) 
Rossi, P. (A) 
TRENTINO, V. (-4) 

Japan 

AlKAWA, S. (A) 

Aocm, C. (A) 

AOYAMA, K. (A) 

ASANO, S. (-4) 
CORBIN, R. M. (Af) 
DE MALLIE, R. B. (Af) 
HARUKI, S. (F) 
HELBLING, W. E. (A) 

HlRASAWA, I. (A) 

KAMEI, K. (A) 
KANO, J. H. 04) 
KASAI, K. (A) 
KONDO, T. (4) 
MANPOH, K. (.4) 
MASAOKA, K. (-4) 
MASUTANI, R. (4) 
MATSUZAWA, M. (4) 



Mar., 1936 J 



LIST OF MEMBERS 



337 



MINO, T. J. (A) 
NAGASE, T. (Af) 
OHTA, V. (A) 
OSAWA, Y. (Af) 
SAEKI, R. E. (4) 
SHIMAZAKA, K. (.4) 
SUGIURA, R. (Af) 
TAMAMURA, K. (A) 
TANAKA, E. (4) 
TSUCHIHASHI, H. (4) 
YASUI, S. (A) 

Mexico 

DE PEREZ, J. (A) 
FERNANDEZ, M. A. (A) 

New Zealand 

BANKS, C. (M) 
BLENKARNE, P. C. (A) 
DARBY, E. (A) 
DODDRELL, E. T., JR. ( 
DONALD, J. McL. (4) 
FOUNTAIN, A. (4) 
GILL, K. (A) 
HODGSON, W. (A) 
SPARKS, F. (A) 
STEED, R. C., JR. (A) 
VINSEN, S. E. (A) 
WHEELER, E. A. (A} 
WHEELER, W. L. (A) 
WYATT, C. (A) 

Norway 
GIHBSSON, L. (4) 

Philippine Islands 
PERRY, C. (A} 



Poland 

FALQUET, A. (4) 
ROCHOWICZ, S. (-4) 

Portugal 
EDBR, F. B. (Af) 

Roumania 

ORB AN, R. F. (Af) 

Russia 

CHORINE, A. F. (Af) 
JACHONTOW, E. G. (Af) 

Scotland 

CRAWFORD, W. C. (^4) 
HAMILTON, D. W. (4) 
JAY, R. L. (M) 
POOLE, G. F. (A) 

Spain 

ARAGONES, D. (Af) 
BLANCK, R. M. (M) 
BLANCO, E. (4) 
BUENO, P. G. (A) 
DE URGOITI, R. N. (Af) 
MORRAL, F. R. (4) 
ROBERT, A. R. (4) 
TEJERO-SANZ, M. (4) 
ZEPPELIN, H. V. (A) 

Switzerland 
HESS, H. P. (A) 

Wales 
PARLEY, W. C. (A) 



SPRING, 1936, CONVENTION 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

EDGEWATER BEACH HOTEL 

APRIL 27-30, INCLUSIVE 



Officers and Committees in Charge 

PROGRAM AND FACILITIES 

W. C. KUNZMANN, Convention V ice-President 
J. I. CRABTREE, Editorial Vice-President 
O. M. GLUNT, Financial Vice-President 
G. E. MATTHEWS, Chairman, Papers Committee 
E. R. GEIB, Chairman, Membership Committee 
W. WHITMORE, Chairman, Publicity Committee 
H. GRIFFIN, Chairman, Projection Committee 
O. F. NEU, Chairman, Apparatus Exhibit 

LOCAL ARRANGEMENTS AND RECEPTION COMMITTEE 

C. H. STONE, Chairman 

R. P. BEDORE . F. P. HECK J. H. McNABB 

O. B. DEPUE B. J. KLEERUP R. F. MITCHELL 

H. A. DERY S. A. LUKES C. G. OLLINGER 

J. GOLDBERG J. E. McAuLEY B. E. STECHBART 

CONVENTION PROJECTION COMMITTEE 

H. GRIFFIN, Chairman 

L. R. Cox J. GOLDBERG J. E. McAuLEY 

H. A. DERY S. A. LUKES H. RYAN 

Officers and Members of Chicago Local No. 110, I. A. T. S. E. 

APPARATUS EXHIBIT 

O. F. NEU, Chairman 
H. A. DEVRY S. HARRIS 

J. FRANK, JR. C. H. STONE 

LADIES' RECEPTION COMMITTEE 
MRS. C. H. STONE, Hostess 

assisted by 

MRS. B. W. DEPUE MRS. S. A. LUKES 

MRS. H. A. DEVRY MRS. R. F. MITCHELL 

MRS. F. B. HECK MRS. B. E. STECHBART 

338 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY 339 

BANQUET COMMITTEE 

W. C. KUNZMANN, Chairman 

O. B. DEPUE J. H. KURLANDER S. A. LUKES 

J. GOLDBERG S. HARRIS R. F. MITCHELL 

H. GRIFFIN C. H. STONE 

HEADQUARTERS 

The Headquarters of the Convention will be the Edgewater Beach Hotel, 
where excellent accommodations and Convention facilities are assured. A 
special suite will be provided for the ladies. Rates for SMPE delegates, 
European plan, will be as follows: 

One person, room and bath . $3 . 00 

Two persons, double bed and bath 5. 00 

Two persons, twin beds and bath 5 . 00 

Parlor suite and bath, for two 10. 00 and 12. 00 

Room reservation cards will be mailed to the membership of the Society in the 
near future, and every one who plans to attend the Convention should return his 
card to the Hotel promptly in order to be assured of satisfactory accommodations. 

A special rate of fifty cents a day has been arranged for SMPE delegates who 
motor to the Convention, in the Edgewater Beach Hotel fireproof garage. Pri- 
vate de luxe motor coaches operated by the Hotel will be available for service be- 
tween the Hotel and the Chicago Loop area. 

TECHNICAL SESSIONS 

An attractive program of technical papers and presentations is being arranged 
by the Papers Committee. All sessions and film programs will be held in the 
East Lounge of the Hotel. 

APPARATUS EXHIBIT 

An exhibit of newly developed motion picture apparatus will be held in the 
West Lounge of the Hotel, to which all manufacturers of equipment are invited to 
contribute. The apparatus to be exhibited must either be new or embody new 
features of interest from a technical point of view. No charge will be made 
for space. Information concerning the exhibit and reservations for space should 
be made by writing to the Chairman of the Exhibits Committee, Mr. O. F. Neu, 
addressed to the General Office of the Society. 

SEMI-ANNUAL BANQUET 

The Semi-Annual Banquet and Dance of the Society will be held in the Ball- 
room of the Edgewater Beach Hotel on Wednesday, April 29th, at 7:30 P.M. 
Addresses will be delivered by eminent members of the motion picture industry, 
followed by dancing and entertainment. 

INSPECTION TRIPS 

Arrangements may be made, upon request at the registration desk, to visit 
and inspect, in small groups, various laboratories, studios, and equipment man- 



340 SPRING CONVENTION [J. S. M. P. E. 

factories in the Chicago area. Firms that have extended invitations to such 
groups are: 

Burton Holmes Films, Inc. J. E. McAuley Manufacturing 
Bell & Howell Company Company 

Chicago Film Laboratories, Inc. Jam Handy Pictures Corp. 

Da-Lite Screen Company, Inc. Jenkins & Adair, Inc. 

Enterprise Optical Manufacturing National Screen Service, Inc. 

Company Western Electric Company 

Herman H. DeVry, Inc. Wilding Picture Productions, Inc. 

Holmes Projector Company Society of Visual Education 

POINTS OF INTEREST 

To list all the points of interest in and about Chicago would require too much 
space, but among them may be mentioned the following: 

Field Museum of Natural History Oriental Institute 

Adler Planetarium and Astronomical John G. Shedd Aquarium 

Museum Lincoln Park Aquarium 

Art Institute Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens 

Museum of Science and Industry Chicago Zoological Gardens 

Chicago Historical Society Grant Park 

Academy of Science University of Chicago 

Lincoln Park Loyola University 
Northwestern University 

Complete information concerning and directions for visiting these places will 
be available at the Hotel. 

RECREATION 

A miniature nine-hole golf course, putting greens, and regulation tennis courts, 
maintained by the Hotel, will be available to SMPE delegates registered at the 
Hotel. Details will be available at the registration desk. Special diversions 
will be provided for the ladies, and passes to local theaters will be available to all 
delegates registering. 

PROGRAM 

Monday, April 27th. 

9:00 a.m. Registration 

Society business 
10:00 a.m.-12:00 p.m. Committee reports 

Technical papers program 

12:30 p.m. Informal Get-Together Luncheon for members, their 

families, and guests. Several prominent speakers 
will address the gathering. 

2:00 p.m.-5:00 p.m. Technical papers program 

8:00 p.m. Exhibition of newly released motion picture features 

and shorts. 



Mar., 1936] SPRING CONVENTION 341 

Tuesday, April 28th. 

10:00 a.m.-12:00 p.m. Technical papers program 
2:00 p.m.-5:00 p.m. Technical papers program 

The evening of this day is left free for recreation, 
visiting, etc. 

Wednesday, April 29th. 9 

10:00 a.m.-12:00 p.m. Technical papers program 

The afternoon of this day is left free for recreation 
and for visits to the plants of various Chicago 
firms serving the motion picture industry. 

7:30 p.m. Semi-Annual Banquet and Dance of the SMPE: 

speakers and entertainment. 

Thursday, April 30th. 

10:00 a.m.-12:00 p.m. Technical papers program 
2:00 p.m.-5:00 p.m. Technical papers program 
Society business 
Adjournment of the Convention 

ATTENTION! AUTHORS OF PAPERS 

The time allotted for presentation of papers at the next meeting has been re- 
stricted by the Board of Governors of the Society. Morning sessions will begin 
at 10:00 A.M. and close promptly at 12:00 noon. Afternoon sessions will begin 
at 2:00 P.M. and close promptly at 5:00 P.M. It is, therefore, very important that 
all authors consider carefully the problem of presenting their papers in the most 
effective manner. The following suggestions represent useful ideas which every 
author should read and apply when delivering his paper. 

(1) Arrangement of Material. Manuscripts prepared for publication are 
seldom suitable for oral presentation. The paper should convey clearly to the 
listener: (a) the purpose of the work; (6) the experimental method; (c) the 
results obtained; and (d) conclusions. The nature of the material and the time 
available for presentation will determine the emphasis to be placed upon each 
subdivision. The author should make certain, by trial with his watch, that the 
essential points can be adequately presented in the time allotted to the paper. 

(2) Statement of Purpose. Orient the audience clearly as to the nature and 
purpose of the work. A lengthy historical review is generally out of place. 

(3) Technic. Describe the experimental method employed so as to indicate 
the principles involved. Omit details of apparatus or procedure unless there is 
some particularly novel development. Such data may belong in the published 
paper but may bore the audience. 

(4) Statement of Results. Present the results graphically, preferably with 
diagrams. Lantern slides are more clearly seen than hand-drawn charts. The 
slides should be of standard size (3.25 X 4 inches) and should project clearly 
upon the screen. Regardless of who has made the charts or slides, try them from 
the point of view of the audience before presenting them at the meeting. Do not 



342 SPRING CONVENTION 

read tables, a procedure that wastes time and destroys interest; but point out 
the general trend of the data. Whenever possible, the results of research should 
be shown by means of motion pictures, for which adequate projection facilities 
will be available. 

(5) Conclusions. Summarize the evidence and discuss the importance of the 
results or conclusions to the particular field of research involved. 

(6) Manner of Presentation. Do nol^read from a manuscript verbatim, unless 
the material has been written expressly for oral presentation. Speak directly to 
the audience in a clear, loud voice. Do not face the blackboard or the screen while 
speaking. Articulate distinctly. 

Many exceptions to, and modifications of, the suggestions given above may 
apply in particular instances. Nevertheless, general adherence to the points 
brought out will go far toward eliminating the valid criticisms which have been 
aimed at our programs. 

Acknowledgment is made to the Society of American Bacteriologists and the 
American Chemical Society for many of the ideas incorporated in these sugges- 
tions. 

G. E. MATTHEWS, Chairman, Papers Committee 



SOCIETY SUPPLIES 

Reprints of Standards of the SMPE and Recommended Practice may be obtained 
from the General Office of the Society at the price of twenty-five cents each. 

A limited number of reprints remain of the Report of the Projection Practice 
Committee (Oct., 1935) containing the projection room layouts, and "A Glossary 
of Color Photography." These may be obtained upon request, accompanied by 
six cents in postage stamps. 

Copies of Aims and Accomplishments, an index of the Transactions from October, 
1916, to June, 1930, containing summaries of all the articles, and author and 
classified indexes, may be obtained from the General Office at the price of one 
dollar each. Only a limited number of copies remains. 

Certificates of Membership may be obtained from the General Office by all 
members for the price of one dollar. Lapel buttons of the Society's insignia are 
also available at the same price. 

Black fabrikoid binders, lettered in gold, designed to hold a year's supply of the 
JOURNAL, may be obtained from the General Office for two dollars each. The 
purchaser's name and the volume number may be lettered in gold upon the back- 
bone of the binder at an additional charge of fifty cents each. 

Requests for any of these supplies should be directed to the General Office of 
the Society at the Hotel Pennsylvania, New York, N. Y., accompanied by the 
appropriate remittance. 



JOURNAL 

1 

OF THE SOCIETY OF 

MOTION PICTURE ENGINEERS 

Volume XXVI APRIL, 1936 Number 4 



CONTENTS 

Page 
Report of the Committee on Laboratory Practice 345 

Rapid Processing Methods. . . .H. PARKER AND J. I. CRABTREE 406 

Equipment for Developing and Reading Sensitometric Tests. . 

D. R. WHITE 427 

Reports of the Research Council of the Academy of Motion 

Picture Arts and Sciences : 
On Progress in Setting Up Laboratory Controls to Improve 

Release Print Quality 441 

Compilation of Answers to Questionnaire on Release Print 

Laboratory Practice 450 

Committees of the Society 462 

Spring Convention at Chicago, 111., April 27-30, 1936 467 

Papers and Presentations 474 

Society Announcements 484 



JOURNAL 

OF THE SOCIETY OF 

MOTION PICTURE ENGINEERS 



SYLVAN HARRIS, EDITOR 

Board of Editors 
J. I. CRABTREE, Chairman 

O. M. GLUNT A. C. HARDY L. A. JONES 

G. E. MATTHEWS 



Subscription to non-members, $8.00 per annum; to members, $5.00 per annum, 
included in their annual membership dues; single copies, $1.00. A discount 
on subscriptions or single copies of 15 per cent is allowed to accredited agencies. 
Order from the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, Inc., 20th and Northampton 
Sts., Easton, Pa., or Hotel Pennsylvania, New York, N. Y. 

Published monthly at Easton, Pa., by the Society of Motion Picture Engineers. 

Publication Office, 20th & Northampton Sts., Easton, Pa. 
General and Editorial Office, Hotel Pennsylvania, New York, N. Y. 
Entered as second class matter January 15, 1930, at the Post Office at Easton, 
Pa., under the Act of March 3, 1879. Copyrighted, 1936, by the Society of 
Motion Picture Engineers, Inc. 

Papers appearing in this Journal may be reprinted, abstracted, or abridged 
provided credit is given to the Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers 
and to the author, or authors, of the papers in question. Exact reference as to 
the volume, number, and page of the Journal must be given. The Society is 
not responsible for statements made by authors. 



Officers of the Society 

President: HOMER G. TASKER, 3711 Rowland Ave., Burbank, Calif. 
Past-President: ALFRED N. GOLDSMITH, 444 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y. 
Executive Vice-President: SIDNEY K. WOLF, 250 W. 57th St., New York, N. Y. 
Engineering Vice-President: LOYD A. JONES, Kodak Park, Rochester, N. Y. 
Editorial Vice-President: JOHN I. CRABTREE, Kodak Park, Rochester, N. Y. 
Financial Vice-President: OMER M. GLUNT, 463 West St., New York, N. Y. 
Convention Vice-President: WILLIAM C. KUNZMANN, Box 6087, Cleveland, Ohio. 
Secretary: JOHN H. KURLANDER, 2 Clearfield Ave., Bloomfield, N. J. 
Treasurer: TIMOTHY E. SHEA, 463 West St., New York, N. Y. 

Governors 

MAX C. BATSEL, Front & Market Sts., Camden, N. J. 

LAWRENCE W. DAVEE, 250 W. 57th St., New York, N. Y. 

ARTHUR S. DICKINSON, 28 W. 44th St., New York, N. Y. 

HERBERT GRIFFIN, 90 Gold St., New York, N. Y. 

ARTHUR C. HARDY, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. 

EMERY HUSE, 6706 Santa Monica Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. 

GERALD F. RACKETT, 823 N. Seward St., Hollywood, Calif. 

CARRINGTON H. STONE, 205 W. Wacker Drive, Chicago, 111. 



See p. 462 for Technical Committees 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON LABORATORY PRACTICE* 

Summary. A descriptive report of current methods of handling photosensitive 
materials in motion picture laboratories; a rt'sum.' of practical methods of manipulat- 
ing raw stock, picture negative, sound-track negative, duplicating picture and sound 
negative, regular positive prints, master positive prints, and special films in the various 
laboratories of the United States. In addition are presented descriptions of equip- 
ment in current use and the general arrangement and appointments of processing 
laboratories. 

I. Introduction 

II. Layout of a processing laboratory 

(A) Governing factors 

(1) Location 

(2) Capacity or total footage output 

(3) Efficiency in construction 

(4) Efficiency of operation 

(5) Cleanliness 

(6) Safety 

(a) Fire protection equipment 

(i) Sprinkler systems 
(ii) Fire alarm systems 
(Hi) Partitioning, exits, and fire-resisting appliances 

(b) Electrical equipment 

(i) Equipment for hazardous and non-hazardous locations 
(ii) Protection of equipment to prevent fires 

(7) General 

(a) Operation 

(b) Illumination 

(c) Air-conditioning 

III. History of raw stock 

(A) Storage of raw stock in laboratory 

(1) Type of storage room 

(a) Humidity 

(b) Temperature (wet-bulb and dry-bulb) 

IV. Method of comparing emulsions 

(A) Standards selected 

(1) Exposure 

* Presented at the Fall, 1935, Meeting at Washington, D. C. 

345 



346 REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE [J. s. M. P. E. 

(2) Sensitometry and processing (developing) 

(5) Densitometry and plotting characteristic curves 

(4) Interpretation of curves 

(5) Evaluation of curves 

V. Printing 

(A) Types of printers 

(1) Contact (step and continuous) 

(a) Double system 

(b) Single system 

(2) Optical 

(a) Picture step (reduction) 

(b) Continuous sound reduction 

(3) Trick and special 

(B) Maintenance of printers 

(1) Electrical circuits 

(2) Printing lamps (illumination sources) 

(3) Machine drives (footage speeds) 

(4) Printer light-change system 

(5) Printer matching 

(C) System of printing 

(7) General procedure 

(a) Method of timing 

(b) Manner of printing 
(2) Title making and printing 

(a) Superimposed titles 

(b) Title insert printing 

VI. Processing 

(A) Types of machines 

(1) Design and construction 
(2} Footage speeds 

(B) Development 

(1) Formulas 

(a) Original and replenisher supply 

(i) Negative type 
(ii) Positive type 
(Hi) Sound-track types 
(w) Special types 

(b) Mix and method of agitation 

(c) Temperature control 

(2) Machine footage speeds and development times 

(3) Control methods (maintenance of constant density and gamma) 
(a) Negative control 



April, 1936] REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE 347 

(b) Positive control 

(c) Sound-track control 

(d) Duplication control 

(e) Specialized control 

(C) Fixation and hardening 

(1) Formulas 

(2) Temperature control 
(5) Time of fixation 

(D) Wash water 

(1) Fresh water supply 

(a) Source 

(b) Mode of purification 

(2) Time of washing 

(a) Preceding fixation 

(b) Succeeding fixation 

(3) Temperature control 

(E) Drying conditions 

(1) Type of air-conditioning system 

(a) Method of circulating (refer to VI, A) 

(b) Velocity of air (refer to VI, A) 

(2) Temperature control (wet-bulb and-dry-bulb) 
(5) Humidity 

(4) Time 

(F) Film treatment 

(1) For lubrication 

(2) For lubrication and preservation 

VII. Method of Inspection 

(A) Negative 

(B) Prints 

VIII. General air-conditioning 

(A) Laboratory building 

(1) Storage vaults 

(2) Printing rooms 

I. INTRODUCTION 

Specific phases of motion picture film development were discussed 
in reports by the Committee on Laboratory and Exchange Practice at 
two previous Conventions of the Society. This year the Committee 
was divided into two separate Committees the Exchange Practice 
Committee and the Laboratory Practice Committee. 



348 REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE [j. s. M. P. E. 

After careful consideration the newly organized Laboratory Practice 
Committee decided it would be best to present to the Society a tutorial 
report of the current methods of handling photosensitive materials 
in motion picture laboratories. As no general information on labora- 
tory procedure had ever been published before, it was felt that a gen- 
eral summary of current laboratory practice might well serve as a 
helpful reference and would eventually lead to the Society's 
making recommendations and suggestions that would increase 
the ease of laboratory manipulation and improve both the photo- 
graphic quality on the screen and the sound quality in the theater. 

The following pages contain a resume of some practical methods of 
manipulating picture negative, sound-track negative, duplicating 
picture and sound negative, regular positive prints, master positive 
prints, and special films in the various laboratories of the United 
States. 

II. LAYOUT OF PROCESSING LABORATORY 

There is probably no concrete method governing the layout of 
ideal floor plans for a motion picture processing laboratory, but 
rather, the special arrangements that are chosen depend upon the 
proportion of the different types of work that are done, the variations 
in the processes that are employed, and several other factors. In the 
planning some prime factors to be considered are the desirability of 
location; the total capacity or total footage; the efficiency of con- 
struction, as to building, floor plans, and equipment; the operating 
efficiency for maximum and minimum capacities within overhead ex- 
penditure; the cleanliness of each department; the safety factors; and 
the general problem of operation, illumination, and air-conditioning. 

The location depends upon the availability of a site in proximity 
to the source of business and the source of power, raw materials, water, 
and other services. The total capacity or footage output is usually 
gauged upon the basis of present and future prospects for business. 
The most efficient construction avoids unnecessary walls, partitions, 
and inconvenient room shapes, and careful consideration is given to 
partitions in relation to the building structure and between rooms, 
vaults, and sections where film is stored. Attention is given to piping, 
electrical conduits, and ventilation duct layouts to minimize the 
cost of installation and construction. The flow of materials is so 
arranged that the plant can be operated efficiently and economically. 
Film should not be allowed to accumulate in any one place, and to 



April, 1936] REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE 349 

avoid such accumulation suitable means of transportation from point 
to point are provided. When possible, the layout of the plant is such 
that each operation on the film follows in sequence, with the shipping 
department easily accessible to an exit but near the final handling 
room. 

Extreme cleanliness must be observed if the ultimate in clean 
negatives and prints is to be attained. Walls and floor surfaces 
should be treated with paints or other materials that will collect a 
minimum of dust and dirt. Few laboratories are air-conditioned 
throughout the entire building, but when they are, their problem of 
cleanliness is lessened considerably. 

A detailed description of sprinkler systems, fire-alarm systems, 
partitioning, exits, fire-resisting appliances, electrical equipment in 
hazardous and non-hazardous locations, and protection of electrical 
equipment to avoid fire hazards does not seem necessary in this 
report, as the choice of type and the installation of such equipment 
must be approved and accepted by the National Board of Fire Under- 
writers and must conform to the National Electrical Code, the local 
fire ordinances, and the electrical codes and factory laws as applied to 
the motion picture industry. The codes govern the safety factors, 
but often the manager of the laboratory assumes additional precau- 
tions for the protection of the plant and personnel and to reduce the 
insurance costs. 

The general problems of operation, illumination, and air-con- 
ditioning are discussed in more detail in connection with the following 
descriptions of operating methods. 

III. HISTORY OF RAW STOCK STORAGE 

Immediately upon the receipt of any type of raw stock (regular 
printing positive, duplicating negative, master positive, and special 
emulsions) the majority of motion picture laboratories store it in a 
special room or storage vault set aside for the purpose. Before the 
raw stock is placed in the storage vault it is generally uncased, and 
the taped cans stored in an upright position in specially designed 
racks. In a few laboratories these rooms are air-conditioned, but in 
the majority of laboratories they are simply ventilated, and conse- 
quently the condition of the air in the storage room approximates 
general indoor atmospheric conditions. Usually the dry-bulb tem- 
perature ranges from 65 to 80F., and the relative humidity ranges 
from 30 to approximately 70 per cent. Most laboratories have small 



350 REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE [J. S. M. P. E. 

vaults just off the printing room that are air-conditioned like the 
printing room. The film is given to the printers after it is untaped, 
uncanned, and the black paper removed. In laboratories where a 
conditioned room or a conditioned vault is not adjacent to the 
printing room, the film is taken directly from storage. Frequently, 
at the beginning of the working day, sufficient film is uncanned to 
supply the printers for that day or for an eight-hour period. 

IV. METHODS OF EMULSION COMPARISON 

As a standard of exposure for emulsion comparison and for control 
tests a number of laboratories now employ the Eastman type IIB 




FIG. 1. Eastman 115 sensitometer; for exposing sensitometric 
strips on all photosensitive materials. 

sensitometer (Fig. 1) for sensitometric testing, and in some cases 
various types of step tablet sensitometers (Fig. 2). For practical 
visual print comparison a carefully maintained continuous or step 
printer is sometimes employed using a selected picture negative as 
the light modulator. 

The master printer for printing the negative selected as a standard 
of reference for picture quality is often given special attention. 
Special care is taken to keep the current supplied to the lamp constant, 



April, 1936] REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE 351 

and the lamp is carefully inspected for defects and seasoned before 
use so as to assure uniformity of illumination at the gate. The 
uniformity of speed of the machines is also carefully checked. 
The care of printers and printing mechanisms will be discussed 
later. 

Upon receipt of a new emulsion number of any raw stock it is ac- 
cepted practice to impress upon 10- to 25-ft. lengths taken from 
one to five rolls (selected at random) of the new and the former 
coatings, two to five sensitometered strips on the sensitometer using 
the positive or negative set-up, according to the film being used. 




FIG. 2. Eastman model X step tablet sensitometer; for exposing sensitometric 
strips on all photosensitive materials. 

Obviously, the positive set-up is used for those photosensitive mate- 
ials that have positive film characteristics, and the negative set-up 
'or those that have negative types of characteristics. Six- to 100-ft. 
engths of both the new and the former emulsions are printed on the 
selected printer from the selected negative accepted as a standard 
of reference. The prints on all strips are made at the step setting that 
was correct for the former coating. All sensitometric strip ex- 
>osures and prints are then developed together by the appropriate 
development process, either negative or positive, for the time that 
produced the desired gamma, density, and photographic quality that 
was adjudged satisfactory on the former coating. Then the step 
Densities on the sensitometered strip are read on a suitable densitonj- 



352 REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE [J. S. M. P. E 

eter (Figs. 3, 4, and 5 illustrate some of the types available) and 
plotted by the recognized method described by Jones. 1 From the 
plotted, averaged, sensitometered strips the difference in gamma and 
density speed can be ascertained for the predetermined development 
time, and by visual judgment the timer can discern the change of 
printer point, if any, necessary to produce the same density in the new 
emulsion as was obtained in the former emulsion. Often a re test is 
made at the new printer point assignment, and the new emulsion is 




FIG. 3. Eastman direct-reading densitome- 
ter; for reading densities on all types of 
films and plates. 

developed for the time necessary to produce in it a gamma equivalent 
to the gamma of the former emulsion, which is the gamma that the 
laboratory has determined to be the most suitable to obtain the best 
quality. This procedure is of particular importance in testing posi- 
tive printing stock, as release prints must be held to fairly close toler- 
ances to obtain uniform screen quality. 

Often, after having completed the above-described tests of the new 
positive raw stock, prints are made of a production negative in work 
upon a 1000-ft. roll of the new and a 1000-ft. roll of the former emul- 
sion. From this final test, by visual inspection, a printer point rating 
and a development time are assigned to the new emulsion so that 



April, 1936] 



REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE 353 



prints made with the new emulsions will match approximately the 
quality obtained with the former emulsion. Sometimes laboratories 
depend upon their sensitometric tests, and assign printer point 
settings for positive emulsions by drawing perpendiculars from the 
point of unit density on the straight -line portion of the plotted char- 




(Courtesy of Electrical Research Products, Inc.) 

FIG. 4. Photoelectric cell densitometer ; for reading 
sound-track densities. 

acteristic curves to the abscissa, or log E axis, to determine the log E 
difference between the new and former emulsions. A difference in 
log E of 0.05 at equal gammas is equal to a change of about Bell & 
Howell model D printer point. This log E difference for printer point 
difference varies considerably from laboratory to laboratory, as each 
laboratory tends to design its own printer step difference when con- 
structing printer light step resistance control panels. 



354 REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE [j. s. M. P. E. 

Positive emulsions from coating to coating are generally within 
the tolerance of laboratory manipulation for density and gamma, 
and, therefore, only slight changes in printer point ratings are neces- 
sary. If the new emulsion, however, is slightly higher or slightly 
lower in gamma than it should be, as compared with the previous 
emulsion, it is usually assigned a development time that will produce 
a gamma within the tolerance set by the laboratory. Gammas of 




(Courtesy of Electrical Research Products, Inc.) 

FIG. 5. KS-6466 densitometer ; for reading densities on all types of 
films and plates. 

positive prints vary from 1.9 to 2.3, but fall in the majority of 
laboratories within the range of 2.0 to 2.2. Most laboratories en- 
deavor to maintain with positive prints a uniformity of gamma con- 
trol from day to day of 2.0 to 2.2 or 0.1. Some endeavor to main- 
tain the control within 0.05. The printer point variation is usually 
held within 0.5 printer point, but some laboratories approve prints 
that have variations from day to day of 1 Bell & Howell printer 
point, or the equivalent of 0.05 in log E exposure value at a density 

of unity. 

v. PRINTING 
(A) Types of Printers 

Practically all laboratories, regardless of their footage production, 
have several types of printers available for either routine release 



April, 1936] REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE 355 

printing or special printing. Upon the introduction of sound into 
the motion picture industry, several laboratories decided that it was 
expedient and economical to make a few mechanical changes in their 
standard printing equipment to handle the sound printing problems, 
and this accounts to some extent for the variation in the types of 
printers being used. 

Standard types of continuous and intermittent printers for image 
transfer are in use, but generally each laboratory makes a few changes 
in its printers to suit specific operating conditions and to offer greater 
ease of manipulation. The scope of this report, however, does not 
permit describing in detail the modifications that are made in design 
although an attempt will be made to cover more or less schematically 
the major changes. 

For printing 35-mm. sound-track and picture negative the ma- 
chine most commonly used is the Bell & Howell model D printer. 
Some of these printers are used just as manufactured, but most of 
them are modified in some way, particularly in the light-change 
mechanism. It is sometimes more efficient and economical to use 
single-operation printers, that is, printers in which the sound-track 
negative and the picture negative are printed simultaneously. Falling 
into this class are modified Bell & Howell printers, Duplex step 
printers, and special printers designed and constructed in accordance 
with the specifications of the particular laboratory. 

In laboratories employing Bell & Howell continuous printers 
(Fig. 6) that have been revamped so as to print the sound-track and 
the picture negative simultaneously, a finished sound print is the result 
of passing the picture negative, the sound negative, and the positive 
raw stock continuously through the printer. In the case of one notable 
modification, the picture printing takes place on the sixty-four-tooth 
standard sprocket with the aperture so masked that the sound area 
is left unexposed and the sound printing takes place on a sprocket 
corresponding to the upper feed sprocket. This sprocket has been 
replaced with a specially designed thirty- two tooth, hollow-center 
printing sprocket suitably masked for sound printing and provided 
with the necessary shoe mechanism. The casting of the machine has 
been extended to provide for an additional sprocket above the sound 
printing sprocket in order that the strain of pulling the films from the 
flanges is not imposed upon the sprocket on which the sound printing 
takes place. The drive of this modified printer has been completely 
rebuilt so that the machine is now driven directly from a fractional 



356 REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE [J. S. M. P. E. 





April, 1936] 



REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE 357 



horsepower semisynchronous motor. A flywheel has been mounted 
upon the shaft of the sound printing sprocket to insure steady motion. 
Printer mechanisms and light-change boards are constructed to per- 
mit printing forward and backward, thus avoiding the necessity of 
rewinding the negative after each printing. On some machines of 




FIG. 8. Bell & Howell continuous sound and picture 
production printer. 

this type use is made, of the standard Bell & Howell picture shutter 
light-change mechanism, while others utilize specially designed resis- 
tance boards for the light-changes. Details of various types of light- 
change mechanisms will be outlined later. 

Modified Duplex step printers (Fig. 7) for simultaneously step 
printing the picture negative and continuously printing the sound- 
track negative are in use. The adaptation is accomplished by attach- 



358 REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE [J. s. M. P. E. 

ing to and offsetting below the step picture printing head of the Du- 
plex printer a continuously operated sound printing head in which the 
film is pulled over a curved gate with a balanced shoe mechanism. 
The sound printing head is run synchronously with the step printing 
head at a speed of approximately thirty-five to forty feet per minute. 
Both the picture and the sound-track light-change mechanisms are 
controlled by standard resistance boards modified in accordance with 
specifications of the laboratories. 

Where continuous operation has approached its maximum, printers 
have been engineered so that the sound-track and the picture negative 
light-changes are controlled by specially prepared mattes that vary 
the light aperture opening for printing both sound and picture. 
These mattes are prepared for the timing of each reel of picture nega- 
tive and sound-track negative printed. By automatically increasing 
or decreasing the intensity of the exposing lamp by means of a govern- 
ing mechanism, these printers will permit using the matte timed 
to accompany a given sound-track or picture negative at various foot- 
age speeds. 

The new Bell & Howell single-operation continuous sound-track 
and picture printer (Fig. 8) for printing both picture and track in one 
operation is now being used in a number of laboratories. Details of 
these printers have been previously published in the JOURNAL. 2 The 
light-change, scene for scene, is controlled by specially prepared mattes 
that vary the light aperture in the manner previously described. 
Details of the design and operation of this printer and of the con- 
tinuous model D printer, in which the sound-track and the picture are 
printed in separate operations, can be obtained from the manufac- 
turer. Several Depue continuous sound-track and picture printers 
using light-change resistance boards for timing are in use. 

A few laboratories are using printers that are no longer manu- 
factured, but by far the great majority use printers of the type de- 
scribed above. All the printers mentioned so far are used for stand- 
ard release printing work. 

Quad printers are sometimes used for printing news releases to in- 
crease the efficiency and decrease the time of production. These quad 
printers are groups of four printers driven by the same source of power, 
and may be combination step picture printers and sound-track 
continuous printers, or continuous picture and sound printers in which 
the sound-track and the picture are printed simultaneously. The 
negatives, both sound-track and picture, are run through all four ma- 



April, 1936] REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE 359 

chines, thus producing four complete prints with each pass of a nega- 
tive. The light-change mechanisms are carefully matched, step for 
step, for each individual head in the battery of four, so that uniform 
prints may be obtained. 

Printers equipped with so-called "five-way gates" eliminate negative 
rewinding and speed up production. These "five-way gates" are 
movable masks in the printing aperture, which change position and 
permit the sound-track to be printed first along one edge of the posi- 
tive and then along the other, as the sound-track position reverses 
when the negative is printed backward. 

Each laboratory has special optical printers (Figs. 9 and 10) for 
making wipe-outs, lap dissolves, inserts, etc., in addition to the stand- 
ard types of continuous and step optical printers. Generally, how- 
ever, these printers are assembled from standard cinema machinery 
obtained on the commercial market. In many instances, printers of 
this type are built in accordance with the particular specifications of 
the laboratory so that unusual photographic effects may be achieved. 
To describe the various types of special printers would be an endless 
task and, since most printer manufacturers will make special print- 
ers for effect purposes, detailed information upon the subject can be 
obtained from them. 

Because of the problem involved in superimposing foreign titles 
for foreign release prints by methods that will be described later, 
special printers have been designed that will print in one operation 
the sound-track negative, picture negative, and title from a single 
frame upon the picture area of the positive. The firms that have 
constructed these printers have reduced their production cost and 
achieved a greater ease of manipulation in making foreign release 
prints. 

Due to the increasing demand for 16-mm. sound-film prints, a 
number of laboratories have either purchased, or had constructed 
according to their specifications, continuous optical reduction printers 
for reducing 35-mm. sound-track negative to 16-mm. sound-track 
positive (Figs 11-15). Usually these printers are designed for re- 
ducing the sound-track only, the picture being reduced in one of the 
standard types of 35-1 6-mm. step optical reduction printers. 

(B) Maintenance of Printers 

(1) Electrical Circuits. All printing lamp lines to the various 
machines are generally of ample size to reduce the line drop to a 



360 REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE [J. s. M. p. E. 




April, 1936] REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE 361 

minimum, and direct current is invariably used. In most laboratories 
an attempt is made to lay out the printer room so that the distribution 
of current to adjacent machines is not affected when any one machine 
is switched on or off. Printing lamp current is commonly provided 
by an independent d-c. generator, so that voltage regulation can be 
maintained within 0.5 volt. Frequently, special converters are 
used so that the supply will not vary more than =*=0.5 volt for a 10 
per cent change of line voltage supplied to the converter. 

(2) Printing Lamps. As sources of illumination, printing lamps 
of suitable characteristics are selected, with particular regard for 
their ruggedness and durability. Generally, lamps of greater watt- 
age than necessary are chosen, in order that they may be operated 
well below their rated voltage and so maintain reasonably constant 
color temperatures throughout their lives. Often lamps are selected 
according to photometric and electrical measurements to assure uni- 
form characteristics. Usually, when using resistance light-changes, 
printer lamps are so matched that the voltage-current characteristics 
are similar. In most laboratories the filament alignment and the 
positions of the lamps in the machines are checked daily, and exposure 
tests are made frequently to check the illumination levels of the printers. 

(3) Machine Drives (Footage Speeds). Semisynchronous motors 
are sometimes used to simplify the problem of maintaining the speed 

f the printing machines constant. Special attention is generally 
^iven to eliminating vibration, especially in the case of printers that 
are not mounted upon solid, heavy foundations. Printers that have 
)een specially designed and constructed by the laboratories are 
usually built into very heavy foundations to guard against vibration, 
t is common practice to drive Duplex step printers at speeds of 
hirty-five to forty feet a minute whether they be single-operated 
>r operated in conjunction with specially designed continuous sound 
>rinting heads. Bell & Howell continuous printers, whether of the 
ingle -aperture type or the modified combination sound and picture 
aperture type, are driven at speeds varying from sixty to one hundred 
and twenty-five feet a minute. Where special continuous printers 
hat print the picture and the sound-track simultaneously are oper- 
ated in direct conjunction with continuous processing machines, the 
speeds vary from one hundred and twenty-five feet to one hundred 
and eighty feet a minute. It can be expected that the speed at which 
he printers are driven depends upon the footage production of the 
aboratory and the mechanical limitations of the machines. 



362 REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE [j. s. M. P. E 




April, 1936] REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE 363 

(4) Printer Light-CJiange Systems. Each laboratory selects a 
resistance or a mechanical light-change system according to the 
advantages that either method may afford under predetermined 
conditions of laboratory operation. No matter which system is 
utilized, the laboratory endeavors to maintain the log exposure 
increments, step for step upon all machines, equivalent in terms of 
step density value when all printer tests are exposed upon the same 
piece of film and developed together. Depending upon the number 
of average scene-changes necessary, resistance boards are employed 
that will permit making fifty to one hundred and fifty scene-changes 
during the printing of a 1000-ft. reel of negative. These resistance 
boards are obviously designed so that at each change of scene any 
one of the eighteen to twenty-one light-exposure values can be 
selected. The change of "lights" (as they are customarily termed) 
from scene to scene is effected by a bar dropping past contact buttons 
that have been manually set into a surface panel. The bar is moved 
by a solenoid, the circuit of which is controlled by contacts on notch- 
feeling rollers riding upon the edge of the negative. The positions 
of the contact buttons in the panel are chosen by the timer, who 
assigns the "light" values to the negative to be printed and cuts 
notches into the edge of the negative where the light-changes are to 
occur. The printing machine operator puts the contact buttons into 
place. 

The log E change per step of the resistance type of light-control is 
usually held to such a value that the total change of voltage across 
the lamp from step 1 to step 18 or 21 will not produce too great a 
difference of contrast in the print. Change of contrast is due to change 
of color temperature of the lamp with a change of applied voltage, 
and, if the variation of color temperature is too great, obviously the 
change of contrast will be objectionable. 

The system of varying the intensity of the light at the printing 
aperture by mechanical means is well known ; and apparently the one 
most commonly used is the variable shutter-opening type utilized 
in the Bell & Howell model D printer, although the aperture matte 
system is constantly gaining favor. 

(5) Printer Matching (Exposure Characteristics). Printers are 
usually matched daily by making a print of a standard negative 
upon the positive emulsion being used, at a selected step on each 
printer, and developing the several prints together in a suitable 
developing system for the time, previously determined, that produces 



364 REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE [j. s. M. P. E. 





April, 1936] REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE 365 

the correct gamma and print density in a given printer. The step 
at which the prints are made upon each printer is usually two or three 
points above the mid-step. If these prints match visually as to den- 
sity, the printers are then assumed to be matched, step for step, one 
against the other, upon the basis that all the printers utilize resistance 
boards having equivalent changes of resistance from step to step, or 
back shutters having equivalent aperture changes. If a printer is 
out of match, the fixed aperture opening is increased or decreased 
until the printer matches the other printers at that step; or the dis- 
tance of the lamp from the printing aperture may be increased or 
decreased until the match is attained. Often small adjustable re- 
sistances are used in the lamp circuits for balancing the printers. 
These adjustments are, obviously, made only when the condition 
of the lamp itself is satisfactory. Frequently, densitometric com- 
parisons of the exposed prints are made, in addition to the visual 
comparisons. Some laboratories visually, or both visually and densi- 
tometrically, compare such strips exposed at every step of each 
printer every two weeks or every month. In addition to obtaining 
information as to the matching characteristics of the printers, the 
uniformity of illumination at the printing aperture is estimated 
and it is determined whether or not the pressure of the pressure pad 
is sufficient to maintain firm contact for good definition. This, and 
all other mechanical details, are usually delegated to the laboratory 
machine shop. Usually, to determine the uniformity of intensity at 
the printing aperture, positive film is exposed at a predetermined 
step, developed, and the uniformity of density over the picture area 
measured with a densitometer. 

The matching of printer sound heads is based upon the same prin- 
ciples, the prints being made from unmodulated sound-track. 

(C) System of Printing 

(1) General Practice. For timing negatives for making prints, 
the visual method is used almost exclusively in East Coast labora- 
tories, as it has seemed to be the most practicable and economical 
since the beginning of the development and printing of motion picture 
film. With this method the "timer" estimates, according to his ex- 
perience, the step at which the light-change system of the printer 
should be set to produce a balanced print scene for scene. Making 
a balanced print from negatives that have been developed to an 



366 REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE [j. s. M. p. E. 

approximately constant gamma involves obtaining a series of densi- 
ties in the various scenes of the print, which has been developed for a 
predetermined time, such that the print will produce when projected 
upon the screen, consistent contrast detail in highlights and shadows 
of the various picture scenes. As the "timer" times (or determines 
the proper printing steps for) the negative, he usually notches it, 
cutting a notch into its edge at the fourth frame ahead of the begin- 
ning of each light-change for a given scene. The notching is done 
with a standard negative notching device. 

Some laboratories, notably most of those on the West Coast, use a 
timing machine which makes a print of a section of nine to eleven 
frames of each negative. A foremost example of such a machine is the 
"Cinex" timer. Each of the frames receives an exposure that is 
matched to alternate steps of the printer, so that when the print is 
developed each of the nine or eleven frames represents the print 
density that would be obtained by printing with alternate lights, 
from step 1 to the highest step. The "timer" then visually judges 
from this print the proper step at which to print the negative so that 
scenes of balanced density will result throughout given sequences. 
Whichever system is used, it is the custom for the "timer" to note 
upon a specially designed timing card the light-step or light-changes 
for each scene in a given roll of negative. When Cinex tests are made 
of production negative for the purpose of timing daily prints, the 
Cinex strips are frequently given to the cameraman on the set so that 
he can judge the printing quality of his negative. 

The sound-track is frequently timed in the same manner, but the 
practice of timing it by densitometric measurement is growing in 
favor because the problems of picture composition and detail do not 
complicate the assignment of printer exposures for sound-track as they 
do in pictorial work. Both visual and densitometric methods are 
being used, and as the majority of sound-tracks are re-recorded and 
therefore balanced for exposure, one light is generally set for printing 
a complete reel of negative. Variable-density biased negative can 
be timed correctly only by measuring the unbiased, unmodulated 
portions of the track. 

After the negative picture and negative sound-track have been 
timed they are given to the operator of the printer with their respec- 
tive printing cards. From these cards, when resistance boards are 
used, the light-changes are set up on the board for making the print 
from the negative, or in the case of standard Bell & Howell continuous 



April, 1936J REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE 367 

printers, the light-changes are made manually as the notched negative 
trips the circuit interrupter roller. In this case, as the notch trips 
the roller and changes the light to the manually pre-set point, the 
operator again manually sets the lever control for the succeeding 
light-change ; whereas, in the case of resistance-board operation, the 
electrical trip-bar is actuated by the notch-follower roller and auto- 
matically sets itself for printing the succeeding scene, according to the 
sequence established by the set-up of the board. 

It is necessary for the printer operator to be sure that the sound- 
track and the picture start marks are so adjusted in the sound-track 
and picture apertures that the sound-track will be fifteen and one-half 
inches ahead of the picture in order that the sound and the picture 
be synchronous when the print is projected. After the first print is 
struck off and processed it is projected by the timer, who visually 
determines whether the proper light-changes have been selected, 
scene for scene, for the print. If it is necessary to make changes, these 
light-changes are entered upon the timing cards, and a second print 
is made with the corrected values. It is often the practice to make as 
many as four or five trial prints for both picture and sound-track 
before deciding upon the final printer point settings. Regardless of 
whether the sound-track negative is entirely re-recorded or there are 
sections of original recordings in it, the timer projects the print re- 
peatedly and makes printer point corrections for raising or lowering 
the volume level of the reproduced sound in the various scenes in 
order to produce the best quality and the most desirable effect. When 
the print is adjudged as good as can be expected, general release 
printing from the timed negative is begun. Some laboratories print 
all release prints from a given reel of negative upon the same printer 
in order to minimize errors. Similar procedures are followed in 
making master positives, duplicate negatives, and special types of 
prints. 

(2) Title Making. Negative or direct titles are usually made by 
exposing regular positive emulsions in modified camera mechanisms 
on special titling stands. On these stands the title cards are mounted 
upon a special board that is adjustable vertically, horizontally, and 
rotationally in the vertical plane. The distance between the camera 
and the easel for holding the title is variable so that cards of different 
size may be accommodated. The majority of laboratories have de- 
signed their own titling apparatus and have taken particular care in 
its design and construction to assure steadiness of the camera and the 



368 REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE [J. S. M. P. E. 

easel by mounting them upon a special lathe type bed. In addi- 
tion, careful consideration has been given to the mechanism to assure 
accuracy of the focus and steady motion of the film. Various means 
have been employed for this purpose, such as using very carefully 
milled registering pins and film edge guides. Because of their actinic 
power, mercury lamps are generally used as sources of illumination, 
the type M generally being preferred. After titles have been exposed 
and developed they are timed and printed in a manner similar to 
timing and printing picture negative and sound-track negative. 

Making uniform background titles; illustrated background titles; 
titles with relief lettering, with either plain or illustrated backgrounds ; 
scroll titles, with either uniform or illustrated backgrounds and with 
or without relief lettering; and animated titles, are such particular 
problems and so dependent upon the choice of the producer and the 
desires of the laboratory that no attempt will be made here to describe 
the various production technics. For further details regarding mak- 
ing motion picture titles the reader should refer to previous papers by 
Crabtree and Ives. 3 - 4 

It is quite general practice in making prints for foreign release to 
superimpose the foreign-language titles within the picture area, so 
that the continuity of the sound-track and picture may be maintained. 
This is usually done by making foreign-language negative titles by 
standard title-making methods and then spacing the titles with No. 3 
leader so that when printed in the picture area they appear syn- 
chronously with the English dialog. This system of spacing titles 
involves splicing No. 3 leader between the titles so that the negative 
title reel is of the same length as the picture negative reel. This No. 3 
leader is a clear support, with no emulsion coating, and is 0.005 inch 
thick. Some laboratories use News positive film to accomplish this 
purpose by photographing negative titles sequentially spaced to 
synchronize with the English dialog. When the News positive film 
is processed it is ready for use as the superimposing medium, obviating 
the necessity of using No. 3 leader as spacer. When the foreign release 
print is made, usually the title negative emulsion faces the emulsion 
of the raw stock and the picture negative emulsion faces the base 
of the title negative, so that the three films in contact pass through 
the picture printing gate at the same time, while the sound-track is 
printed in the usual manner. Depending upon whether it is best to 
sacrifice definition of the title or of the picture, the emulsion side of 
either negative may face the emulsion of the positive raw stock. It 



April, 1936] 



REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE 369 



has been found more economical in some laboratories to use special 
types of printers for this purpose. A printer supplied by the Andre* 
Debrie Company prints the title from a single frame directly upon 
the picture area simultaneously with the picture negative (Fig. 16). 
In this type of printer the single-frame title is held in position and 




FIG. 16. Debrie Matipo TU printer; this printer 
prints picture, sound-track, and superimposed 
titles in one operation. Only a single frame of film 
area is used for each title negative. Insertion of 
titles and light-changes is fully automatic. 

printed in the sequence and for the length of time necessary for 
reading. One laboratory has constructed its own continuous super- 
imposing or title-inserting printers. They are so designed that 
automatic stop and start controls for the single-frame title negative 
can be preset; so that during the printing of a reel of sound-track 
negative, picture negative, and the single-frame title negative, the 



370 REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE [j. s. M. p. E. 

titles from the single frame are printed in synchronism with the 
English dialog, scene for scene, in one operation. The foreign- 
language titles for use in these printers are made upon a high-contrast 
photosensitive material, and by means of an ingenious optical system 
are printed into the picture area from a single frame at the same time 
the picture negative is printed. It is claimed that the method pro- 
duces a print in which the title insert and picture have a definition 
equivalent to what results from printing each negative separately 
in a continuous printer, and, moreover, that it increases the produc- 
tion rate because it is necessary to make only a single frame of a 
given title instead of exposing sufficient footage to travel in synchro- 
nism with the English dialog during the printing. The laboratories 
using them contend that these printers afford greater ease in making 
foreign release prints and a considerable saving in raw stock. 

Practically all laboratories have available specially modified com- 
mercial printers or printers of their own design for making special 
effects such as wipe-outs, title inserts, and any kind of trick print 
desired. These printers are so specialized that it does not seem 
advisable to describe them, as they vary greatly in type. Further- 
more, trick printing is such a specialized art that most laboratories 
delegate such work to special departments of their organizations. 

VI. PROCESSING 

(A) Types of Machines 

Continuous machines are now utilized for practically all types of 
film processing, and rack-and-tank systems are used only where the 
production output is not sufficient to warrant a continuous machine 
or when some special effect is desired that can best be handled by the 
rack-and-tank method. 

The operation of a continuous developing machine is fundamentally 
simple, in that the undeveloped film is fed directly from a feed reel 
into the machine, or from a feed reel to a feed elevator having suf- 
ficient footage capacity at a predetermined speed to allow the feed 
operator enough time (two to nine minutes) to splice a new roll of 
film onto the preceding roll so that a continuous band of film will 
flow continuously through the machine to the take-up reel at the end 
of the drying cabinet (Figs. 17, 18, and 19). The splices may be either 
machine-made splices, produced by eyeleting or stapling, or carefully 
made cement splices. Most of the continuous developing machines 



April, 1930] REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE 371 

are of the roller-rack, deep-tank type, having in the wet section roller- 
racks parallel to the face of the film as the latter travels through the 
machine (Fig. 17). Each roller-rack spindle is parallel to the face 
of the film, and the rack is from six to twelve feet in height and carries 
from eight to twelve loops of film, depending upon the design of the 




(Courtesy of Consolidated Film Industries, Inc.) 

FIG. 17. Wet end of Spoor-Thompson continuous developing 
machine. 

machine. Usually there are one or two racks in each tank, and the 
tanks may vary in capacity from 120 to 360 gallons of solution. The 
racks may be so designed that either all the racks in the wet end of 
the machine can be lifted vertically completely free of the tanks; or 
the upper roller-rack may be mounted in a fixed position, and the 
roller-rack in the lower part of the tank mounted upon a weighted 
elevator system so that it can be raised until it meets the upper roller- 
rack. Invariably, in machines in which the film is propelled by power- 



372 REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE [J. S. M. P. E. 

driven sprockets, it is necessary that elevators be employed so that 
the tension of the individual film strands will be independent of the 
swelling and shrinking of the film. In machines in which the film is 
propelled through the machine by friction drive only that is, by 
frictional contact of the film upon power-driven rollers there is no 
necessity for elevators. The film automatically slips forward or 
backward in accordance with its swell or shrinkage, because the 
power-driven rollers are always travelling at a slightly greater footage 
speed than the film and because the tension of the film is such that it 
will permit slippage. 

The upper racks of rollers in the wet end of the machine are 
generally submerged in the solution so that the film is exposed to the 
air only on the carry-over loop from tank to tank. Because of special- 
ized design, however, in a number of machines the upper bank of 
rollers, whether on a rack system at right angles to the long axis of 
the machine or parallel to the axis, may be from three to eighteen 
inches above the solution. Usually in each machine there are three 
or four tanks for development followed by a small loop tank for a 
rinse wash, three or four tanks for fixing, and five or six tanks for 
washing. The number of tanks used in the wet end depends upon the 
lengths of time necessary for the various processes, which in turn 
depend upon the number of racks in each tank and the footage speed 
of the machine. 

A method for the reduction of "directional effects" in continuous 
machine developing is gaining favor in a number of laboratories. 
These effects are caused as the film travels through the machine 
by the diffusion of development products (oxidation products and 
bromide salts) from an exposed area of the film into adjacent areas 
that have had different exposure. The diffusion is counter to the di- 
rection of travel of the film, producing a pronounced lower density 
in areas of film adjacent to and following areas of greater exposure 
(greater density). The effects are notable on type HB sensitometer 
strips, as different gammas and differently shaped characteristic 
(ZMog E) curves result from passing the strips through the machine 
with the heavy or the light exposure areas preceding. The so-called 
"turbulation" method is said to be satisfactory for minimizing the 
effect. It consists simply of providing a spray of jets of developer 
beneath the surface of the developer, impinging directly upon the 
emulsion surface and causing greater agitation of the solution at the 
surface of the film. 



April, 1936] REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE 373 

As the film feeds from the last wash tank of the wet end of the ma- 
chine into the drying cabinets, it may feed directly or it may pass over 
a weighted feed elevator. The weighted elevator takes care of the 
slack, if any, between the drying cabinet and the wet end of the ma- 
chine, and permits operating either the wet end or the dry end inde- 
pendently of the other. This permits stopping either end of the 
machine for a short time to take care of troubles that might be caused 
by mechanical defects or film breakage. 

Sometimes the wet end of the machine is in a separate room from 
the dry end, or both the wet and the dry ends may be in the same 
room. The first arrangement permits drying in a lighted room and 
developing in a darkroom, whereas the second requires special illumi- 
nation of the wet and the dry ends of the machine. Invariably Wrat- 
ten OA Safelights are used for darkroom illumination of the positive 
developing machines. Wratten Series /// (green) Safelights are used 
to illuminate only the dry ends of the negative developing machines 
because the new fast negative films must be developed in darkness 
to avoid any slight possiblity of "light fog." The choice of arrange- 
ment is dependent upon the desires of the laboratory as to the ease of 
manipulating the film in the various types of machines. 

The drying sections of the machines usually have from five to 
twenty cabinets, the number depending upon the footage speed of 
the machine, the volume, velocity, and conditioning of the air; and 
the type of roller-rack mounting for carrying the film (Fig. 18). The 
racks in the drying cabinet may be perpendicular or parallel to the 
axis of the machine. Usually when perpendicular to the axis there 
are two racks in each cabinet. Like the racks in the wet end of the 
machine, these racks may carry from eight to twelve rollers per rack, 
making eight to twelve loops of film, and they are generally from six 
to seven feet in height so that a man of normal stature can readily 
reach any section of a loop. 

In the majority of drying sections the flow of air is counter to the 
direction of travel of the film, entering at the bottom of the cabinet 
and passing out at the top into the top of the preceding cabinet, 
and so on to the head end of the section. Most laboratories now 
dry with conditioned and filtered air. There are some, however, 
that do not have true air-conditioning, in terms of constant tempera- 
ture and humidity control, because the range of dry-bulb tempera- 
ture and humidity is dependent to some extent upon atmos- 
pheric conditions. Other laboratories have air-conditioning systems 



374 REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE [j. s. M. p. E 




April, 1936] REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE 375 

permitting accurate control over a wide range of wet- and dry-bulb 
temperatures in addition to allowing special air-conditioning for any 
complete drying section. 

The weight of water remaining in the film after the film has been 
efficiently squeegeed prior to entering the drying cabinets is a major 
factor in determining the volume and velocity of air necessary for 
thorough drying of the film at predetermined wet- and dry-bulb 
temperatures in a given type of drying section. On the average, 
positive film contains 1.35 grams or 20 grains and negative film con- 
tains 2.0 grams or 30 grains of water per foot of film after squeegeeing 
(these figures are from data supplied by a national air-conditioning 
concern). Figures determined by a well known laboratory indicate 
that the water content of positive film after squeegeeing is about 0.90 
gram or 13 grains per foot. Because the type of construction of dry- 
ing sections varies considerably for different machines and considering 
also the factors mentioned above, it is impractical to give concrete 
figures for the volume and velocity of air. Data can be supplied only 
for specific conditions. 

As the film comes from the drying cabinets it is taken up on a 
rewind reel mounted upon the last drying cabinet or on a special 
rewind table next to the last drying cabinet. As each machine splice 
passes from the last drying cabinet it is detected by an automatic 
trip, or noted by the inspector. The film is then broken and another 
reel started on the take-up. 

The materials used in the construction of continuous motion pic- 
ture processing machines were described in the JOURNAL by Crabtree, 
Matthews, and Ross. 5 The recommended materials mentioned in 
their paper have been used successfully in various laboratory applica- 
tions. 

(#) Development 

Developer formulas vary greatly from laboratory to laboratory for 
the development of regular production negative, release prints, 
master positives, duplicate negatives, titles, and special effects. In 
general, developer formulas for the development of release prints 
made on positive film are either the standard Eastman D-16 formula 
or a modification of this formula, and the replenisher supply may be 
of the same formula or a modification of the selected formula that the 
laboratory technicians believe necessary to give results. Some labora- 
tories derive formulas for the development of positive that bear little 



376 REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE [j. s. M. p. E. 

or no relation to the D-16 formula but which still fall within the class 
of high-contrast developers. Usually laboratories develop all positive 
types of films in the positive developing system, as it is economically 
impracticable to maintain machines for slightly varied types of posi- 
tive materials used for different purposes. 

Practically all negative developers are some modification of the 
Eastman D-76 borax developer or the Eastman buffered borax de- 
veloper D-76d. Only in a few instances are these developer formulas 
used in their original concentrations because modifications in concen- 
tration are necessary to fulfill the particular conditions in the various 
laboratories. The properties of the above-mentioned developers and 
some modifications thereof were described in detail by Carlton and 
Crabtree. 6 The negative replenisher supply varies in its method of 
handling, as does the positive replenisher, in accordance with the de- 
ductions of the laboratory technicians. In some laboratories the 
variable-density sound-track negative and the duplicating negative 
are developed in the same bath as production negative; but most 
laboratories develop the duplicating negative and the production 
negative in the same bath, and maintain a separate machine with a 
suitably tested formula for the development of variable-density sound- 
track negative. This is often necessary because of the extremely low 
gamma that the sound-track departments request for variable - 
density sound-track exposed on sound recording films, which are 
essentially high-gamma or high-contrast materials. Variable -width 
sound-track negative (sometimes a special bath is used) and titles are 
generally developed in the positive bath, and as the attainment of 
special effects is an art within itself and varies greatly from laboratory 
to laboratory, the scope of this report does not permit giving these 
methods in detail. Listed in Tables I, II, and III are several types of 
positive, negative, and sound-track developers used in various com- 
mercial laboratories. 

Practically all laboratories have chemical mixing rooms that are 
either in the basement or upon the top floor of the laboratory build- 
ing, definitely removed from the printing and developing rooms in 
order to avoid difficulties from chemical dust spots. In these mixing 
rooms all solutions are mixed in accordance with standard procedures 
described in the literature. 7 The quantity of solution mixed depends 
upon the needs of the laboratory for maintaining sufficient solution 
for operating for one day to one week. The solutions are mixed in 
quantities of five hundred to twenty-five hundred gallons, and are 



April, 1936] REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE 377 



TABLE I 
Developer Formulas Positive Types 

Laboratory A 
Positive Print and Master Positive Developer, Modified Eastman D-16 Formula 



Chemical Constituents 

Elon 

Sodium Sulfite (desiccated) 

Hydroquinone 

Sodium Carbonate 

(desiccated) 
Potassium Bromide 
Water to make 



Original Mix 
Metric Avoirdupois 



. 30 gram 

40 . 00 grams 

6.00 grams 

18.75 grams 
0.90 gram 
1 . 00 liter 



1 Ib. 8 ozs. 
200 Ibs. 
30 Ibs. 

93 Ibs. 12 ozs. 
4 Ibs. 8 ozs. 
600 gallons 



Replenisher 
Metric Avoirdupois 

. 3 gram 1 Ib. 8 ozs. 

40. 00 grams 200 Ibs. 
6 . 00 grams 32 Ibs. 

30. 00 grams 160 Ibs. 

1 . liter 600 gallons 



Laboratory B 

Positive Print and Master Positive Developer, Eastman D-16 Formula 



Chemical Constituents 

Elon 

Sodium Sulfite (desiccated) 

Hydroquinone 

Sodium Carbonate 

(desiccated) 
Potassium Bromide 
Citric Acid 

Potassium Metabisulfite 
Water to make 



Original Mix Replenisher 

Metric Avoirdupois Metric Avoirdupois 

0.60 gram 3 Ibs. 

79 . 20 grams 396 Ibs. 
12.00 grams 60 Ibs. 



. 30 gram 


1 Ib. 8 ozs. 


40 . 00 grams 


200 Ibs. 


6 . 00 grams 


30 Ibs. 


18.75 grams 


93 Ibs. 12 ozs. 


0.90 gram 


4 Ibs. 8 ozs. 


0.70 gram 


3 Ibs. 8 ozs. 


1 . 50 grams 


7 Ibs. 8 ozs. 


1 . 00 liter 


600 gallons 



19 . 20 grams 96 Ibs. 



1 . 00 liter 600 gallons 



Laboratory C 

Positive Print and Master Positive Developer 



Chemical Constituents 

Elon 
Sodium 
Hydroquinone 
Sodium Carbonate 

(desiccated) 
Potassium Bromide 
Water to make 



Original Mix 
Metric Avoirdupois 

4 . 80 grams 24 Ibs. 
60.0 grams 300 Ibs. 
14. 40 grams 72 Ibs. 

2 1.60 grams 108 Ibs. 
. 80 gram 4 Ibs. 

1 . 00 liter 600 gallons 



Replenisher 
Metric Avoirdupois 

4 . 80 grams 24 Ibs. 
60. 00 grams 300 Ibs. 
14 . 40 grams 72 Ibs. 



2 1.60 grams 108 Ibs. 
. 00 gram Ib. 

1.00 liter 600 gallons 



Laboratory D 

Positive Print, Master Positive, and Variable-Width Sound-Track Developer 

Replenisher 



Chemical Constituents 

Elon 

Sodium Sulfite (desiccated) 
I Hydroquinone 
j Sodium Carbonate 
[ (desiccated) 
| Potassium Bromide 
j Phenosafranine 
i Water to make 



Original Mix 
Metric Avoirdupois 

. 625 gram 3 Ibs. 2 ozs. 

35.000 grams 175 Ibs. oz. 

3 . 500 grams 17 Ibs. 8 ozs. 

9 . 000 grams 45 Ibs. oz. 
0.625 gram 3 Ibs. 2 ozs. 
0.0034 gram 119 grains 
1.000 liter 600 gallons 



Same as original mix 



378 REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE [J. s. M. p. E 

Laboratory E 

Positive Print and Master Positive Developer 

Replenisher 



Chemical Constituents 

Elon 

Sodium Sulfite (desiccated) 

Hydroquinone 

Sodium Carbonate 

(desiccated) 
Potassium Bromide 
Sodium Hydroxide 
Water to make 



Chemical Constituents 

Elon 

Sodium Sulfite (desiccated) 

Hydroquinone 

Sodium Carbonate 

(desiccated) 

Potassium Metabisulfite 
Citric Acid 
Potassium Bromide 
Water to make 



Original Mix 
Metric Avoirdupois 





0.728 gram 3 Ibs. 10 ozs. 




ated) 


21 . 740 grams 108 Ibs. 11 ozs. 






3. 640 grams 18 Ibs. 3 ozs. 








Same as original mix, 




13.043 grams 65 Ibs. 4 ozs. 


less potassium bromide 




0.544 gram 2 Ibs. 12 ozs. 






0. 109 gram 9 ozs. 






1 . 00 liter 600 gallons 




Laboratory F 


Positive Print and Master Positive Developer 


Original Mix Replenisher 


aents Metric Avoirdupois 




0.30 gram 1 Ib. 8 ozs. 




ated) 


40.00 grams 200 Ibs. 






6.00 grams 30 Ibs. 








Same as original mix, less 




32.00 grams 160 Ibs. 


potassium bromide 


te 


1 . 50 grams 7 Ibs. 8 ozs. 






0.70 gram 3 Ibs. 8 ozs. 






0.90 gram 4 Ibs. 8 ozs. 






1 . 00 liter 600 gallons 





TABLE II 

Developer Formulas Picture Negative Types 
Laboratory A 

Picture Negative, Duplicating Negative, and Variable-Density Sound-Track Negativ 

Developer 

Eastman D-76 d Buffered Borax Developer 

Replenisher 



Chemical Constituents 

Elon 

Sodium Sulfite (desiccated) 

Hydroquinone 

Borax 

Boric Acid 

Water to make 



Original Mix 
Metric Avoirdupois 



2.75 grams 
100 . 00 grams 
2.75 grams 
8.00 grams 
8.00 grams 
1 . 00 liter 



13 Ibs. 12 ozs. 
500 Ibs. 

13 Ibs. 12 ozs. 

40 Ibs. 

40 Ibs. 
600 gallons 



Same as original mix 



Laboratory B 

Picture Negative and Duplicating Negative Developer 

Original Mix Replenisher 



Chemical Constituents 

Elon 

Sodium Sulfite (desiccated) 

Hydroquinone 

Borax 

Potassium Bromide 

Water to make 



Metric 



Avoirdupois 



Metric Avoirdupois 



1 


35 


grams 


6 Ibs. 


12 ozs. 


2 


70 


grams 


13 


Ibs. 


8 OZ5 


100 


00 


grams 


500 Ibs. 






240 


00 


grams 


1200 Ibs. 


1 


35 


grams 


6 Ibs. 


12 


ozs. 


2 


70 


grams 


13 


Ibs. 


8 OZ5 


1 


00 


gram 


5 Ibs. 






1 


95 


grams 


9 


Ibs. 


12 ozs 





50 


gram 


2 Ibs. 


















1 


00 


liter 


600 gallons 


1 


00 


liter 


600 


gallons 



April, 1936] 



REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE 379 



Laboratory C 

Picture Negative, Duplicate Negative, and Variable-Density Sound-Track Negative 

Developer 

Replenisher 



Chemical Constituents 

Elon 

Sodium Sulfite (desiccated) 

Hydroquinone 

Borax 

Boric Acid 

Potassium Bromide 

Water to make 



Original Mix 
Metric Avoirdupois 



2 . 00 grams 


10 Ibs. 


100.00 grams 


500 Ibs. 


5.00 grams 


25 Ibs. 


8.00 grams 


40 Ibs. 


8.00 grams 


40 Ibs. 


0.05 gram 


4 ozs. 


1 . 00 liter 


600 gallons 



Same as original mix, less 
potassium bromide 



Laboratory D 



Picture Negative, Duplicate Negative, and Variable-Density Sound-Track Negative 

Developer 

Original Mix Replenisher 

Chemical Constituents Metric Avoirdupois 

Elon 

Sodium Sulfite (desiccated) 

Hydroquinone 0.75 gram 3 Ibs. 12 ozs. Same as original mix 

Borax 

Potassium Metabisulfite 

Water to make 



1 . 00 gram 



90.00 grams 450 Ibs. 

3 Ibs. 12 ozs. 
5 Ibs. 

2 Ibs. 8 ozs. 
600 gallons 



0.75 gram 
1 . 00 gram 
0.50 gram 
1 . 00 liter 



Laboratory E 



Picture Negative, Duplicate Negative, and Variable-Density Sound-Track Negative 

Developer 

Original Mix Replenisher 

Chemical Constituents Metric Avoirdupois 



Elon 

Sodium Sulfite (desiccated) 

Hydroquinone 

Borax 

Water to make 



1 . 00 gram 
65 . 00 grams 
2 . 50 grams 
1 . 00 gram 
1 . 00 liter 



5 Ibs. 
325 Ibs. 
12 Ibs. 8 ozs. 

5 Ibs. 
600 gallons 



Same as original mix 



Laboratory F 



Picture Negative, Duplicate Negative, and Variable-Density Sound-Track Negative 

Developer 



Chemical Constituents 

Elon 

Sodium Sulfite (desiccated) 

Hydroquinone 

Borax 

Water to make 



Original Mix Replenisher 

Metric Avoirdupois 



1 . 00 gram 
100.00 grams 
1 . 00 gram 
1 . 00 gram 
1 . 00 liter 



5 Ibs. 
500 Ibs. 

5 Ibs. 

5 Ibs. 
600 gallons 



Same as original mix 



380 REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE [J. S. M. p. E. 



TABLE III 

Developer Formulas Sound-Track Negative Types 
Laboratory B 

Variable- Density Sound-Track Negative Developer in Use for Regular Production 



Original Mix 

Chemical Constituents Metric Avoirdupois 

Elon 2. 80 grams 14 Ibs. 

Sodium Sulfite (desiccated) 100.0 grams 500 Ibs. 

Hydroquinone 6 . 40 grams 32 Ibs. 

Borax 4. 20 grams 21 Ibs. 

Boric Acid 14. 70 grams 73 Ibs. 8 ozs. 

Water to make 1 . 00 liter 600 gallons 



Replenisher 



Same as original mix 



Chemical Constituents 

Elon 

Sodium Sulfite (desiccated) 

Hydroquinone 

Borax 

Boric Acid 

Water to make 



Laboratory D 

Special Variable-Density Sound-Track Negative Developer 

Replenisher 



Original Mix 
Metric Avoirdupois 



1 . gram 
30.0 grams 
5 . grams 
2.0 grams 
8 . grams 
1 . liter 



5 Ibs. 
150 Ibs. 

25 Ibs. 

10 Ibs. 

40 Ibs. 
600 gallons 



Same as original mix 



agitated by mechanical stirring devices commonly used for chemical 
mixing. Usually the solution from the reserve tank is allowed to 
drip by gravity into the surge tank of the circulating system of the 
machine. The volume of flow to the surge tank may be manually 
controlled or controlled by a flow-meter in accordance with the quant- 
ity necessary to maintain constant density and gamma for a prede- 
termined developing time. In some laboratories the replenisher sup- 
ply is periodically added manually to the surge tanks. From the surge 
tank the developing solution flows either by gravity through a heat 
interchanger or it may be pumped directly to the machines. Circu- 
lating the developer in the machine tanks to the surge tanks and back 
may be done by pumping and gravity flow or vice versa, depending 
upon whether the surge tank is located above or below the developing 
machines. Sometimes the replenisher supply of developer is allowed 
to flow at a predetermined rate directly into the machine at the point 
at which the film enters. The circulating system generally maintains 
the temperature constant within =*=0.5 to ==1 F. Developers are 
maintained at temperatures of 65 to 70 F. 

(a) Negative Control. Methods of sensitometric control in process- 
ing motion picture film were ably described by Huse in 1933. 8 In 
this paper descriptions are given of the methods of using the Eastman 



April, 1936] 



REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE 381 



TABLE IV 

Fixing and Hardening Baths 

Laboratory A 
Two-Solution Fixing and Hardening Baths for Negative and Positive Films 



Chemical Constituents 

Hypo 

Sodium Bisulfite 
Potassium Aluminum Alum 
Water to make 



Fixing Bath 
Metric Avoirdupois 



518.82 grams 
5.23 grams 



2594 Ibs. 2 ozs. 
28 Ibs. 



1 . 00 liter 600 gallons 



Hardening Bath 
Metric Avoirdupois 



5.23 grams 26 Ibs. 2 ozs. 
5 .23 grams 26 Ibs. 2 ozs. 
1 . 00 liter 600 gallons 



Laboratory B 

Fixing and Hardening Bath for Negative and Positive Films 

Avoirdupois 



Chemical Constituents 

Hypo 

Potassium Aluminum Alum 
Sodium Sulfite (desiccated) 
Glacial Acetic Acid 
Water to make 



Metric 

190.00 grams 
3 . 00 grams 
3 . 00 grams 
7.00cc. 
1 . 00 liter 



950.00 Ibs. 

15.00 Ibs. 

15.00 Ibs. 
4A gallons 
600 gallons 



Laboratory C 

Fixing and Hardening Bath for Negative and Positive Films (Eastman F-2 Formula) 



Chemical Constituents 

Hypo 

Sodium Sulfite (desiccated) 

Acetic Acid (28%) 

Potassium Alum 

Water to make 



Metric 



Original 

Avoirdupois 



220.00 grams 
3 . grams 
18.00 cc. 
6.00 grams 
1 . 00 liter 



1100 Ibs. 
15 Ibs. 
10 1/2 gallons 
30 Ibs. 
600 gallons 



Replenisher 
Metric Avoirdupois 

Continuous supply of hypo 
and hardener under 
analytical chemical con- 
trol 



Laboratory D 

Fixing and Hardening Bath for Negative and Positive Films 

Original 



* 



Chemical Constituents 

Hypo 

Sodium Sulfite (desiccated) 

Acetic Acid 

Potassium Alum 

Water to make 



Metric 



Avoirdupois 



400. 00 grams 2000 Ibs. 

4 . 50 grams 22 Ibs. 8 ozs. 

27.00cc. 15/ gallons 

9 . 00 grams 45 Ibs. 

1 . 00 liter 600 gallons 



Replenisher 

Continuous supply of 
hardener to maintain 
acidity and uniform 
hardening 



Laboratory E 

Fixing and Hardening Bath for Negative and Positive Films (Eastman F-25 Formula) 



Chemical Constituents 

Sodium Thiosulfate (hypo) 
Sodium Sulfite (desiccated) 
Acetic Acid, glacial 
Boric Acid, crystals 
Potassium Alum 
Water to make 



Original 
Metric Avoirdupois 



300 . 00 grams 
5.00 grams 

lO.OOcc. 
5 . 00 cc. 

lO.OOcc. 
1 . 00 liter 



1500 Ibs. 
25 Ibs. 

6 gallons 
25 Ibs. 
50 Ibs. 
600 gallons 



Replenisher 

To maintain acidity (pH) and 
uniform hardening, acid and 
hardener are periodically 
added to the bath during its 
useful life 



382 REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE [j. s. M. P. E. 



Laboratory F 

Fixing and Hardening Bath for Negative and Positive Films 



Chemical Constituents 

Sodium Thiosulfate (hypo) 
Sodium Sulfite (desiccated) 
Acetic Acid, glacial 
Boric Acid, crystals 
Potassium Alum 
Water to make 



Original 
Metric Avoirdupois 



300. 00 grams 
5. 00 grams 

lO.OOcc. 
S.OOcc. 

lO.OOcc. 
1 . 00 liter 



1500 Ibs. 
25 Ibs. 

6 gallons 
25 Ibs. 
50 Ibs. 
600 gallons 



Replenisher 

To maintain acidity (/>H) and 
uniform hardening, acid and 
hardener are periodically 
added to the bath during its 
useful life 




(Courtesy of Motion Picture Equipment Co., Ltd.) 

FIG. 20. Artreeves developing machine, showing wet end on the right and dry 

end on the left. 



IIB sensitometer and the Eastman densitometer as well as explana- 
tions of the Hurter and Driffield system of determining the degree of 
development. Further details are given regarding the meaning and 
determination of gamma, speed, latitude, and fog values. For more 
detailed information reference is made to a work by Jones. 1 It there- 
fore does not seem necessary to discuss in detail in this report sensito- 
metric equipment and characteristics of emulsions and developers. 



April, 1936] REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE .'383 

An item of particular importance, however, which should be well 
understood in the practical application of sensitometry to the control 
of motion picture film is that a sensitometric strip made under the 
controlled conditions of time and intensity representing the exposure 
will give data only as to the degree of development obtained on the 
particular piece of film exposed. Hence, from a sensitometric strip 
made on negative motion picture film and developed in a negative 
bath the laboratory can obtain data that will show only to what 
definite gamma the negative has been developed ; but not information 
as to the contrast of the picture negative being developed with it, 
because contrast is a direct function of both the lighting contrast and 
the film gamma, whether on an outdoor scene or a studio take. The 
contrast in the negative is a function of the degree of development 
given the negative, but commercially it is more dependent upon bal- 
ance of lighting in the shadows and highlights when developed in a 
controlled developing system. The contrast of the positive, how- 
ever, can be altered considerably by changing the degree of develop- 
ment, which means decreasing or increasing the gamma of the positive. 
To convey a clear and concise picture of the control methods in use 
in the various laboratories, it is less confusing to treat the subjects 
individually for the control of negative, positive, sound-track, dupli- 
cate negative, and duplicate positive films. 

There are two different methods of controlling negative develop- 
ment, the choice between which seems to be about equal. One is the 
constant-time method of development, in which the developing 
solution is maintained at definite control gamma and density as 
shown by periodic sensitometric tests, and all original negatives are 
developed under these standardized conditions. The other method is 
termed the test-negative method, in which the cameraman furnishes 
to the laboratory a length of five to fifteen feet each of the various 
scenes, from which 2- or 3-ft. lengths are clipped and developed for a 
time that has been predetermined as normal for correct exposures. 
Following the development of these test- strips, some one (usually the 
one who supervises negative developing) in the laboratory visually 
examines the strips and determines the time of development which 
in his opinion would be best suited for each take or scene to produce 
the best results upon the screen. In a commercial laboratory, or a 
laboratory associated with a large production company that has 
several pictures in the making, the number of test-strips to be made 
in this manner is considerable; but, in general, all takes made by 



384 REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE [j. s. M. p. E. 

different cameramen can be developed for the time regarded as 
normal, whereas the few remaining scenes may vary one-half to 
several minutes from the normal time. Laboratories using either 
system feel that each system has its merits, and experience over a 
period of years has proved that both methods are productive of high- 
quality results. 

When a machine system is started with a new developer, the first 
problem involves determining what time of development for a con- 
stant footage speed, or what footage speed and time of development, 




(Courtesy of Burton Holmes Films, Inc.) 
FIG. 21. Continuous developing machine for limited footage output. 

will give the desired gamma for a correct exposure. It is general 
practice to develop a series of strips for slightly different footage 
speeds or for different times at a constant footage speed, and from 
the short time-gamma curve so obtained determine the time of de- 
velopment or the footage speed that will give the desired gamma. 
Once this is established, either system of negative development may 
be employed as standard for the machine operating under controlled 
conditions of agitation and temperature of the developing solution. If 
the laboratory is operating the negative machine on a constant control 
basis for gamma and density, then all negative is developed for the time 
or the footage speed that periodic sensitometric tests on the same film 
as the negative being developed indicate as the correct control gamma, 



April, 1936] REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE 385 

To maintain this constant gamma for a fixed time or footage speed 
of development, sensitometric strips are usually developed every 
half to one hour, from which data are obtained showing whether the 
degree of development is greater or less than the original test. The 
degree of development refers to the constancy of both gamma and 
density. If the degree of development is less than or greater than 
the predetermined constants, the replenisher supply is increased or 
decreased until the proper degree of development is approximated. 
It is naturally presupposed that the replenisher supply or "boost" 
developer is so balanced that gamma does not increase as density 
decreases, or conversely, because a change of such nature would 
necessitate changing the concentration of chemical constituents in the 
replenisher to maintain constant gamma and density. Knowledge 
that has been gained in the laboratories during the past few years 
has made it a rather simple procedure to determine the rate at which 
replenisher must be supplied to the developing solutions in the ma- 
chines to maintain the developer at the predetermined control gamma 
and density and thereby maintain a uniform degree of development. 
Depending upon the replenishing system (drip or manual addition) 
the uniformity of development can be maintained within close limits. 
Laboratories that utilize rack-and-tank methods have a system of 
sensitometric control similar to those described above, and by careful 
manipulative procedure good results are obtained. A survey of vari- 
ous laboratories indicates that at the present time (1935) the average 
gamma varies among laboratories from 0.60 to 0.75 and that in the 
majority of cases the control gamma is maintained within =*=0.03. 

(b) Positive Control. In developing regular positive film for re- 
lease prints, the procedure for sensitometric control of the develop- 
ing solutions is very similar to that described for negative film. It is 
of greater importance that a uniform gamma for the positive film 
be maintained on sound prints than it was when the positive film 
carried only the picture, because the majority of sound departments 
specify a definite positive control gamma in order that the sound- 
track negative gammas can be so maintained as to produce the best 
quality of sound from the print developed under specified conditions. 
In addition, the maintenance of a uniform degree of development 
in the positive developing system is of material assistance to the timer 
of the negative, as he then is able to ascertain visually with greater 
ease the printer point difference for various types of negative scenes. 

For sensitometrically controlling the positive machines, two or 



386 REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE [j. s. M. P. E. 

three sensitometered strips exposed on the positive film in use are 
developed every one-half to two hours in each developing machine 
of the system, depending upon the requisites of the laboratory. 
Incidentally, the standardization of a new positive developer in the 
positive machines is done in the same manner as was described 
for the standardization of a fresh negative k developer. The desired 
gamma with a given positive developer is obtained by varying the 
length of time of development by increasing or decreasing the footage 
speed of the machine or by lowering or raising the weighted elevator 
system on the racks in the developing tanks. After attaining the 
desired gamma by one of these methods, the rate of flow of the boost 
developer into the surge tank or into the developing machine at the 
point of entrance of the film is regulated in accordance with the 
footage of positive film passing through the machine. In the event 
that any general increasing or decreasing trend in the gamma or 
density is shown by consecutive tests, slight alterations are made 
either in the time of development or by slightly increasing or decreas- 
ing the rate of flow of replenisher. The kind of change to be made is 
usually recommended by the foreman of the developing room. The 
procedure described above presupposes that the replenisher is so 
balanced that gamma does not increase as density decreases, or con- 
versely, because a change of this order would necessitate changing 
the concentration of the constituents of the replenisher so that gamma 
and density could be maintained constant for the predetermined 
rate of replenishment. 

Laboratories vary greatly in their ability to maintain constant 
gamma and density, some endeavoring to control the machine within 
0.05 for gamma and Y 2 Bell & Howell printer point, which is 
equivalent to 5 per cent in terms of log at a density of unity. 
This assumes that a Bell & Howell point is equivalent to 0.05 log E, 
although some laboratories have modified their printer scales to 
conform to changes as small as 0.025 log E per step. The average 
laboratory, however, endeavors to maintain a control gamma within 
0.10, and for density i/ 2 to 1 Bell & Howell printer point. A 
number of laboratories, due to low production schedules and other 
attendant difficulties, do not hold their controls closer than 1 Bell & 
Howell printer point. Positive gammas at present vary, on the 
average, from 1.9 to 2.3, although some few instances are known in 
which release prints run as high as 2.4 to 2.5. Often a low or high 
gamma of the print is purposely maintained because negative from 



April, 1936] REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE ,'iS7 

which the print is made has a gamma well below or well above the 
normal value. Thus the laboratory endeavors in some cases to 
lower or increase the screen contrast by lowering or increasing the 
positive gamma of the print made from such a negative. 

(c) Sound-Track Control. A detailed discussion of the sensi to- 
metric control of sound-track development would be exceedingly 
voluminous, but essentially the control methods are similar to those 
described for positive and negative film. The two types of sound 
recording methods most widely used are the RCA Photophone 
system, which makes use of the variable -width method of recording 
the sound-track, and the Western Electric System, which makes use 
of the variable -density method. The laboratory control methods for 
the two systems will be treated separately, as they differ considerably. 

Unless otherwise specified by the customer or the production de- 
partment at a studio, the laboratory develops and prints variable- 
width recorded sound-track in accordance with the sensitometric 
recommendations submitted to their licensees by the RCA Manu- 
facturing Company or any other concern manufacturing sound 
recording equipment that records a variable- width track. 

The engineers of the RCA Manufacturing Company specify at 
present that in recording with sound recording film in RCA Photo- 
phone High-Fidelity equipment the sound-track density shall be 1 .40 
to 1.50 when the film is developed in a positive type of developer to a 
control gamma of 2.0 to 2.2. The sensitometric requirements for 
this specification stipulate that the laboratory determine the time of 
development of the film being used for the recording to give a gamma 
within the prescribed limits. It then becomes a simple problem to 
expose lamp-current tests in the recorder and develop them for this 
determined developing time, and then select from these tests the 
proper lamp current to expose the sound-track so that the specified 
density will be obtained for this development time. Most laboratories 
readily meet these specifications by developing variable-width track 
recorded in this manner in the regular positive bath. A few labora- 
tories apparently minimize their control problems by maintaining a 
separate machine for the development of this type of negative sound- 
track. The recommendation for the positive track is that the negative 
be so exposed in the printer that a density of 0.10 to 0.20 below the 
negative density be obtained when the positive print is developed 
to a control gamma of 2.0 to 2.2. As most laboratories maintain 



388 REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE [j. s. M. p. E. 

control gammas of 2.0 to 2.2 for their positive release print developers, 
this specification is readily met. As an illustration, the sound-track 
density of the print would be 1.2 to 1.3 if the negative sound-track 
density were 1.4 to 1.5. Solution control is maintained for negative 
and positive development during the processing of this type of film in 
the same manner as was previously described for the sensitometric 
solution control of the negative developer and the positive developer 
during release printing. It is the function of the laboratory to main- 
tain the control gammas of both the negative and the positive, and 
the exposure density value of the positive ; whereas it is the function 
of the recordist to maintain the negative exposure density of negative 
developed in the developer controlled for gamma and density. 

When sound is recorded with the RCA single-film system the com- 
bined sound-track and picture negative are developed to a gamma of 
0.55 to 0.65, and the sound-track is so exposed that the density ap- 
proximates 1.3. The print from this negative is so exposed in the 
printer that the sound-track density approximates 1.1 when the 
print is developed to a gamma of 2.0 to 2.2. The control system for 
processing and printing single-system variable-width track of this 
type is accomplished in a manner similar to the control for negative 
developing and regular positive release print systems. 

The Western Electric system of variable -density recording requires 
more detailed information for processing the variable-density sound 
records that utilize the straight-line portion of the H&D curve. 
The average laboratory develops the sound-track negative in a 
suitable developer to obtain a gamma of 0.35 to 0.40. Under these 
conditions the average unbiased, unmodulated negative density 
ranges from 0.50 to 0.60, this density being controlled by the re- 
cordist who adjusts his exposing lamp in accordance with the latitude 
of the film, which is determined by the points at which the toe and 
the shoulder break away from the straight-line portion of the char- 
acteristic log E curve. This negative is then so exposed in the printer 
that an unmodulated, unbiased print density of 0.60 to 0.75 will be 
obtained when the print is developed in the positive picture bath to 
a control gamma of 2.0 to 2.2. It is necessary that the low negative 
gamma be obtained to secure an over-all reproduction gamma 
characteristic approaching the ideal value of unity. This over-all 
gamma characteristic is determined by plotting projection density 
as a function of the logarithm of light- valve opening, which is theo- 
retically the same as the product of the positive and negative control 



April, 1936] REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE 389 

gamma multiplied by the projection factor. For ideal results either 
method should produce a value of unity. 

It is the custom of the Western Electric Company or its subsidiary, 
Electrical Research Products, Inc., to study the entire sensitometric 
control system from the light-valve (recorder) to the photocell (pro- 
jector) in any studio or laboratory before making recommendations 
for processing. The following recommendations regarding Western 
Electric track control are some general specifications of Electrical Re- 
search Products, Inc., in New York City and in Hollywood. 

The gamma value resulting from plotting a series of densities ob- 
tained by exposing the sound recording film at various light-valve 
openings as a function of the logarithm of the light-valve opening, 
is known as the light-valve gamma, L Vy. The gamma value obtained 
from the control strip exposed on the type IIB sensitometer and 
developed with the light-valve gamma strip is known as the negative 
control gamma, NCy. By printing the negative control strip at a 
predetermined step on the printer and developing this printed strip 
with the positive sound-track print, a gamma value is obtained which 
is referred to as the apparent printer gamma, APy. The positive 
control strip exposed on the type IL5 sensitometer developed with 
this apparent printer gamma strip is known as the positive control 
gamma, PCy. 

It is now apparent that the difference in gamma as determined by 
visual measurement of the diffuse densities and the quasi-specular 
measurement of the photocell should be determined to assign a cor- 
rection factor to the above values, as the positive sound-track being 
scanned during projection has its variation in density read quasi- 
specularly by the photocell. This factor has been determined for 
standardized projection conditions and found to be 1.30. 

The correct reproduction conditions as recommended by the engi- 
neers of Electrical Research Products, Inc., are determined in the 
following manner : 

Over-all gamma = LVy X APy X Projection factor (1) 

If LVy = a X NCy and (2) 

APy = b X PCy, then (3) 

Over-all gamma = NCy X PCy X a X b X Projection factor (4) 

As the factor a, which is the difference between the negative con- 
trol gamma and light- valve gamma, is found in practice to vary =*= 5 
per cent and the printer factor b varies equally in the opposite direction, 



390 REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE [j. s. M. p. E. 

factors a and b tend to cancel each other. 

After omitting these factors, equation 4 becomes 

Over-all gamma = NCy X PCy X Projection Factor (5) 
Substituting, 

1 = NCy X PCy X 1.30 or (6) 

NCy X PCy = 0.76 (7) 

According to equation 7, any combination of negative and positive 
control gammas that will produce a product approximating 0.76 
would be correct for straight -line recording. This, of course, is diffuse 
density gamma. 

The laboratories generally follow the specifications from the studio 
or the recordists as to the negative and positive gammas and un- 
biased, unmodulated average densities in accordance with these 
recommendations . 

With Western Electric single-system light-valve equipment in 
which the picture and negative sound-track are exposed on the same 
film, the negative sound-track is so exposed that an average un- 
modulated density of approximately 0.65 will be obtained when the 
negative is developed in the negative picture bath to a control gamma 
approximating 0.50. If this negative sound-track is not biased it 
may be re-recorded on sound recording film, and the exposure is made 
so that an unmodulated density of 0.60 to 0.70 is obtained when the 
film is developed to a control gamma of 0.45 to 0.50 in either a 
negative picture developer or a sound-track negative developer. 
Provided there is sufficient time prior to releasing the newsreels, a 
print is made from the negative for re -recording which permits 
balancing volume levels and minimizing distortion. Most single- 
system recording is done by News organizations and sometimes 
on distant locations. Formerly prints from news negative were 
printed to a much higher sound-track transmission than feature 
release prints so as to give greater volume in the theater, but by 
mutual agreement the News organizations have now requested that 
prints be made from these single-system negatives that have the 
the same volume output at a given fader step as do feature release 
prints, which means that these prints would have the same specifica- 
tions as have been previously described for regular release prints. 

(d) Master Positive and Duplicate Negative Control. It is custom- 
ary to make the master positive print on a special film known as du- 
plicating positive film and to make the duplicate negative on a special 



April, 1936] REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE 391 

film known as duplicating negative film. The duplicating positive 
film has an emulsion capable of giving very fine-grained images on full 
development. A lavender support serves for identification. Some 
manufacturers offer two grades of contrast in this film to suit the 
desires of the different laboratories. All duplicating positive is ap- 
proximately of the same speed as the regular positive film used in 
making release prints. Duplicating negative film usually has suf- 
ficient printer speed so that enough exposure can be obtained through 
the dense master positive with standard types of printer lamps. This 
speed, however, is approximately one-fourth to one-sixth that of the 
master positive or release print positive film. A yellow dye is in- 
variably incorporated in the emulsion of this film that absorbs the 
wavelengths to which the emulsion is most sensitive. This reduces 
irradiation or scattering of light, improves definition, and also tends 
to increase the latitude and lower the contrast of the emulsion. 

Precaution is invariably taken to clean the original negative after 
timing and before printing the master positive, and to clean the 
master positive after timing and before printing the duplicate nega- 
tive, because defects are cumulative. Dirt or defects of any kind 
that are not removed from the original negative or master positive 
show up in exaggerated form in the print from the duplicate negative. 
The printing may be done in a continuous or step contact printer 
or in an optical printer, depending upon which the technician in 
the laboratory deems the most suitable for obtaining the best dupli- 
cates. Often a special printer is selected and used for printing only 
master positives and duplicate negatives, because uniform illumi- 
nation and uniform contact at the printing aperture are of the utmost 
importance to obtain even density and good definition in the final 
print. 

For making the master positive the original negative is timed for 
the highlights, allowing the shadows to take care of themselves. 
This usually means that the master positive is printed two to four 
Bell & Howell printer points heavier, according to the scene, than a 
print on regular positive film from the same negative. When it is 
developed in the release print positive developer it has the appearance 
of a print that is too dense for projection purposes. The increase in 
density of the master positive above that of the release print varies 
slightly in different laboratories. The choice of the high- or low- 
contrast master positive material for printing is based upon the timer's 
judgment of the contrast of the original negative. The timer there- 



392 REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE [ j. s. M. p. E. 

fore decides whether the contrast of the original negative should be 
increased or reduced during the process of duplication to get the best 
quality master positive and duplicate negative. If the high- and low- 
contrast master positive films are developed for the same time as 
regular positive film in the positive bath, the high-contrast film will 
give a gamma equivalent to the regular positive used for release 
printing, whereas the low-contrast film will give a gamma approxi- 
mately 10 to 15 per cent lower. The master positive is generally 
developed in the positive bath for the same time as the regular posi- 
tive film, whether it be the low- or the high-contrast master positive 
material; but in some laboratories it is believed that slight changes 
in development improve the quality of the master positive, and conse- 
quently this practice is in vogue. Under these conditions the gamma 
of master positive varies from 1.7 to 1.9 for low-contrast master 
positive film and from 2.0 to 2.2 for high-contrast master positive film. 

As with the master positive, sufficient exposure is given to the 
duplicate negative to reproduce faithfully every tone and detail 
of the master positive. Consequently, there are no clear shadows 
in the duplicate negative even when clear shadows are present in 
the original negative. The duplicate negative has a tendency to 
appear somewhat gray, and does not have glassy clear shadows as 
does the original negative. It is quite general practice to develop 
the duplicate negative in the picture bath for the time that will pro- 
duce a gamma equivalent to the gamma of the original negative, 
which may be from 0.60 to 0.75, but to insure a minimum of graininess 
the duplicate negative is often developed to a gamma of 0.50 to 0.60. 
Many laboratories, in the process of duplication, level up the different 
densities of the various scenes while timing the master positive, so 
that the duplicate negative can be printed at a single light-setting for 
all scenes. 

The duplication of the sound-track is usually done in a manner 
similar to that described for picture duplication, with the exception 
that only a continuous type of printer can be used for the printing. 
The sound-track, however, is sometimes re-recorded in the customary 
manner upon sound recording film from a print of the original negative 
sound-track. Volume levelling and mixing may be done during the 
re -recording, provided a negative sound-track of better balance than 
the original can be obtained. The processing of the re-recorded 
sound-track to be used as a duplicate negative follows the control 
methods described for continuous machine development of sound- 



April, 1936] REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE 393 

track negative. To reduce the cost and the number of printing and 
developing operations, it is customary practice in several laboratories 
to print both the picture and the sound-track negative upon the 
same strip of master positive film, and then to level up (print) the 
different densities of the various picture scenes and the sound-track 
while timing the master positive for printing the duplicate negative 
upon the same strip of duplicating negative film, so that both the pic- 
ture and the sound-track can be printed in a single operation at one 
printer-light setting when making the positive prints. Several 
laboratories in Hollywood print many of their duplicates in optical 
printers that are constructed by utilizing a pair of Bell & Howell 
camera mechanisms. Due to increased contrast obtained by this 
means, low-contrast duplicating positive materials are used rather 
than high-contrast. 

(e) Specialized Control. The sensitometric control for direct or 
indirect titles, for trick photography, and for all kinds of special 
effects is a field in which the control methods generally depend upon 
both the particular studios and laboratories. It is common practice 
to use regular positive film for making all types of titles, and these 
are so exposed and developed in the positive picture bath to obtain 
a maximum of contrast. Some laboratories favor special baths for the 
development of titles, but the majority of laboratories develop 
titles for the same time and to the same gamma as the regular release 
prints. Animated cartoons are generally photographed on panchro- 
matic background negative, and these films are developed in the 
negative picture bath to give gammas approximating 0.60 to 0.75. 
The prints from animated cartoon negatives are made in the same 
manner as are feature release prints, utilizing similar control methods. 
The processing of trick shots and special effects is so dependent upon 
the effects desired that the control methods vary greatly from produc- 
tion to production, and consequently it seems inadvisable to attempt 
to detail the methods in this report. Furthermore, in many studios 
the Trick and Effects Departments have small laboratory units 
which they supervise in order to assure rigid control by the effects 
operators in attaining the desired results. 

(C) Fixation and Hardening 

The same type of fixing bath is commonly used for fixing and har- 
dening all kinds of motion picture film. Usually one of the fixing 
baths recommended by the film manufacturers is utilized, the favored 



394 REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE [J. s. M. p. E. 

two being the Eastman F-2 and F-25 formulas. These formulas and 
several others in use are listed in Table IV. Chrome alum fixing 
baths or bisulfite fixing baths are sometimes used because the labora- 
tory technicians believe that these formulas are more efficient and 
more economical. 

The fixation time varies with each type of continuous processing 
machine in accordance with the design and footage speed. The time 
of fixation is generally double the time that it takes milkiness of the 
film to disappear, and on various machines the actual time varies 
for positive film from four to six minutes and for negative from six to 
eight minutes. A few laboratories circulate the fixing bath so that 
the temperature (63 to 68F.) can be controlled. In others the fixing 
bath is circulated and replenished periodically with acid hardener. 
The rate of supply depends upon the results of titration tests to 
determine acidity and upon melting-point tests on the film to deter- 
mine the degree of hardening throughout the life of the bath. In the 
past few years a number of laboratories have installed electrolytic 
silver recovery systems of the type recommended by the Eastman 
Kodak Company which offer a means of controlling the uniformity of 
fixation and hardening, and regeneration of the bath, as well as an 
efficient means of recovering silver. In laboratories in which no 
circulation system is employed, or in which a circulation system is 
employed without connection to a silver recovery system, the bath 
is replaced as soon as fixing (clearing) the film requires two-thirds 
of the total fixing time. In some machines, in which two to four 
tanks are available for fixing, the bath in each tank is pumped 
consecutively into the preceding tank as it approaches exhaustion, 
and a new bath is put into the last tank. The exhausted baths are 
drained to a suitable tank in the basement or outside the laboratory, 
and the silver is precipitated as silver sulfide by one of the well known 
sodium sulfide methods. If the recovery tanks are located in the 
laboratory the exhausted bath is usually neutralized by sodium car- 
bonate or sodium hydroxide, so as to prevent the generation of hydro- 
gen sulfide gas which would cause fogging of the film. The details of 
the silver recovery methods have been fully described in the JOURNAL. 9 

(D) Wash Water 

The fresh water supply is usually obtained directly from the city 
mains except for one known exception in which it is obtained from 
artesian wells. Before being used for any purpose in the laboratory 



April, 1936] REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE 395 

the water is usually filtered through some type of commercial sand 
filter to remove suspended vegetable or animal matter that might be 
present. In some locations the fresh water supply contains a con- 
siderable quantity of soluble salts which have sufficient effect upon 
development and fixation to warrant softening the water used for 
making up the developers and fixing baths. The water may be so 
alkaline that it would be impossible to mix a borax type of negative 
developer unless the water were softened in some manner. Commer- 
cial filters using permutite or zeolite, because of their low cost of opera- 
tion, are in common use for the purpose. So far as is known, no 
laboratories have water so impure that it can not be used satisfac- 
torily for washing film, but as a precaution the water is generally 
filtered to remove vegetable and animal matter. The methods of 
purifying water for use in processing motion picture film are com- 
mercial problems, which can be well answered by data appearing in 
the literature or by firms specializing in water purification systems. 
The question of purity of water depends upon the nature of the source 
of the water and the methods by which the water is carried from the 
source to the point of use. It is obviously a special problem for each 
laboratory, and often is readily solved by the city sanitary engineer 
or a consulting engineer. 

In most continuous machines the film is washed for fifteen to sixty 
seconds between development and fixation. The time of washing fol- 
lowing fixation varies for positive types of materials from seven to 
twelve minutes, and for negative types of materials from ten to six- 
teen minutes. It has been found economical in many instances to use 
the water from the final wash tank for the rinse between fixation and 
development. In addition to reducing the consumption of water, 
this water from the final wash is slightly acidified and therefore acts 
similarly to an acid stop bath. A number of machines have air 
squeegees following the rinse bath and following fixation. This 
prevents dilution and contamination of the fixing bath and avoids 
carrying over considerable quantities of high-silver-content fixing bath 
to the final wash water tanks and thus to waste. In laboratories 
employing electrolytic silver recovery systems or any systems for re- 
circulating the baths for the purpose of regeneration, for the reasons 
mentioned squeegeeing of some sort is invariably done prior to and 
succeeding fixation. 

Only a few laboratories control the temperature of the wash water 
systems of their continuous developing machines. The temperature is 



396 REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE [j. s. M. p. E. 

sometimes roughly controlled by passing the water returning from the 
interchanger for the developing solution to an interchanger in the 
water supply line. Usually the temperature of the water in a system 
of this type will vary from 55 to 65F. In laboratories that employ 
no system of cooling, the temperature will vary from 50 to 75F., 
and occasionally rises to 80F. 

(E) Drying Conditions 

In all continuous machines the film is squeegeed immediately 
before entering the drying cabinet or just previously to its entering 
the elevator system preceding the drying cabinet. Squeegeeing 
by blowing air at a uniform pressure at an angle of approximately 
30 degrees to the film surface from a specially designed wedge slit 
is favored for removing excess water from the emulsion and support 
side. In a few machines chamois-covered rollers take the place of 
air squeegees and act in the manner of ordinary wringers. These 
procedures prevent water-marks which would otherwise form on 
the film during drying, and materially reduce the quantity of water 
that would have to evaporate from the film during the drying process. 

The types of air-conditioning systems for drying film, the methods 
of circulating the air, and the velocity of the air, have been previously 
described in connection with the design and construction of continu- 
ous processing machines. The range of control of the wet- and dry- 
bulb temperatures varies considerably in the different laboratories, 
because the requisite conditions for drying the film depend upon the 
footage speed of the machine, the volume and velocity of the air, the 
number of cabinets in the drying section, and the type of roller- 
rack mounting in each cabinet. Dry-bulb temperatures range from 
75 to about 120F., with humidity ranges of 25 to 60 per cent. Most 
laboratories, however, endeavor to maintain a dry-bulb temperature 
range of 75 to 85F., and a wet-bulb temperature that will produce a 
relative humidity of 35 to 45 per cent. These temperatures and 
humidities are for processing both positive and negative materials. 

It is common practice to develop negative and positive materials 
in continuous developing machines of the same type. The negative 
machine, however, is driven at a lower footage speed, to obtain a longer 
developing time and fewer hazards for the film, and generally the 
drying end of the negative machine has a larger number of 
sections than the positive machine, as the negative type film 
requires longer drying time, All types of positive film developed 



April, 1936] REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE 397 

in positive machines are dried for times varying from fourteen to 
twenty-two minutes and the negative types from eighteen to thirty- 
two minutes. 

(F) Film Treatment 

It is universal practice to lubricate all prints or treat them for 
preservation, or both, before shipping them from the laboratory to 
the exchange. The majority of release prints are lubricated only by 
waxing the edges with an Eastman edge-waxer or some such suitable 
device. A number of laboratory technicians, however, favor both 
lubrication and preservation, in which case the complete emulsion 
area is treated in some manner in a special machine. Treating the 
complete emulsion area tends to minimize scratches and abrasions, 
conditions the flexibility of the film, and also lubricates the surface. 

To reduce the handling cost and to increase the speed of production, 
an edge-waxing device or a solution preserving device is often at- 
tached to the end of the last drying cabinet (Fig. 16) so that each 
print is automatically treated after being dried or during the final 
drying step prior to passing to the wind-up reel. The edge- waxing 
device attached to the drying cabinet is similar in design to the 
Eastman machine in that a solution of wax or oil in carbon tetra- 
chloride is applied by means of two steel disks 0.1 inch thick which 
partially dip into a reservoir of the solution while the film is led over 
the disks emulsion side down. The disks track along the perforation 
webbing of the film. The preserving and lubricating solution is 
applied by means of a felt-covered steel roller, the width of which is 
equal to the width of the film, and which partially dips into a reservoir 
containing the solution while the film is led emulsion side down over 
the roller. The roller travels in the same direction as the film, at a 
linear speed considerably less than that of the film, whence the con- 
tact of the emulsion with the felt upon the roller has a partial squee- 
geeing effect so that a maximum quantity of the solution may be 
applied to the emulsion without running over the perforation edges 
and the edges of the film. Either of these devices may be used as 
separately driven equipment for applying either solution while the 
film is led over the rollers at a speed of approximately 180 feet a 
minute. Other methods are sometimes used that are regarded more 
suitable, such as placing ten to twenty 1000-ft. rolls of prints in air- 
tight autoclaves that can be evacuated. Following evacuation a 
solution containing formaldehyde, an essential oil, and some other 



398 REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE [j. s. M. p. E. 

ingredients is drawn into the autoclave in an atomized condition for 
a time of one to two minutes and then the rolls are removed. This 
treatment is considered to have a lubricating and preserving action 
on the film. 

VII. METHODS OF INSPECTION 

Essentially, only two general inspections of film are made, and these 
apply either to the negatives when received at the laboratory for 
printing or prior to printing after development, and to the finished 
prints prior to shipment to the theater or to the exchange. The in- 
spection of negatives and prints will be treated separately, as each 
requires specialized methods for different purposes. 

The present system of controlled development of the high-speed 
negative materials without safelight illumination prevents inspection 
of the exposed negative material prior to development, and provided 
that no trouble has been encountered when exposing the negative in 
the camera there is no reason for inspection by the laboratory tech- 
nicians. After the negative has been developed the emulsion and 
support sides are carefully examined for dirt, scratches, abrasions, 
spots occurring during development or fixation, moisture marks, etc. 
If any spots classified as removable appear, the film is cleaned with 
purified carbon tetrachloride or some similar solution before printing. 
Should there be scratches upon the emulsion side, an attempt may be 
made to remove them by reprocessing the film, or the film may be 
sent to one of the firms employing rejuvenation processes for removing 
or materially reducing the scratches. Usually, however, when such 
defects occur, the scenes having the deep scratches or abrasions, upon 
either the emulsion or the base side, are usually retaken. Fine 
scratches in the base of the film may be removed by polishing, which 
is done either by spooling the film upon a large drum, emulsion side in, 
and polishing the base manually with a fine muslin material dampened 
with a solution of ethyl alcohol (ethyl alcohol denatured with methyl 
alcohol, Government Denaturing Formula 3 A) and ammonia, or it 
may be polished by one of the various types of commercial polishing 
machines using a solution of this type. 

Before printing the negative, whether it be a negative developed 
in the laboratory or received at the laboratory, a careful inspection 
is made and it is cleaned and polished so that it will be as free as 
possible from all the above-mentioned defects. It is universal prac- 
tice to clean the negative after it has been timed for release printing, 



April, 1936] REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE 399 

and to clean it during release printing after every fifth to tenth printing. 
The cleaning may be done by hand or in a semi-automatic continuous 
cleaning machine. The choice of the method of cleaning usually 
depends upon the production problems of the laboratory; however, 
manual cleaning is generally favored. 

The inspection of release prints prior to shipping them to the 
theaters or exchanges is not as exactingly done as is the inspection of 
negative materials prior to printing. In some laboratories every 
print is projection-inspected before shipment, as to sound and picture 
quality and for the defects mentioned above. As a result of the im- 
provements that have been made in the past few years in laboratory 
control and methods of manipulation, many laboratories have found 
it quite satisfactory to inspect by projection only the photographic 
quality and the presence of defects in the picture, and to inspect 
audibly every seventh to tenth print to evaluate the sound quality. 
Sometimes only the fifth to the tenth print is projection-inspected 
for sound and picture quality during release printing. 

VIII. GENERAL AIR-CONDITIONING 

It is rarely that a laboratory is completely air-conditioned, perhaps 
because of the great cost involved. In the past few years air-con- 
ditioning firms have found ways and means for making the general 
air-conditioning of a building much less expensive, and it is believed, 
therefore, that within a reasonable time more laboratories will have 
their buildings completely air-conditioned. 

In laboratories that are completely air-conditioned, the system 
has been designed to afford the various wet- and dry-bulb tempera- 
tures and humidities in accordance with the requirements of the 
various parts of the plant. Air-conditioning of the printing rooms 
and the drying cabinets has been discussed previously under the head- 
ings of Printing and Processing. It is customary in the other rooms of 
the laboratory to maintain a relative humidity of 35 to 40 per cent 
with a dry-bulb temperature of 68 to 72 F., which represents a 
comfortable atmosphere in which to work. 

The vaults used for storing valuable motion picture film, whether 
negative or prints, are usually not air-conditioned but vented with 
a suitable supply of fresh air. Furthermore, air-conditioning them 
would be individual problems in most cases because the vaults are 
generally located in a building separate from the laboratory. 



400 REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE [j. s. M. P. E. 

LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE 

D. E. HYNDMAN, Chairman 

H. W. MOYSE, Vice- Chair man 

J. CRABTREE C. L. LOOTENS 

R. M. EVANS R. F. MITCHELL 

E. HUSE J. M. NICKOLAUS 

T. M. INGMAN W. A. SCHMIDT 

M. S. LESHING J. H. SPRAY 

REFERENCES 

1 JONES, L. A.: "Photographic Sensitometry," /. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., Part 
I, XVII (Oct., 1931), No. 4, p. 491; Part II, XVII (Nov., 1931), No. 5, p. 695; 
Part III, XVIII (Jan.. 1932), No. 1, p. 54; Part IV, XVIII (March, 1932), No. 3, 
p. 324. 

2 HOWELL, A. S., STECHBART, B. E., AND MITCHELL, R. F.: "The Bell & Howell 
Fully Automatic Sound Picture Production Printer," /. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., 
XIX (Oct., 1932), No. 4, p. 305. 

HOWELL, A. S., AND MITCHELL, R. F.: "Recent Improvements in the Bell & 
Howell Fully Automatic Printer," J. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., XXII (Feb., 1934), 
No. 2, p. 115. 

3 CRABTREE, J. I.: "The Making of Motion Picture Titles," Trans. Soc. Mot. 
Pict. Eng., VIII (1924), No. 18, p. 223. 

4 CRABTREE, J. I., AND IVES, C. E.: "Improvements in Motion Picture Labo- 
ratory Apparatus," Trans. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., VIII (1924), No. 18, p. 161. 

5 CRABTREE, J. I., MATTHEWS, G. E., AND Ross, J. F.: "Materials for the 
Construction of Motion Picture Processing Apparatus," /. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., 
XVI (March, 1931), No. 3, p. 330. 

6 CARLTON, H. C., AND CRABTREE, J. I.: "Some Properties of Fine-Grain De- 
velopers for Motion Picture Film," Trans. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., XIII (1929), 
No. 38, p. 406. 

7 "Elementary Photographic Chemistry," Eastman Kodak Co. (Rochester, 
N.Y.). 

8 HUSE, E.: "Sensitometric Control in the Processing of Motion Picture 
Film in Hollywood," /. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., XXI (July, 1933), No. 1, p. 54. 

9 HICKMAN, K.: "Automatic Silver Recovery Control," /. Soc. Mot. Pict. 
Eng., XVII (Oct., 1931), No. 4, p. 591. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

(All references given below are to the Transactions or JOURNAL of the Society of 
Motion Picture Engineers, unless indicated otherwise. Dates prior to January, 
1930, refer to the Transactions, at which time the Transactions were discontinued 
and replaced by the JOURNAL.) 

LAYOUT OF A PROCESSING LABORATORY 

BRIEFER, N. M.: "Problems in Motion Picture Laboratories," VI (1922), No, 
15, p. 51. 



April, 1936] REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE 401 

ROTHACKER, W. R., AND ALLER, J. i "Problems of the Film Processing Labora- 
tory," VII (1923), No. 16, p. 120. 

LINDSAY, D. C.: "Air-Conditioning as Applied in Theaters and Film Labora- 
tories," XI (1927), No. 30, p. 334. 

SHEA, T. E.: "A Modern Laboratory for the Study of Sound Picture Prob- 
lems," XVI (March, 1931), No. 3, p. 277. 

CRABTREE, J. I., MATTHEWS, G. E., AND Ross, J. F.: "Materials for the 
Construction of Motion Picture Processing Apparatus," XVI (March, 1931), 
No. 3, p. 330. 

MANHEIMER, J. R. : "Some Aspects of the National Electrical Code as Applied 
to the Motion Picture Industry," XV (Aug., 1930), No. 2, p. 145. 

Report of the Sub-Committee on Laboratory Practice, XX (March, 1933), 
No. 3, p. 183. 

HISTORY OF RAW STOCK 

FOWLER, E. W., AND NEWELL, L. B.: "Storage and Handling of Motion Pic- 
ture Film," XVI (June, 1931), No. 6, p. 773. 

METHODS OF COMPARING EMULSIONS 

JONES, L. A.: "Photographic Sensitometry," Part I, XVII (Oct., 1931), No. 
4, p. 491; Part II, XVII (Nov., 1931), No. 5, p. 695; Part III, XVIII (Jan., 
1932), No. 1, p. 54; Part IV, XVIII (March, 1932), No. 3, p. 324. 

CAPSTAFF, J. G., AND GREEN, N. B.: "A Motion Picture Densitometer," 
VII (1923), No. 17, p. 154. 

CAPSTAFF, J. G., AND PURDY, R. A.: "A Compact Motion Picture Densi- 
tometer," XI (1927), No. 31, p. 607. 

CRABTREE, J. I., AND IVES, C. E.: "A Trial-and-Error Method of Preparing 
a Motion Picture Sensitometer Tablet," XI (1927), No. 32, p. 740. 

JONES, L. A.: "A Motion Picture Laboratory Sensitometer," XVII (Oct., 
1931), No. 4, p. 536. 

HUSE, E.: "Sensitometric Control in the Processing of Motion Picture Film 
in Hollywood," XXI (July, 1933), No. 1, p. 54. 

CHAMBERS, G. A., AND WRATTEN, I. D.: "The Eastman Type HB Sensitom- 
eter as a Control Instrument in the Processing of Motion Picture Film," XXI 
(Sept., 1933), No. 3, p. 218. 

EICH, L. F.: "A Physical Densitometer for Sound Processing Laboratories," 
XXIV (Feb., 1935), No. 2, p. 180. 

PRINTING 

VICTOR, A. F.: "The Continuous Reduction Printer," III (1919), No. 9, 
p. 34. 

DEPUE, O. B.: "A Daylight Optical Reduction Printer," X (1927), No. 28, 
p. 242. 

HITCHINS, A. B.: "Duplex Optical Printers," XI (1927), No. 32, p. 771. 

GREGORY, C. L.: "An Optical Printer for Trick Work," XII (1928), No. 34, 
p. 419. 

DEPUE, O. B.: "Machinery for Making Duplicate Negatives," XII (1928), 
No. 36, p. 1170. 



402 REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE [j. s. M. P. E. 

DEPUE, O. B.: "A Printer for Simultaneous Printing of Sound and Picture 
Negatives," XIII (1929), No. 37, p. 150. 

VAUGHN, W. S., AND TUTTLE, F.: "Curved Gates in Optical Printers," XIV 
(June, 1930), No. 6, p. 663. 

NORLING, J. A.: "Automatic Focusing Devices for Title and Cartoon Cam- 
eras," XII (1928), No. 36, p. 1088. 

STORY, W. E., JR. : "Actinic Measurements on the Exposing and Printing of 
Motion Picture Film," V (1921), No. 13, p. 106. 

JONES, L. A., AND CRABTREE, J. I.: "A New Sensitometer for the Determina- 
tion of Exposure in Positive Printing," VI (1922), No. 15, p. 89. 

JONES, L. A.: "Printing Exposure and Density in Motion Picture Positives," 
VI (1922), No. 15, p. 102. 

IVES, C. E., MILLER, A. J., AND CRABTREE, J. I.: "Improvements in Motion 
Picture Laboratory Apparatus," XVI (Jan., 1931), No. 1, p. 26. 

BUTTOLPH, L. J.: "Cooper-Hewitt Neon Lamps," XII (1928), No. 34, p. 557. 

HOWELL, A. S., STECHBART, B. E., AND MITCHELL, R. F. : "The Bell & Howell 
Fully Automatic Sound Picture Reduction Printer," XIX (Oct., 1932), No. 4, 
p. 305. 

CRABTREE, J. I., AND IVES, C. E.: "A Trial-and-Error Method of Preparing 
a Motion Picture Sensitometer Tablet," XI (1927), No. 32, p. 740. 

NORLING, J. A., AND LEVENTHAL, J. F.: "Some Developments in the Produc- 
tion of Animated Drawings," X (1926), No. 25, p. 58. 

NORLING, J. A.: "Automatic Focusing Device for Title and Cartoon Cam- 
eras," XII (1928), No. 36, p. 1088. 

COLLINS, M. E.: "RCA PB-141 Optical Reduction Printer." Presented at 
the Fall, 1935, Convention at Washington, D. C.; to be published in a forth- 
coming issue of the JOURNAL. 

DEPUE, O. B.: "A Machine for Printing Picture and Sound Simultaneously 
and Automatically," XVIII (May, 1932), No. 5, p. 643. 

WOOD, R. V.: "A Shrinkage Compensating Sound Printer," XVIII (June, 
1932), No. 6, p. 788. 

HOWELL, A. S., AND MITCHELL, A. F. : "Recent Improvements in the Bell & 
Howell Fully Automatic Printer," XXII (Feb., 1934), No. 2, p. 115. 

VICTOR, A. F.: "Continuous Optical Reduction Printing," XXIII (Aug., 
1934), No. 2, p. 96. 

BATSEL, C. N.: "A Non-slip Sound Printer," XXIII (Aug., 1934), No. 2, 
p. 100. 

DIMMICK, G. L., BATSEL, C. N., AND SACHTLEBEN, L. T.: "Optical Reduction 
Sound Printing," XXIII (Aug., 1934), No. 2, p. 108. 

CHAMBERS, G. A.: "Process Photography," XVIII (June, 1932), No. 6, 
p. 782. 

HINELINE, H. D.: "Composite Photographic Processes," XX (April, 1933), 
No. 4, p. 283. 

CRABTREE, J.: "Sound-Film Printing," XXI (Oct., 1933), No. 4, p. 294. 

BATSEL, C. N., AND SACHTLEBEN, L. T.: "Some Characteristics of 16-Mm. 
Sound by Optical Reduction and Rerecording," XXIV (Feb., 1935), No. 2, p. 95. 



April, 1936] REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE 403 

PROCESSING 

MITCHELL, W. M.: "Applications of Stainless Steels in the Motion Picture 
Industry," XXIV (April, 1935), No. 4, p. 346. 

FOOTE, R. L.: "Laminated Bakelite in the Motion Picture Industry," XXIV 
(April, 1935), No. 4, p. 354. 

LA QUE, F. L.: "Inconel as a Material for Photographic Film Processing 
Apparatus," XXIV (April, 1935), No. 4, p. 357. 

LEAHY, W.: "Time and Temperature vs. the Test System for Development of 
Motion Picture Negatives," XVIII (May, 1932), No. 5, p. 649. 

KOSSMAN, H. R. : "A Small Developing Machine," XXIII (Dec., 1934), No. 6, 
p. 356. 

RUSSELL, H. D., AND CRABTREE, J. I.: "An Improved Potassium Alum Fix- 
ing Bath Containing Boric Acid," XXII (Aug., 1933), No. 2, p. 137. 

MEYER, H.: "Sensitometric Studies of Processing Conditions for Motion 
Picture Films," XXV (Sept., 1935), No. 3, p. 239. 

SILENT, H. C., AND FRAYNE, J. G.: "Western Electric Noiseless Recording," 
XVIII (May, 1932), No. 5, p. 551. 

KiiSTER, A., AND SCHMIDT, R.: "The Sensitometric Control of Sound Records 
on Film," XIX (Dec., 1932), No. 6, p. 539. 

FAULKNER, T.: "The Treatment of New Film Prior to Release," XIX (Nov., 
1932), No. 5, p. 419. 

SHEA, T. E.: "A Modern Laboratory for the Study of Sound Picture Prob- 
lems," XVI (March, 1931), No. 3, p. 277. 

MATTHEWS, G. E., AND Ross, J. F.: "Materials for the Construction of Mo- 
tion Picture Processing Apparatus," XVI (March, 1931), No. 3, p. 330. 

STEWART, V. A.: "Improvements in Laboratory Practice," XI (1927), No. 32, 
p. 651. 

CRABTREE, J.: "Uniformity in Development," XXV (Dec., 1935), No. 6, 
p. 512. 

CLARK, W.: "Standard Development," Photo. J., 65 (Feb., 1925), No. 2, 
p. 76. 

BULLOCK, E. R. : "On Convection Effects in Photographic Bathing Processes 
in the Absence of Agitation," Brit. J. Phot., 69 (1922), No. 3225, p. 110. 

NIETZ, A. H.: "Theory of Development," Monograph No. 2, Kodak Research 
Labs., Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N. Y. (1922). 

MEES, C. E. K., AND PIPER, C. W.: "Fogging Powers of Developers," Phot. 
J., 52 (May, 1912), No. 5, p. 221. 

SHEPPARD, S. E., AND ELLIOTT, F. A.: "Influence of Stirring on Rate and 
Course of Development," J. Franklin Inst., 195 (Feb., 1923), No. 2, p. 211. 

CRABTREE, J.: "Directional Effects in Continuous Film Processing," XVIII 
(Feb., 1932), No. 2, p. 207. 

CRABTREE, J., AND WADDELL, J. H.: "Directional Effects in Sound-Film 
Processing II," XXI (Nov., 1933), No. 5, p. 351. 

RENWICK, F. F.: "A Preliminary Note on the Development of Motion Pic- 
ture Film," VII (1923), No. 16, p. 159. 

CRABTREE, J. L : "The Development of Motion Picture Films by the Reel 
and Tank Systems," VII (1923), No. 16, p. 163. 

HUBBARD, R. C.: "Erbograph Machine a Friction Feed Developing Ma- 



404 REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE [J. s. M. p. E. 

chine for Developing Positive Motion Picture Film," VII (1923), No. 17, p. 163. 

HUBBARD, R. C.: "The Straight-Line Developing Machine," VIII (1924), 
No. 18, p. 73. 

CRABTREE, J. I., AND DUNDON, M. L.: "Investigations on Photographic 
Developers Sulfide Fog by Bacteria in Motion Picture Developers," VIII 
(1924), No. 19, p. 28. 

CRABTREE, J. I.: "The Handling of Motion Picture Film at High Tempera- 
ture," VIII (1924), No. 19, p. 39. 

HITCHINS, A. B.: "Machine Development of Negative and Positive Motion 
Picture Films," IX (1925), No. 22, p. 46. 

CRABTREE, J. I., AND IVES, C. E.: "Racks and Airbell Markings on Motion 
Picture Film," IX (1925), No. 24, p. 95. 

CRABTREE, J. I., AND DUNDON, M. L.: "The Staining Properties of Motion 
Picture Developers," X (1926), No. 25, p. 108. 

HICKMAN, K. C. D. : "Syphons and Measuring Devices for Photographic Solu- 
tions," X (1926), No. 26, p. 37. 

CRABTREE, J. I., AND DUNDON, M. L.: "Investigations on Photographic De- 
velopers," X (1926), No. 26, p. 111. 

KELLEY, W. V. D.: "The Examination of Film by Projection on a Continu- 
ous Processing Machine," XI (1927), No. 3, p. 224. 

SHEPPARD, S. E.: "Behavior of Gelatin in the Processing of Motion Picture 
Film," XI (1927), No. 32, p. 707. 

HUNTER, C. R.: "A Negative Developing Machine," XII (1928), No. 33, 
p. 195. 

JAMIESON, H. J.: "A Horizontal Tray Type of Continuous Processing Ma- 
chine," XII (1928), No. 36, p. 1093. 

DUNDON, M. L., AND CRABTREE, J. I.: "The Fogging Properties of Develop- 
ers," XII (1928), No. 36, p. 1096. 

CARLTON, H. C., AND CRABTREE, J. I.: "Some Properties of Fine-Grain De- 
velopers for Motion Picture Film," XIII (1929), No. 38, p. 406. 

MOYSE, H. W., AND WHITE, D. R.: "Borax Developer Characteristics," 
XIII (1929), No. 38, p. 445. 

DUNDON, M. L., BROWN, G. H., AND CAPSTAFF, J. G.: "A Quick Test for De- 
termining the Degree of Exhaustion of Developers," XIV (April, 1930), No. 4, 
p. 389. 

HUSE, E.: "Sensitometric Control in the Processing of Motion Picture Film 
in Hollywood," XXI (July, 1933), No. 1, p. 54. 

MACKENZIE, D.: "Straight-Line and Toe Records with the Light- Valve," 
XVII (Aug., 1931), No. 2, p. 172. 

CAPSTAFF, J. G., AND SEYMOUR, M. W.: "The Duplication of Motion Picture 
Negatives," X (1927), No. 28, p. 223. 

IVES, C. E., AND HUSE, E.: "Notes on Making Duplicate Negatives," XII 
(1928), No. 34, p. 382. 

"The Duplication of Motion Picture Negatives," Eastman Kodak Co., Roches- 
ter, N. Y. 

MEES, C. E. K.: "Some Photographic Aspects of Sound Recording," XXIV 
(April, 1935), No. 4, p. 285. 

COFFMAN, J. W.: "Sound-Film Processing," XII (1928), No. 35, p. 799. 



April, 1936] REPORT OF LABORATORY PRACTICE COMMITTEE 405 

MAURER, J. A.: "The Photographic Treatment of Variable-Area Sound- 
Films," XIV (June, 1930), No. 6, p. 636. 

CRABTREE, J. I., AND HART, H. A.: "Some Properties of Fixing Baths," 
XIII (May, 1929), No. 38, p. 364. 

CRABTREE, J. I.: "The Handling of Motion Picture Films at High Tempera- 
tures," VIII (1924), No. 19, p. 39. 

CRABTREE, J. I., AND Ross, J. F.: "Silver Recovery from Exhausted Fixing 
Baths," X (1926), No. 26, p. 70. 

HICKMAN, K., WEYERTS, W., AND GOEHLER, O. E.: "Electrolysis of Silver- 
Bearing Thiosulfate Solutions," Ind. and Eng. Chem., 25 (Feb., 1933), p. 202. 

HICKMAN, K., SANFORD, C., AND WEYERTS, W.: "The Electrolytic Regenera- 
tion of Fixing Baths," XVII (Oct., 1931), No. 4, p. 568. 

CRABTREE, J. I., AND RUSSELL, H. D.: "Some Properties of Chrome Alum 
Stop Baths and Fixing Baths," XVI (May, 1930), No. 5, p. 483; Part II, XVI 
(June, 1930), No. 6, p. 667. 

WEYERTS, W. J., AND HICKMAN, K. C. D.: "The Argentometer an Appara- 
tus for Testing for Silver in a Fixing Bath," XXV (Oct., 1935), No. 4, p. 335. 

HICKMAN, K. C. D.: "Washing Motion Picture Film," IX (1925), No. 23, p. 62. 

CRABTREE, J. I., AND MATTHEWS, G. E.: "Effect of the Water Supply in 
Processing Motion Picture Film," XVI (April, 1931), No. 4, p. 437. 

CRABTREE, J. I., AND MATTHEWS, G. E.: "A Study of the Markings on Mo- 
tion Picture Film Produced by Drops of Water, Condensed Water Vapor, and 
Abnormal Drying Conditions," VII (1923), No. 17, p. 29. 

WHITE, D. R.: "Drying Conditions and Photographic Density," XIX (Oct., 
1932), No. 4, p. 340. 

NORLING, J. A., AND RiPPENBEiN, A. P.: "Treatment for Rejuvenating and 
Preserving Motion Picture Film," XVI (June, 1931), No. 6, p. 766. 

METHOD OF INSPECTION 

FAULKNER, T.: "Cleaning Motion Picture Positive Film," X (1926), No. 25, 
p. 117. 

CRABTREE, J. I., AND CARLTON, H. C.: "Cleaning Liquids for Motion Pic- 
ture Film," XI (1927), No. 30, p. 277. 

DWORSKY, A. S.: "The Dworsky Film Renovating Machine, Polishing Ma- 
chine and Film Rewind," XI (1927), No. 32, p. 774. 

CRABTREE, J. I., AND IVES, C. E.: "Rack Marks and Airbell Markings on 
Motion Picture Film," IX (1924), No. 25, p. 25. 

CRABTREE, J. I., AND MATTHEWS, G. E. : "Oil Spots on Motion Picture Film," 
XI (1927), No. 32, p. 28. 

CRABTREE, J. I., AND DUNDON, M. L.: "The Staining Properties of Motion 
Picture Developers," X (1926), No. 25, p. 108. 

GENERAL AIR-CONDITIONING 

LINDSY, D. C.: "Air- Conditioning as Applied in Theaters and Film Labora- 
tories," XI (1927), No. 30, p. 343. 

HOLDEN, E. C.: "Silica Gel Air-Conditioning for Film Processing," XVIII 
(April, 1932), No. 4, p. 471. 



RAPID PROCESSING METHODS* 

H. PARKER AND J. I. CRABTREE** 

Summary. The properties of various developers, including a two-bath hardening 
developer suitable for the rapid processing of negatives, are described. In the case 
of still photography, considerable time can be saved by printing from the wet negatives. 
Several methods are described for holding the negative to prevent damage to the wet 
emulsion by the heat of the printer light. 

With the increasingly widespread use of photography, situations 
are occurring more and more frequently when it is desired to obtain 
the finished photograph in as short a time as possible after the nega- 
tive is exposed. In the past, this situation has often arisen in news 
photography, but with the more recent applications of photography 
as, for instance, in such fields as television, the photographic record- 
ing of the finish of horse races, and, in motion picture work, for pro- 
duction stills and test shots on projected background scenes, the need 
for rapid processing is becoming more and more important. 

Most of the published procedures for rapid photography involve 
the use of quick-acting developers and fixing baths of more or less 
conventional composition, followed by a brief wash. The print is 
then made directly from the wet negative or after the negative, 
which was hardened during processing, has been dried rapidly. 

The rapid drying may be accomplished either by directing blasts 
of warm, dry air against both faces of the film, by removal of the 
water by means of a volatile solvent such as alcohol, or by absorption 
of the water with a suitable strong solution having an affinity for 
water, such as a saturated solution of potassium carbonate. The 
treatment with alcohol is not recommended for use with film, since 
methyl alcohol attacks the film base, tending to make it curl and 
buckle upon drying. Ethyl alcohol can be used successfully, provided 
that (a) the film is not bathed in the alcohol for too long a period 
which would otherwise cause buckling; (b) that the alcohol is 
diluted with 10 per cent of water; and (c) that the film is finally 

* Communication No. 577 from the Kodak Research Laboratories. 
** Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N. Y. 
406 



RAPID PROCESSING METHODS 407 

dried with air at a temperature not greater than 70 to 80 F. The 
use of undiluted alcohol and air which is too hot causes excessive desic- 
cation of the gelatin which renders it opalescent. The opalescence 
can be removed by soaking the film in water and re-drying slowly. 

When the emulsion is dehydrated with a saturated solution of 
potassium carbonate, traces of the carbonate are left in the gelatin 
so that if the relative humidity is very low it may crystallize, 
while with high humidity the negative remains sticky. Also, it is 
necessary to rewash and dry the negative in the usual manner after 
the rush prints have been made. It is safer and more satisfactory, 
therefore, to dry the negatives with hot air. 

A satisfactory, rapid processing procedure should fulfill the follow- 
ing requirements : 

(1) In order to reduce to a minimum the time required for making up the 
baths, they should be in the form of stock solutions ready to use with very little 
measuring, mixing, or diluting. 

(2) In order to save the time required for cooling the solutions, it should be 
possible to use them over a range of temperature at least from 65 to 80 F. 

(5) In order to lessen the danger of mechanical injury to the emulsion and to 
allow rapid drying with hot air, the solutions should not have a great tendency 
to swell the emulsion and should harden it thoroughly. 

(4) Photographically, any rapid method, to be satisfactory, should give good 
picture quality with high emulsion speed, since underexposure is very apt to be 
encountered. 

The three processing methods to be described meet these specifica- 
tions quite well, each method having some specific advantages under 
certain conditions. 

Two-Bath Development with Developer SD-6. For the majority of 
cases, a rapid two-bath hardening developer 1 is satisfactory since 
it prevents excessive swelling, provides rapid and thorough hardening 
of the gelatin while in the developer, and allows the use of compara- 
tively high processing temperatures. Also, it automatically eliminates 
the danger of overdevelopment and provides an almost constant de- 
gree of development in spite of variations in the time of treatment 
which can otherwise easily occur in hand processing for such short 
times. 

The film is placed in the bath No. 1, whereupon the emulsion ab- 
sorbs a certain quantity of the solution and thus a definite quantity 
of the developing agents, but because of the low alkalinity of the 
solution, very little actual development occurs. Then, when the 
film is placed in the alkaline bath No. 2, development proceeds 



408 H. PARKER AND J. I. CRABTREE [j. s. M. p. E. 

rapidly at first, but since the developing agents diffuse out from the 
film, after a short time the development practically stops. The result 
is that considerable variation in the times of treatment have very little 
effect upon the degree of development. 

Also, the separation of the developer chemicals into two baths 
makes it possible to use formalin, which gives a rapid and high degree 
of hardening in alkaline solutions while avoiding the troublesome re- 
actions that otherwise occur between formalin and the developing 
agents in a single-bath developer, which tend to reduce the rate of 
development and often cause bad aerial fog and stains. 

The formulas for the two-bath SD-6 developer solutions are given 
in the section on practical recommendations. Sodium sulfate is used 
in the first bath to prevent excessive swelling of the gelatin emulsion 
before it can be hardened by the formalin in the second bath. The 
small quantity of phenosafranine is a safeguard against the formation 
of aerial fog which might otherwise occur if, during treatment, the 
film were exposed much to the air. A portion of the formalin in the 
second bath reacts with the sulfite, liberating sodium hydroxide, so 
it is not necessary to add any additional alkali. The two solutions 
used to prepare bath No. 2 slowly deteriorate when mixed and, 
therefore, the bath must be used within a short time after it has been 
mixed, but the separate solutions keep well before mixing. 

The film should be bathed for 1 minute in bath No. 1; then, without 
rinsing, transferred to bath No. 2 and kept thoroughly agitated therein 
for 1 minute, taking care not to expose the emulsion surface to the 
air, otherwise aerial fog is apt to be produced. In the case of sheet 
film it is convenient to hold the film by one corner with a film clip 
in order to facilitate handling and allow thorough agitation. After 
development, the film should be rinsed briefly, preferably in an acid 
stop bath SB-1, and then fixed, with thorough agitation to insure 
neutralization of the alkali in the film and to hasten fixation. As 
soon as the film has cleared, it can be washed and dried or printed 
wet, as described later. 

The F-5 hardening fixing bath gives excellent results when used 
after this developer but, if desired, an ultra-rapid non-hardening bath 
may be used. In the latter case, it is particularly desirable to rinse 
in the acid stop bath between development and fixation. 

Since development is almost complete soon after the film has been 
placed in bath No. 2, the degree of development can not be con- 
trolled effectively by varying the time of treatment in the second 



April, 1936] RAPID PROCESSING METHODS 409 

bath. If a desired degree of contrast is not obtained by normal 
treatment, development can be altered slightly, say, over the gamma 
range from 0.6 to 0.7 with Supersensitive Panchromatic film at 
75 F., by changing the time of treatment in the first bath. If a greater 
increase in the contrast is desired, it can be readily obtained by re- 
immersing the negative in bath No. 1 for a short time after rinsing 
briefly in water to remove the excess of solution carried upon the 
surface of the film. 

When used in tray development, these solutions are not affected by 
aerial oxidation as rapidly as are equally energetic single-bath de- 
velopers, because the developing agents are held in a weakly alkaline 
solution and are well protected by the sulfite, while the separate 
solution containing the alkali contains no developing agents. When 
a negative is developed, it carries a small quantity of the developing 
agents into the second bath, but the concentration resulting from this 
action is low so there will be no danger of staining the film even if the 
developing agents are oxidized. 

Although this sytem of development is particularly designed for 
use at high temperatures, it can be used satisfactorily over quite a 
range of temperature, from 65 to 85 F. Below 65 F., the degree of 
development is probably too low to be useful, while above 85 F. 
there is danger that the emulsion will swell excessively. The rate of 
change of activity with temperature is lower for this developer than 
for the more usual single-bath developers. For instance, with East- 
man Supersensitive Panchromatic cut film at 75 F., a gamma of 0.65 
was obtained equal to that given by developing for 1 minute in full- 
strength D-72, but when both developers were cooled to 65 F., the 
two-bath developer gave a gamma of 0.50 while the gamma obtained 
in the D-72 had dropped to 0.40. In both cases the two-bath de- 
veloper SD-6 gave noticeably more shadow detail than the D-72. 

The characteristics of this developer with Eastman Supersensitive 
Panchromatic cut film (July, 1935) are given in Table I. It will be 
noticed that the two-bath developer compares favorably with other 
developers for the lower degrees of contrast, but that it does not com- 
pare so well when development is forced in order to obtain high 
contrast or the highest possible emulsion speed. 

Other Rapid Developers. In Tables I and II are also given the de- 
velopment characteristics of several rapid single-bath developers for 
short times of development. The values listed are: gamma, which 
is a measure of the degree of development; fog; relative emulsion 



410 



H. PARKER AND J. I. CRABTREE 

TABLE I 



[J. S. M. P. E. 



Development Characteristics of Rapid Developers with Eastman Super sensitive 
Panchromatic Cut Film (July, 1935} at 65 F. 



Time 
Developer (Minutes) 

D-82 1 

D-82 + caustic 1 

D-9 1 

D-9 + formalin 1 

D-8 1 

D-72 1 

D-82 2 

D-82 + caustic 2 

D-9 2 

Z)-5> + formalin 2 

>- 2 

ZW 2 

Two-Bath at 75F. (1st Bath) 1 

(2nd Bath) 1 

D-82 3 

D-82 + caustic 1 

D-9 2 x /2 

D-9 + formalin 3 

D-8 40 

D-72 3 l / 2 

Two-Bath (1st Bath) 1 

(2nd Bath) 1 

(1st Bath) iVa 



Gamma 


Fog 


Relative 
Emulsion 
Speed* Highlight 
(Per Cent) Density 


0.57 


0.12 


85 


0.73 


1.00 


0.15 


105 


1.33 


0.55 


0.10 


90 


0.70 


0.52 


0.12 


70 


0.63 


1.29 


0.12 


35 


1.04 


0.40 


0.12 


65 


0.50 


0.83 


0.12 


125 


1.15 


1.35 


0.21 


125 


1.88 


0.89 


0.12 


110 


1.19 


0.81 


0.14 


75 


0.98 


1.49 


0.15 


60 


1.54 


0.70 


0.13 


85 


0.96 



0.65 0.15 



1.00 



0.25 



105 



105 



0.91 



1.01 


0.17 


130 


1.45 


1.00 


0.15 


105 


1.33 


1.02 


0.14 


110 


1.40 


1.00 


0.17 


75 


1.20 


1.00 


0.11 


30 


0.75 


1.02 


0.17 


100 


1.30 



1.35 



* The relative emulsion speeds are expressed in percentages, the speed obtained 
by developing for 3 l /z minutes in D-72 (gamma 1.0) being taken as 100 per cent. 



TABLE II 



Characteristics of Developers Suitable for Underexposures 
( Times of Development for Optimum Emulsion Speeds') 



Developer 

D-82 

D-82 + caustic 

D-9 

D-8 

D-72 



Time 

(Minutes) 

8 

3 

9 

6 

14 



Gamma 
1.20 

1.50 
1.45 
1.60 
1.33 



Fog 

0.40 
0.40 
0.40 
0.40 
0.40 



Relative 

Emulsion Highlight 
Speed Density 



155 

145 
150 
115 
120 



2.04 
2.25 
2.25 
2.30 
2.07 



April, 1936] 



RAPID PROCESSING METHODS 



411 



speed, which is a comparative measure of the ability of the emulsion 
to render shadow detail; and highlight density, which is a rough indi- 
cation of the density contrast obtained in a normally exposed negative 
of a subject of average contrast. It must be remembered that these 
are the values found under a given set of conditions as to quantity of 
developer, size of film, agitation during development, and so on, and 
that they will vary if any of these conditions are altered. However, 
although the absolute values will vary, the relations between the dif- 
ferent developers will change very little if at all. It should also be 
noted that the indicated speed ratings are on a purely arbitrary basis, 
and are not directly related to the speed systems used with the various 
exposure calculators and exposure meters. The ratio factor necessary 
to convert these values to the system used with any given device can 
be determined from a test with some one developer, such as the SD-6 



Temperature 



TABLE III 

Time-Temperature Characteristics of D-72 Developer 

Time of Development 

2 Min. 30 Sec. 3 Min. 

2 Min. 2 Min. 30 Sec. 

1 Min. 40 Sec. 2 Min. 

1 Min. 20 Sec. 1 Min. 40 Sec. 

1 Min. 5 Sec. 1 Min. 20 Sec. 

55 Sec. 1 Min. 5 Sec. 



65F. 


1 Min. 30 Sec. 


2 Min. 


70F. 


1 Min. 15 Sec. 


1 Min. 40 Sec. 


75F. 


1 Min. 


1 Min. 20 Sec. 


80F. 


50 Sec. 


1 Min. 5 Sec. 


85 F. 


40 Sec. 


55 Sec. 


90F. 


33 Sec. 


45 Sec. 



4 Min. 

3 Min. 15 Sec. 
2 Min. 40 Sec. 
2 Min. 10 Sec. 
1 Min. 45 Sec. 
1 Min. 25 Sec. 



two-bath, or the D-72. The recorded data are for Supersensitive 
Panchromatic cut film, but the relations between the various de- 
velopers are approximately the same for other panchromatic negative 
materials. 

The developers listed fall into two classes, those suitable for hand 
processing, and those which are suitable only for ultra-rapid develop- 
ment in special processing machines. These very rapid developers 
are not suitable for hand processing because the development times 
must be so short, in order to avoid excessive contrast, that there is 
not time to obtain uniform development over the whole surface of the 
film. 

When the processing is done by hand, under the conditions men- 
tioned previously, that is, where temperatures above normal may be 
encountered with no time available for cooling the solutions, the D-72 
developer and the D-9 process developer with 1 per cent of formalin 
added, have been found very satisfactory. 

In most cases, the D-72 developer is probably preferable, since it 



412 H. PARKER AND J. I. CRABTREE [j. s. M. p. E. 

can be used for plates, films, and papers. Also, it is more stable and 
oxidizes only slowly even when left standing in a tray. 

This developer has a temperature coefficient of, roughly, 1.5 for a 
temperature change of 10 Fahrenheit degrees. This means that to get 
approximately equal degrees of development at different tempera- 
tures, the development time must be divided by 1.5 for a 10-degree 
rise in temperature, and multiplied by 1.5 for a 10-degree drop in 
temperature. A time-temperature table is given in Table III. 

This developer has a sufficiently high concentration of salts to pre- 
vent excessive swelling up to 80 F. but it does not permanently 
harden the film, so that an efficient hardening fixing bath must be 
used and the film fixed long enough to allow it to harden thoroughly. 
The F-5 fixing bath may be used at normal temperatures, but at the 
higher temperatures the F-23 chrome alum hardening fixing bath 
should be used and the film treated for at least 3 minutes and prefer- 
ably longer. With the chrome alum bath, particularly, there is 
danger that scum may form upon the film from the neutralization of 
the fixing bath by the developer, so that the film should be rinsed 
for a few seconds in an acid stop bath, such as the SB-1, after develop- 
ment, and then agitated thoroughly while it is in the fixing bath. 
Fresh fixing solutions should always be used for this work. The 
chrome alum fixing bath has the objection that it does not keep well, 
so it should be made up in small quantities which can be used up in a 
few days. 

In cases where temperatures higher than 80 F. must be used, the 
D-72 developer, even in combination with the chrome alum fixing 
bath, is not satisfactory. In such cases the D-9 caustic-hydroquinone 
process developer may be used with the addition of 10 cc. of formalin 
(40 per cent solution) per liter of the mixed developer to harden the 
film. Ten cc. of a 1 to 1000 solution of phenosafranine should also be 
added to prevent the formation of aerial fog which might be caused by 
the formalin. This developer, as the tables show, has a slightly higher 
rate of development than the D-72, so the times given above, or some- 
what shorter times, may be used. This developer has poor keeping 
properties after it is mixed and should be used immediately. The 
F-5 fixing bath gives good results with this developer although an 
ultra-rapid fixing bath can be used, as with the two-bath developer. 
This developer gives good results at temperatures up to 90 F. but 
can not be used satisfactorily at temperatures above 90 F. 

It can be seen from the data given in the table that this addition 






April, 1936] RAPID PROCESSING METHODS 413 

of formalin to the D-9 developer causes a slight increase in the de- 
velopment fog, a slight decrease in the emulsion speed, and a very 
slight decrease in the rate of development. 

More complete information on regular processing methods (not 
rapid processing) at high temperatures is given elsewhere. 2 

Ultra-Rapid Developers for Machine Processing. When it is pos- 
sible to develop by machine as, for instance, with motion picture 
film, it is sometimes desirable to obtain high densities in very short 
times of development. With machine processing the treatment of the 
film can be controlled much more uniformly than is possible with 
hand processing, and it is quite satisfactory, therefore, to use very 
short times and very active developers. 

A considerable number of developer formulas have been tested to 
determine their usefulness with very short development times and the 
data obtained for the most satisfactory formulas are given in the 
tables. These results show that when good contrast, with the great- 
est emulsion speed (ability to reproduce shadow detail), is desired in 
a very short time of development (1 minute or less), formula D-82 
with the addition of 10 grams per liter of sodium hydroxide gives the 
most satisfactory results. This addition of extra sodium hydroxide to 
the D-82 developer causes a very considerable increase in the rate of 
development, so that considerably higher gammas are obtained. For 
the very short times of development, higher emulsion speeds are also 
obtained. It should be noted, however, that for the longer times of 
development, or for comparisons made at equal gammas, this ad- 
vantage is lost, and the unmodified D-82 gives just as high emulsion 
speeds. For very short development times, around 30 seconds or 
less, it may be desirable to add 25 cc. of ammonia per liter to the 
modified D-82 developer. This addition is not satisfactory when 
development times of 1 minute or longer are used, because of the very 
rapid growth of fog, but for the very short times, it does help to obtain 
higher emulsion speeds. When the highest possible contrast is de- 
sired, the D-8 developer may prove more useful, but it should be noted 
that for a given exposure and equal times of development the D-8 
does not give as high a density as the D-82 with the extra sodium 
hydroxide, for, although it gives a higher gamma, it gives a much lower 
emulsion speed. When a high contrast is undesirable, but it is wished 
to obtain high emulsion speed without excessive density in the high- 
lights, the D-82 and the D-9 developers give better results than the 
two higher-contrast developers. 



414 H. PARKER AND J. I. CRABTREE [j. s. M. P. E. 

While all these developers give much more rapid development at 
higher temperatures, it is definitely unsafe to use them at high tem- 
peratures because of the danger of excessive swelling of the gelatin 
film. 

Developers for Underexposures. The practical value of a developer 
for treating extreme underexposures is determined by the minimum 
exposure value which the developer is capable of differentiating from 
the development fog under the optimum conditions of development. 
Experience has shown that for Supersensitive Panchromatic film 
treated in these high-energy developers, the optimum rendering of 
shadow detail is obtained when the development is continued until 
the fog has a density of approximately 0.3 to 0.4. If the develop- 
ment is forced beyond this point, the fog begins to increase more 
rapidly, so that it tends to obscure some of the shadow detail. As 
can be seen from Table II, which gives the data for several de- 
velopers, the gammas obtained at these optimum times of develop- 
ment range between 1.20 and 1.60. Under these conditions of de- 
velopment, formulas D-9, D-82, and D-82 with added sodium hy- 
droxide give practically equally satisfactory rendering of detail in 
the extreme shadows, while D-72 gives somewhat less detail in the 
shadows, and D-8 still less. This is illustrated graphically in Fig. 1 
which shows the relative appearance of negatives on Supersensitive 
Panchromatic cut film which had been given graded exposures and 
then developed for the optimum times as shown in Table II. It can 
be seen that the strips developed in D-82, D-82 with added caustic, 
and D-9 show from one to two more steps in the extreme shadows 
than the strips developed in D-8 and D-72. Since each step cor- 
responds to a decrease of approximately 20 per cent in the ex- 
posures, this indicates an increase of 25 to 40 per cent in the effective 
emulsion speed, which is approximately the increase shown in the 
table. 

Rapid Fixing. The rate of fixation as measured by the time re- 
quired to clear the film of undeveloped silver salts, depends upon a 
number of factors, the most important of which are: hypo concen- 
tration, degree of exhaustion of the bath, temperature, and degree 
of agitation. For low concentrations of hypo, the clearing time is 
decreased as the concentration is increased, reaching a minimum for 
Eastman Supersensitive Panchromatic film at a concentration of 
about 360 grams per liter of hypo. If the hypo concentration is 
raised above this value, the clearing time again increases. For rapid 






April, 1936] 



RAPID PROCESSING METHODS 



415 



work, therefore, extra hypo should be added to the usual fixing 
bath formula to bring the total hypo concentration to 360 grams per 
liter (3 pounds per gallon). 

When a fixing bath is used, a number of changes occur which tend 
to increase the clearing time. Therefore, fresh fixing solution should 
always be employed. The temperature of the bath has a considerable 
effect, higher temperatures giving more rapid fixing, but on prolonged 




D-82 D-82 



D-9 



D-8 



D-72 



Caustic 

FIG. 1 . Appearance of step tablet exposures 
on Supersensitive Panchromatic cut film, show- 
ing relative effect of various developers in the 
underexposure region, when developed for 
times to give optimum emulsion speeds. 



storage at high temperatures the bath is apt to sulfurize. The F-5 
fixing bath can be used up to 75 F., while for processing at much 
above this temperature, the F-23 chrome alum hardening fixing bath 
should be used. Thorough agitation of the film in the fixing bath 
decreases the clearing time considerably, as it helps to wash away 
the dissolved silver salts and supply fresh hypo to the emulsion. 
Since agitation also helps to prevent the formation of a scum upon 
the emulsion surface, it should not be neglected. 



416 H. PARKER AND J. I. CRABTREE [j. s. M. P. E. 

If a still shorter fixing time is desired, an improvement can be ob- 
tained by the addition of about 25 grams per liter (3 l /t ozs. per gallon) 
of ammonium chloride. If much more than this quantity is added, 
the clearing time will be increased, but this quantity gives a decrease, 
particularly if the hypo concentration happens to be a little low. 
The addition of ammonium chloride seems to be most effective with 
a non-hardening bath such as the F-24 with increased hypo, but it 
also has some effect with hardening baths such as the F-5. 

For rapid processing, fixation may be considered to be sufficiently 
complete as soon as the milky appearance has disappeared from the 
emulsion. The processing is completed by washing the film for 2 




FIG. 2. Holder for printing from wet negatives on cut 
film. 



minutes in a rapid stream of water and drying with blasts of warm 
air directed against both sides of the film. To hasten the drying and 
prevent the formation of water marks upon the film, all drops of sur- 
face water should be removed by wiping both sides of the film with a 
piece of absorbent cotton, chamois leather, or viscose sponge which 
has been thoroughly wetted and then squeezed as dry as possible by 
hand. 

After the prints have been made, the negative should be returned 
to the fixing bath for 5 or 10 minutes, then washed thoroughly and 
dried in the usual manner, otherwise there will be danger of fading 
of the image if the negatives are to be kept for any length of time. 

Methods of Printing. If desired, the time required for drying the 
film can be saved by making the prints from the wet negative. If 



April, 1936] RAPID PROCESSING METHODS 417 

only one enlargement is required, and the enlarger lamp house is ade- 
quately cooled, the usual method of sandwiching the film between two 
sheets of glass can be used, although it may be necessary to use a few 
drops of glycerine between the film and each sheet of glass to help 
exclude air bubbles. However, if more than one or two prints are 
required, this method is not satisfactory because the glass becomes 
heated under the printer light, and tends to soften the emulsion, 
melting it or making it stick to the glass. 

These difficulties can be avoided by the use of a special holder. 




FIG. 3. The Eastman processing frame, which allows 
cut films to be handled like plates during processing and 
enlarging. 



The one shown in Fig. 2, which grips the negative only by the edges, 
is very satisfactory and convenient to handle, or the Eastman process- 
ing frame, illustrated in Fig. 3, which is designed to hold cut films so 
that they may be handled and processed like plates, may also be used 
to hold the film during printing. In either case, the excess water drops 
must be carefully removed from the surfaces of the film by wiping 
with moist absorbent cotton, chamois leather, or viscose sponge. 
When the processing frame is used, the water should be shaken as 
completely as possible from the grooves of the frame before the 
film is wiped and care exercised thereafter to prevent shaking more 
water drops out upon the surface of the film. 

Another useful device, though it can be used only with a horizontal 



418 H. PARKER AND J. I. CRABTREE [J. s. M. p. E. 

enlarger, is shown in Fig. 4. This is a very thin liquid cell made of 
two sheets of glass clamped by the metal frame to a [/-shaped sepa- 
rator cut from soft sheet rubber. The cell is large enough to receive 
the negative and just thick enough (1 to 2 mm.) to allow the film to 
slide in freely. The frame should grip the glass sides just tightly 
enough to hold them firmly, but not tightly enough to cause any 
strains. It may be necessary to soften the surfaces of the rubber 
separator by moistening with benzene just before assembling the cell 
in order to make the joints water-tight. The cell is filled with water 
which has been boiled to free it of dissolved air, or it can be filled with 
fixing bath or hypo solution. In the latter case, it is unnecessary even 
to rinse the film after fixing, since the liquid in the cell will then have 
almost exactly the same density and index of refraction as the liquid 
remaining on and in the film after treatment in the fixing bath. 
Since the cell may become quite hot if a large number of prints are 
made, the solution used in the cell should not have a tendency to sul- 
furize easily. Plain acid baths such as the F-24 fixing bath give very 
satisfactory service, even when ammonium chloride has been added 
to give very rapid fixing. 

In most projection printers and enlargers there is rather inadequate 
provision for cooling the lamp house, and the negatives are subjected 
to considerably more heat than is necessary. In most cases, consider- 
able cooling can be effected by providing forced ventilation with com- 
pressed air. If the negative is held in a water cell, the air blast may be 
thrown against the cell to cool it directly, but the greatest advantage 
is obtained from the general cooling of the lamp house. For direct 
protection of the negative from the radiant heat of the lamp, a water 
cell similar in construction to the negative holder but about one inch 
thick, or a piece of heat-absorbing glass, such as the Aklo Heat Re- 
sisting Glass made by the Corning Glass Works or, better, a combina- 
tion of both, should be placed between the lamp and the negative. 
If desired, the heat-absorbing glass can be used to form one side of 
the cell. 3 Such a combination will absorb almost all the infrared or 
heat radiation which would otherwise heat the negative, without 
noticeably affecting the visual or the photographic intensity of the 
light. 

If the liquid cell is used alone, it is more effective to use, instead 
of plain water, a 5 per cent solution of copper sulfate or a 2 per cent 
solution of cupric chloride 4 which absorbs practically all the infrared 
radiation. If the printer is to be operated more or less continuously, 



April, 1936] RAPID PROCESSING METHODS 419 

some provision should be made for removing the heat absorbed by the 
liquid. This can be accomplished by circulating the liquid through 
some type of cooling coil. If plain water is used in the cell, this can 
be cooled by circulating through an automobile hot-water heater, 
the blower fan serving to pull cooling air through the radiator coils. 
The General Electric Company has produced a special high- 
intensity lamp 5 which has a water cell built completely around the 
bulb. The end of this water jacket contains a cooling coil through 
which tap water is circulated to carry away the heat, while distilled 




FIG. 4. Thin water cell for holding wet cut films in the 
enlarger. 

water is used in the jacket to insure highest transmission for the vis- 
ible light. This lamp can be installed readily in the enlarger, the only 
requirement being that the lamp be used in a vertical position with 
the base up. 

If a water cell is undesirable, a sheet of heat-absorbing glass may 
be used alone. In this case, the glass should be adequately cooled 
to remove the heat absorbed. This can be done by forced ventila- 
tion around the glass. 

PRACTICAL RECOMMENDATIONS 

For convenience, the foregoing recommendations are summarized 
briefly, and the formulas of the various solutions used are given 
below. 



420 



H. PARKER AND J. I. CRABTREE [J. S. M. P. E. 



Two-Bath Development. The two-bath developer (Formula SD-6) 
provides for thorough hardening of the emulsion during development, 
it may be used at temperatures from 65 to 85 F. (best results are ob- 
tained at 75 to 80 F.), and it gives a fairly constant degree of de- 
velopment in spite of variations in the development time. The solu- 
tions are stable and are not readily oxidized even when standing in 
trays. The negative should be placed for 1 minute in the first bath, 
then transferred to the second bath without rinsing, and treated for 
1 minute with agitation, taking care not to expose the film unneces- 
sarily to the air in order to avoid aerial fog. 

If this treatment does not give sufficient contrast, the negative 
can be rinsed for 1 or 2 seconds and returned to the first bath for 15 
to 30 seconds or longer, as desired. This developer is not recom- 
mended, however, in cases where it is necessary to obtain the highest 
contrast or the highest possible emulsion speed. 

After development the film should be rinsed for a few seconds in 
water or an acid rinse bath, and fixed in the F-o fixing bath. It may 
then be washed briefly in running water and dried rapidly with warm 
air blasts (conveniently obtained with small electric hair dryers), 
or it may be placed in one of the holders described, and printed from 
while wet. 

RAPID TWO-BATH DEVELOPER 

(Formula SD-6) 

First Bath 

Avoirdupois Metric 

24 ounces 750. Occ. 

44 grains 3 . grams 

365 grains 25 . grams 

88 grains 6.0 grams 

3 ozs. 145 grains 100 . grams 

290 grains 20 . grams 

32 ounces 1 . liter 



Water (about 125F.) (52C.) 

Elon 

Sodium sulfite (desiccated) 

Hydroquinone 

Sodium sulfate (desiccated) 

Sodium carbonate (desiccated) 

Water to make 



Dissolve the chemicals in the order given. 



Solution 2 A 

Phenosafranine (1:1000 sol.) 
Sodium sulfite (desiccated) 
Potassium bromide 
Water to make 



Second Bath 

Avoirdupois Metric 

5 drams 20. Occ. 

1 oz. 290 grains 50.0 grams 
30 grains 2 . grams 

32 ounces 1.0 liter 



April, 1930] RAPID PROCESSING METHODS 121 

Solution 2B 

Formalin (40 per cent solution) 6 /i fluid ozs. 200 . cc. 

Water to make 32 ounces 1 . liter 

To make the second bath, mix equal parts of solutions 2 A and 2B. 
ACID RINSE BATH 

(Formula SB-1) 

Avoirdupois Metric 

Water 32 ounces 1 . liter 

Acetic acid (28 per cent, pure) I 1 /* fluid ozs. 48.0 cc. 

ACID HARDENING FIXING BATH 

(Formula F-5) 

Avoirdupois Metric 

Water (about 125F.) (52C.) 20 ounces 600. cc. 

Sodium thiosulfate (hypo) 8 ounces 240.0 grams 
Sodium sulfite (desiccated) V 2 ounce 15.0 grams 

Acetic acid (28 per cent, pure) l x /2 fluid ozs. 47.0 cc. 

Boric acid, crystals 1 A ounce 7.5 grams 

Potassium alum YJ ounce 15.0 grams 

Cold water to make 32 ounces 1 . liter 

When rapid fixing is desired, it is preferable to increase the hypo 
concentration to 12 ounces in 32 ounces (360 grams in 1 liter). 

Single-Bath Development. If the solutions for the two-bath de- 
veloper are not available, the D-72 developer may be used full 
strength, developing about 2 minutes at 65 F. The solution may be 
used up to 80F., with the development time reduced accordingly. 
After development the film should be rinsed for about 5 seconds in 
an acid rinse bath and fixed for 3 minutes or longer in the F-23 chrome 
alum fixing bath with thorough agitation, especially during the first 
minute (at temperatures below 75 F., the F-5 fixing bath may be 
used). 

If the film is not agitated when placed into the chrome alum 
fixing bath, a greenish white scum of basic chromium sulfite may be 
deposited upon its surface. This should be removed by swabbing the 
wet film with moist absorbent cotton, since it is very difficult to 
remove it after the film has been dried. Its formation can be pre- 
vented by rinsing and agitating the film properly. 

The use of a hardening rinse bath is not recommended, because the 
time available for treatment in the rinse bath is only a few seconds, 
much too short for any effective hardening action. 



422 



H. PARKER AND J. I. CRABTREE 



[ J. S. M. P. E. 



ELON HYDROQUINONE DEVELOPER 

(Formula D-72) 

Avoirdupois 

16 ounces 
45 



Water (about 125F.) (52C.) 
Elon 

Sodium sulfite (desiccated) I 1 

Hydroquinone 175 

Sodium carbonate (desiccated) 2 1 

Potassium bromide 27 

Water to make 32 

Dissolve the chemicals in the order given. 



grans 
ounces 
grains 
ounces 
grains 
ounces 



CHROME ALUM FIXING BATH 



Solution A 

*Sodium thiosulfate (hypo) 
Sodium sulfite (desiccated) 
Water to make 

Solution B 

Water 

Sodium sulfite (desiccated) 
Sulfuric acid, 5% 
Potassium chrome alum 
Water to make 



(Formula F-23) 

Avoirdupois 

2 pounds 
1 oz. 290 grains 
96 ounces 



20 ounces 

290 grains 

5 fluid ozs. 

4 x /4 ounces 

32 ounces 



Metric 

500. Occ. 

3 . 1 grams 

45.0 grams 

12.0 grams 

67.5 grams 

1 . 9 grams 

1.0 liter 



Metric 

960 . grams 

50.0 grams 

3 . liters 

600. Occ. 

20.0 grams 
160. Occ. 
128.0 grams 
1 . liter 



Dissolve the constituents of A and B and cool both to 70F. (21 C.). Add B 
slowly to A while stirring the latter thoroughly. 

* More rapid fixation may be obtained by using 2 l /2 Ibs. of hypo per gallon 
( 1200 grains per 4 liters) instead of the quantity given in solution A . 

Development at Higher Temperatures. With the two previous 
methods of development, if the room temperatures are very high, 
it is necessary to cool the solutions to about 80 F. If this is not de- 
sirable, the D-9 caustic process developer with the addition of 1 per 
cent formalin may be used at temperatures up to 90 F. The develop- 
ment time should be iy 2 to 2 minutes at 65 F., and less at higher 
temperatures. After development the film should be rinsed for about 
5 seconds in an acid rinse bath, and fixed until it has cleared in the 
F-5 fixing bath. 

The proper development time at any temperature can be deter- 
mined from Table III, if the time which gives the desired degree 
of development at 65F. is known. Although the temperature 
coefficients of the other developers vary slightly, this table is suffici- 
ently accurate for use with any of the developers mentioned in this 



April, 1936] 



RAPID PROCESSING METHODS 



423 



paper, except the two-bath developer, for which the times need not 
be changed over the temperature range from 65 to 85F. 



CAUSTIC PROCESS DEVELOPER 

(Formula D-9) 



Stock Solution A 

Water (about 125F.) (52C.) 
Sodium bisulfite 
Hydroquinone 
Potassium bromide 
Cold water to make 



Avoirdupois 

16 ounces 
8 /4 ounce 
J /4 ounce 
s /4 ounce 

32 ounces 



Metric 

500. Occ. 

22.5 grams 

22.5 grams 

22 . 5 grams 

1.0 liter 



Stock Solution B 

Cold water 32 ounces 

Sodium hydroxide l*/4 ounces 

Dissolve the chemicals in the order given. 



1.0 liter 
52.5 grams 



For use up to 90F., mix equal parts of A and B, and add 10 cc. of formalin 
(40 per cent) and 10 cc. of phenosafranine solution (1:1000) per liter of mixed 
developer (2 l / 2 drams per 32 ounces). 

Ultra-Rapid Developers. When the film can be processed by ma- 
chine, and development times of 1 minute or less are desired, the 
D-82 developer, with 10 grams of extra sodium hydroxide added 
per liter (150 grains per 32 ounces), or the D-8 developer may be 
used. If the required development time is of the order of J /2 minute, 
it may be desirable to add 25 cc. of ammonia to the modified D-82 
developer. 

MAXIMUM ENERGY DEVELOPER 



(Formula D-82) 



Water (about 125F.) (52C.) 

Wood alcohol 

Elon 

Sodium sulfite (desiccated) 

Hydroquinone 

Sodium hydroxide 

Potassium bromide 

Water to make 



Avoirdupois 

24 ounces 

l*/2 ounces 

200 grains 

! 3 /4 ounces 

200 grains 

125 grains 

125 grains 

32 ounces 



Metric 

750. Occ. 
48. Occ. 
14 . grams 
52.5 grams 
14.0 grams 
8.8 grams 
8.8 grams 
1.0 liter 



424 H. PARKER AND J. I. CRABTREE [j. s. M. P. E. 

SINGLE-SOLUTION HYDROQUINONE CAUSTIC DEVELOPER 

(Formula D-8) 

Stock Solution Avoirdupois Metric 

Water 24 ounces 750. Occ. 

Sodium sulfite (desiccated) 3 ounces 90.0 grams 

Hydroquinone l l / 2 ounces 45.0 grams 

Sodium hydroxide iy 4 ounces 37. 5 grams 

Potassium bromide 1 ounce 30.0 grams 

Water to make 32 ounces 1 . liter 

Dissolve the chemicals in the order given. For use, take 2 parts of stock 
solution and 1 part of water. 



Developer for Underexposures. When it is desired to obtain the 
utmost possible shadow detail from underexposed negatives, the D-82 
developer for underexposure should be used, with a development time 
of about 8 minutes at 65F. 

Ultra-Rapid Fixation. When rapid fixation is desired, the hypo 
concentration of the fixing bath should be increased to 360 grams 
per liter (12 ounces per 32 ounces). If still more rapid fixation is de- 
sired, a non-hardening acid bath with added ammonium chloride may 
be used. Such a bath should be used, however, only with the two- 
bath developer or with the D-9 developer containing formalin, both 
of which harden the film, and the use of an acid rinse bath between 
development and fixation is most important. The F-24 formula is 
very suitable for this purpose. 

NON-HARDENING ACID FIXING BATH 

(Formula F-24) 

Avoirdupois Metric 

Water (about 125F.) (52C.) 16 ounces 500.0 cc. 

Sodium thiosulfate (hypo) 8 ounces 240.0 grams 

Sodium sulfite (desiccated) 145 grains 10.0 grams 

Sodium bisulfite 365 grains 25.0 grams 

Water to make 32 ounces 1 . liter 

Dissolve the chemicals in the order given. 



To make an ultra-rapid fixing bath, the hypo concentration should 
be increased to 360 grams per liter (12 ounces per 32 ounces) and 25 
grams of ammonium chloride should be added per liter of solution 
(365 grains per 32 ounces of solution). 



April, 193(>] RAPID PROCESSING METHODS 425 

SUMMARY 

The properties of various developers, including a two-bath harden- 
ing developer suitable for the rapid processing of negatives, are de- 
scribed. In the two-bath process, the first solution consists of an 
elon-hydroquinone developer containing sodium sulfate to prevent 
excessive swelling, and the second bath contains formalin and sodium 
sulfite which react to form sodium hydroxide. This second bath, 
therefore, hardens the emulsion and likewise accelerates the develop- 
ing action of the developer solution absorbed by the film from the 
first bath. 

The two-bath developer has the following properties : 

(a) It can be used at temperatures from 65 to 85F. 

(6) It develops and hardens the film in 2 minutes. 

(c) Small errors in timing have very little effect upon the development. 

(d) The solutions are stable and not very subject to aerial oxidation. 

This developer is best followed by the F-5 fixing bath, but if de- 
sired, an ultra-rapid fixing bath, such as the F-24 with 2*/2 per cent of 
ammonium chloride added, may be used. 

Other developers which are particularly suitable for special cir- 
cumstances are : 

(1) For processing normally exposed negatives at room tempera- 
tures from 65 to 80F., use D-72 full strength, rinse for a few seconds 
in the SB-1 acid stop bath, and fix in the F-23 chrome alum hardening 
fixing bath. 

(2) For rapid development at temperatures up to 90F., use the 
D-9 developer with the addition of formalin and phenosafranine, 
rinse in water or an acid stop bath, and fix in the F-5 fixing bath. 

(3) For maximum emulsion speed (maximum shadow detail), 
regardless of contrast, develop in D-82 at 65F. for about 8 minutes. 

(4) For maximum emulsion speed obtainable in a short time, 
add 10 grams per liter more sodium hydroxide to the D-82 and de- 
velop at 65F. for the time available, up to 3 minutes. If the avail- 
able time is less than 30 seconds, add 2.5 per cent of ammonia to this 

I developer. 

(5) If maximum highlight density is required regardless of time 
of development or shadow detail, use D-8, D-9, or D-82 plus 1 per 

' cent caustic soda at 65 F. for the time shown in Table II. 

(6) Provided maximum shadow detail is not required, for maxi- 
mum gamma in a minimum time, use D-8 at 65F. 



426 H. PARKER AND J. I. CRABTREE 

The time required for drying may be saved by printing from the 
wet negative, supported in a special holder, or held in a thin liquid 
cell containing water or fixing bath. 

When many prints must be made, the negative should be protected 
against overheating by providing forced ventilation of the printer 
lamp house and by the use of a water cell or heat absorbing glass 
before the lamp. 

REFERENCES 

1 CRABTREE, J. I., PARKER, H., AND RUSSELL, H. D.: "Some Properties of 
Two-Bath Developers for Motion Picture Film," /. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., XXI 
(July, 1933), No. 1, p. 21. 

2 "Tropical Development," Service Dept., Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, 
N. Y. 

3 GAGE, H. P.: "Heat Absorbing Glass," Trans. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., XII 
(1928), No. 36, p. 1063. 

4 COBLENTZ, W. W.: "Radiometric Investigation of Water of Crystalliza- 
tion, Light Filters, and Standard Absorption Bands," Bulletin U. S. Bur. of 
Standards, 7 (May, 1911), p. 655: Scientific Paper No. 168. 

6 GORDON, N. T. : "Water Cooling of Incandescent Lamps," /. Soc. Mot. 
Pict. Eng., XIV (March, 1930), No. 3, p. 332. 

FARNHAM, R. E.r "The Water Cooled Lamp" (pamphlet), Engineering Dept., 
General Electric Co., Cleveland, Ohio. 



EQUIPMENT FOR DEVELOPING AND READING 
SENSITOMETRIC TESTS* 

D. R. WHITE** 



Summary. Two developing machines for laboratory use have been designed and 
constructed to approximate some of the development characteristics frequently encoun- 
tered in commercial practice. They are arranged to accommodate only small quan- 
tities of film, but rapid film motion is attained by splicing the films into a loop, thus 
permitting reasonably high linear speeds. 

A photoelectric densitometer was constructed which is in use as a secondary stand- 
ard of density measurement, the mechanical features of its design affording good re- 
producibility and rapid operation. 

In both routine and research work in sensitometry with motion 
picture film it is necessary to develop the sensitometric exposures 
under carefully controlled conditions. Many systems have been 
proposed to meet this need, some based upon manual and some 
upon mechanical agitation of the developer or film. In many cases 
these laboratory systems depart so widely from normal commercial 
practices that the results attained do not adequately show the results 
that will be achieved commercially. It is true also that laboratory 
developing systems depending upon manually agitating the developer 
are always open to question, as there is usually no proof that the 
worker has adequately duplicated the agitation conditions from time 
to time. In view of these facts, two machines have been constructed 
for use in various phases of sensitometric work. 

THE EIGHT-FOOT LOOP MACHINE 

For developing small groups of sensitometric tests, a small ma- 
chine was built, shown in Fig. 1, for film spliced into loops. Agita- 
tion is accomplished by driving the film so that its motion through the 
developer is closely analogous to the film motion in commercial ma- 
chines. One difference was introduced, however, to reduce greatly 
the so-called "head-and-tail" effects usually encountered in develop- 

* Presented at the Fall, 1935, Meeting at Washington, D. C. 
** Dupont Film Mfg. Co., Parlin, N. J. 

427 



428 



D. R. WHITE 



[J. S. M. P. E. 



ing machines in which the film travels uniformly in one direction. 
Such uniform motion causes products of development to sweep back 
along the film ; and when the exposure is a sensitometric test, with its 
orderly arrangement of densities, different results are obtained, de- 
pending upon whether the film is travelling in such direction as to 
carry the development products from the lighter to the heavier or from 
the heavier to the lighter densities. On the other hand, pictures are 
usually composed of densities randomly arranged; and, so far as 




FIG. 1. General view of the 8-ft. loop developing machine. 

development is concerned, the process may presumably be better 
represented, on the average, by one in which the effect of such orderly 
density arrangement is minimized. Accordingly, the machine being 
described was designed to reduce the directional effects by systemati- 
cally reversing the direction of the film travel. Experiment demon- 
strated that reversing the direction four times a minute was suffi- 
ciently rapid to make it immaterial which way the exposures were 
oriented upon the film. Tests were made before the machine was 
constructed, to see whether head-and-tail effects could be eliminated 
by developer circulation, but it was not found possible in systems of 
the design tested at any rate of flow that seemed practicable. Hence, 



April, 1936] EQUIPMENT FOR SENSITOMETRIC TESTS 



429 



the reversing drive was adopted, and the developer was allowed to 
remain stagnant except for such motion as the film imparted to it. 

The processing solutions are placed in tubes in the water bath 
by means of which the temperature is controlled, and the wash tubes 




FIG. 2. Racks used in the 8-ft. loop 
developing machine, one arranged to 
hold an 8-ft. loop, the other, to hold a 
4-ft. loop. 

are placed immediately outside. The mechanical drive is so arranged 
as to permit transfer of the racks from tube to tube, and also to allow 
the film to be driven while in each tube by the motor through the 
reduction and reversing gears. Fig. 2 shows views of the racks, 
one as arranged to handle eight feet of film ; the other, four feet. 

Fig. 3 is a view of the drying cabinet, with one door open so as to 
show the arrangement of the film within. Blow-offs are provided 



430 



D. R. WHITE 



[J. S. M. P. E. 



with which to remove the excess water when the film is first placed 
in the dryer. 

THE FIFTY-FOOT LOOP MACHINE 

Practical experience with the small eight-foot loop machine was 
sufficiently satisfactory to warrant the construction of a larger ma- 




FIG. 3. Drying cabinet for the 4- and 8-ft. loops of 
film. 

chine. In this the attempt was made to duplicate more closely the 
conditions existing in many of the commercial laboratories; ac- 
cordingly, no reversing drive was introduced. A general view of the 



April, 1936] EQUIPMENT FOR SENSITOMETRIC TESTS 



431 



machine is shown in Fig. 4. Four developing tanks are provided, 
for different developers. A portion of the driving mechanism can be 
seen at the rear of the tanks and in front of a housing that covers the 
developer circulating machinery and the reserve tanks. The ma- 
chine, at present, is not arranged for vigorous agitation, but modifi- 




FIG. 4. 



General view of the 50-ft. loop developing machine, show- 
ing the rack used with unperf orated film. 



cation of some of the tanks to permit it is readily possible. The rack 

in the machine drives the film by friction, and hence can accommodate 

either perforated or unperforated stock. A second rack, shown in 

| Fig. 5, of somewhat greater capacity and different design, handles 

! perforated stock only, and may be used in the machine interchange- 

| ably with the other. 

| 



432 



D. R. WHITE 



[J. S. M. P. E. 



Fig. 6 compares results of development of negative film in these 
machines and with rocking tray. The same developer was used for 
all three tests. It is at once evident that the rocking-tray develop- 
ment, with its extreme agitation, results in greater density than, but 
about the same gamma as, the machine developments. The head- 




FIG. 5. Rack for perforated film for the 
50-ft. loop machine. 

and-tail effect is shown by the change in shape of the curves for the 
fifty-foot loop machine. The strip that passed through the developer 
low density first has higher densities in the toe and the main part of the 
curve, but lower densities at the extreme upper end, than the strip 
oppositely placed upon the film. With the eight-foot loop machine, 



April, 1936] EQUIPMENT FOR SENSITOMETRIC TESTS 433 

the general level of development is comparable with that of the larger 
machine, but the curve shape is intermediate between the two curves 
obtained therewith. 

With positive film the results shown in Fig. 7 were obtained. 
Here also the greatest densities were produced by rocking-tray de- 
velopment. Again the head-and-tail effect is evidenced by the 
different densities produced by orienting the exposures oppositely 
upon the film, and the development with the eight-foot loop machine 
is intermediate between these two results. The curves do not ex- 
tend far enough to show their shapes at the other end of the test 



NEGATIVE CHARACTERISTIC 

- Rooked Development (Tray) 

= 8' Loop M&ohine 

+ = 50' High D. First 

o= " Low D. Flret 

Development Time.Terap. , Batch 
Constant for these teete. 




LOG E ARBITRARY U fITS 

2 4 6 6 '0 /2 /* 76 '8 20 



FIG. 6. Sensitometric results with negative film, showing results with 
rocked-tray development and with each of the two developing machines. 

strip, but there is every reason to expect a result similar to that at- 
tained with negative film. 

THE PHOTOELECTRIC DENSITOMETER 

In order to make the reading of sensitometric tests more rapidly, 
more mechanical, and less dependent upon the observer, a photo- 
electric densitometer was designed and built to supplement the visual 
photometers also in use. Marked improvements have been made 
in its operation and design to meet efficiently the needs of routine 
operation by operators possessing little technical training. 

The system is shown schematically in Fig. 8. Condensers, C, 
image the ribbon filament of the lamp, L, upon the aperture, A, 
through the beam-splitter, BS. The light passing through A strikes 



434 



D. R. WHITE 



[J. S. M. P. E. 



the unknown density, X, and the calibrated neutral wedge, NW, 
finally reaching the cell, PC-1. The portion split off by the beam- 
splitter, BS, is reflected down to the cell, PC-2. The relative re- 
sponse of the two cells is shown by the galvanometer. After adjust- 
ing the galvanometer deflection to zero with the high density of the 
neutral wedge in position, densities may be read by inserting the 
unknown at X and readjusting the calibrated neutral wedge until 
zero deflection is again obtained. Then the amount by which the 



POSITIVE CHARACTERISTIC 

-= Rooked Development (Tray) 

8* Loop Machine 
+=50' " High D. let 
o= ". " Low D. 1st 
Development Time, Temp., 
'^ Batch, Constant for 
These tests 




LOG E ARBITRARY UNITS. 



2 4 6 8 /0 / 

FIG. 7. Sensitometric results with positive film, showing 
results with rocked-tray development and with each of the 
two developing machines. 

density of the wedge has been reduced is equal to the density of the 
unknown. It is obvious that if the electrical circuit be adjusted 
so that the two cells respond equally, the ratio of the light striking 
the unknown density and the light reaching the comparison cell sets 
an upper limit to the density that can be measured. Theoretically, 
this ratio of light intensity can be made very high, but practical 
questions of sensitivity and speed of operation have led to a ratio of 
approximately 200 to 1, giving a maximum density value of about 2.3 
for the instrument. 

The Weston photronic cells used as the sensitive elements were 



April, 1936] EQUIPMENT FOR SENSITOMETRIC TESTS 



435 



selected so as to match each other, as greater freedom from trouble 
due to line-voltage fluctuations could be obtained with matched cells 
than with cells showing different characteristics. 

A general view of the instrument as built is shown in Fig. 9. The 
neutral wedge moves in covered ways extending from the upper left 
to the lower right corner of the main plate. Its motion is controlled 
by the handwheel just below the ways, near the center of the plate, 
and its position is read by a scale and magnifying glass nearby. 
Densities to be measured are carried upon a slide in ways extending 
along the other diagonal of the frame. The lever to the left of the 



PCI 




6ALVANOMET1R 

FIG. 8. Schematic diagram of the photoelectric densitometer. 

wedge handwheel moves the sensitometric strip from one density to 
the next. The exciting lamp is behind the main casting, only the 
chimney of the lamp housing being clearly visible. The lamp, con- 
denser lenses, and beam-splitter are on an optical axis located cen- 
trally in the plate and perpendicular thereto. They are on a line 
with the photronic cell, which is visible and which corresponds to PC-1 
of Fig. 8. The galvanometer scale is visible at the right, with a volt- 
meter and rheostat for controlling the d-c. field windings of the gal- 
vanometer below it. The second photronic cell is in a housing in the 
lower center of the instrument, and is movable vertically to permit 
adjusting the ratio of illumination of the two cells. The mechanism 
governing this movement is shown more clearly in Fig. 10. A dia- 



436 D. R. WHITE [J. S. M. P. E. 

phragm which finally limits the comparison-beam striking the cell 
can be seen upon the glass cover of the cell. 

Some features of the instrument are shown in the next three illus- 
trations, which have nothing to do with the theoretical aspect of the 
instrument, but which are of great practical importance in operating 
it. 

Fig. 11 is the strip holder which is designed to allow ready inser- 




FIG. 9. The assembled photoelectric densitometer. 

tion or removal of the sensitometric strips. Velvet-covered springs, 
which may be latched down, hold the strip in place over the row of 
holes through which the density readings are made. One more hole 
is provided than there are exposure blocks, to assure an opportunity 
for measuring the base and fog densities. This is important because 
the instrument measures the total density rather than the density 
above fog. With a linear wedge, compensation is readily effected, 
so as to afford readings with the fog and base subtracted for the 
exposure densities, by moving the index-mark of the scale. 



April, 1936] EQUIPMENT FOR SENSITOMETRIC TESTS 



437 



The strip in its holder is moved from one density to the next by tin- 
escapement mechanism shown in Fig. 12. The strip drops by gravity 
one notch for each operation of the hand-lever, thus permitting rapid 
changes from one density to the next. 

The galvanometer and its mounting are shown in Fig. 13. It is a 
string galvanometer of the type used in electrocardiographs, in which 




FIG. 10. Detail of the adjustable mount 
of the comparison photronic cell. 

the string is viewed by projection upon the scale. This type of gal- 
vanometer was chosen because a sufficient current-sensitivity could be 
obtained with a short period. Quick response is directly and funda- 
mentally important to rapid work. 

In operation it has been found convenient to provide a switch in 
the galvanometer circuit to permit checking its condition quickly, 
both for zero setting and sensitivity. This switch is shown in Fig. 9 
at the lower right corner of the main plate. With the lever in the 



438 



D. R. WHITE 



[J. S. M. P. E. 




FIG. 11. Strip-holder for the photoelectric densitometer. 

central position the string is short-circuited for checking the zero. 
Moving the. lever to one side passes a small test current through the 
string to check the sensitivity; and moving it to the other side con- 
nects it to the photronic cell circuit for operation. 




FIG. 12. 



Escapement mechanism for rapidly moving the strip from 
density to density. 



April, 1936] EQUIPMENT FOR SENSITOMETRIC TESTS 



439 



With this densitometer the conditions of illumination and reading 
do not correspond with those required to furnish diffuse density 
values; but by calibrating the wedge in the instrument against 
polarization photometers, it has been possible to make the instru- 
ment a satisfactory secondary standard. The calibration is readily 
carried out by accurately determining the densities of test-strips, 
finding the wedge positions for balance, and using these positions as 
fixed-scale points. The wedges that have been used are the neutral 
wedges commercially available. The only serious difficulty en- 




Fig. 13. 



String galvanometer and its mounting, as part of the photo- 
electric densitometer 



countered has been the fading of the wedge at the zero point of the 
instrument. This has required renewing the wedge from time to 
time, but it is possible to replace this type of wedge with other 
materials if the fading is too serious. 

DISCUSSION 

MR. CRABTR.EE: What is the nature of the drive in the developing machine 
a friction drive? 

MR. WHITE: It is roller drive. One roll is covered with rubber, and the other 
is knurled so as to receive the drive. 

MR. SHEPPARD: I noticed that your value on the plates was considerably 
higher than for films driven in this apparatus. Recently, at the Paris Inter 



440 D. R. WHITE 

national Congress, I presented a paper on the subject of automatic developing 
apparatus for sensitometric strips. Employing plates, which were easy to handle 
and gave a better idea of the possibilities in that direction, we found that by 
using a roller and inverting the plate so that the roller moved to and fro at the 
least possible distance from the plate, we could get considerably higher values of 
gamma than could be obtained by tray-rocking; and greater uniformity. In 
tray-rocking a uniformly flashed strip, variations in density from twenty to thirty 
per cent result, even if the plates are perfectly coated. 

With this method, the variation of density across the strip will be two or three 
per cent. In the case of the drive you describe, where evidently the velocity and 
the exchange are very small, is there substantial uniformity of density on uni- 
formly flashed material? 

MR. WHITE: That, of course, depends upon the precision that is required. 
This does not represent such highly precise sensitometry as you describe. I 
certainly should prefer to base my faith upon plates and the other methods of 
agitation, where possible and applicable. 

MR. SHEPPARD : I do not believe it is impossible to do it with film ; it is easier to 
work out the ideal conditions with plates first. 

MR. WHITE: Over the period of time in which we have made reproducibility 
studies, the results we obtained were as good as or better than we could obtain 
by any of the other methods. 

MR. CRABTREE: What is the time required for reading a strip by this method 
as compared with the usual optical method? 

MR. WHITE: The operator, with an assistant and with the machine as it 
stands, can read about 350 H&D strips in an 8-hour day, excluding preparation 
of report forms and the like. That is a greater output than we obtained with the 
visual photometers previously used. 



REPORT ON PROGRESS IN SETTING UP LABORATORY CONTROLS 
TO IMPROVE RELEASE PRINT QUALITY* 

One of the problems engaging the attention of this Sub-Committee has been 
that of working out some sensitometric control method which might be put in 
operation in each laboratory and which would result in a more uniform quality of 
release print from a given negative, from the standpoint of both picture and 
sound. 

Since it is common industry practice to have release prints made in a laboratory 
other than that in which the daily work has been developed and printed, there is 
always the possibility that the release prints may not match the rush prints 
viewed by the production personnel in the studio. 

In attempting to find the solution to this problem it has been assumed that, 
in general, the quality of the release print should be based upon that shown by the 
daily print or the master print prepared by the laboratory which processed the 
original negative. 

In addition to the domestic release prints made from negatives prepared in 
Hollywood, a good many release prints are made in foreign countries, frequently 
under radically different processing conditions, but which should match the domes- 
tic release in picture and sound quality. 

PRELIMINARY TESTING OF TENTATIVE STANDARD CONTROL 
SPECIFICATIONS 

Tentative specifications for a standard sensitometric control method have been 
prepared and are now being given extensive laboratory production tests in several 
of the studio laboratories in Hollywood. The efforts of the Sub-Committee have 
been devoted to the establishment of a closer coordination by the West Coast and 
the East Coast branches of the industry with particular reference to laboratory- 
processing; and before any definite recommendations are made, further tests 
will be conducted in order to determine the feasibility of the method now being 
tested for use in the Hollywood, New York, and the foreign laboratories. 

The specifications now under consideration contain a series of sensitometric 
data which it is felt will not only allow a laboratory to duplicate a print from an- 
other laboratory from the same negative, but would further allow a comparison 
of printing machines so that the original light-test cards might be converted with- 
out actual re-timing of the negative. 

Throughout the period of this work the Sub-Committee has had, and wishes 
to acknowledge, the very fine cooperation of all the Hollywood and New York 
laboratories. Methods of control used in each laboratory have been considered 
in attempting to work out a method which might be easily adopted and applicable 

* Report of Sub-Committee on Improvement in Release Print Quality, of the 
Standard Sensitometric Control Committee of the Research Council of the 
Academy of Motion Picture Arts & Sciences, Hollywood, Calif. (Reprinted from 
the Technical Bulletin of the Academy Research Council, July 27, 1935.) 

441 



442 REPORTS OF RESEARCH COUNCIL [J. S. M. P. E. 

to all the laboratories, and all necessary information requested has been furnished 
in every instance without hesitation. 

During the survey of the methods of control used in each laboratory a compre- 
hensive questionnaire on release printing procedure was prepared and submitted 
to each of the laboratories both on the East and West Coasts. This questionnaire 
and compilation will be found at the end of this report. 

From a study of the methods of sensitometric control used hi the various release 
print laboratories it was decided that further consideration should be given by the 
Sub- Committee to the method currently hi use in the West Coast Laboratory of 
Paramount Productions, Inc. In this method of sensitometric control of release 
print quality, a sensitometric strip on motion picture negative film which has been 
given normal development is spliced into an appropriate position in the Academy 
Standard Release Print Leader. 

A similar strip, exposed on sound negative film, is similarly spliced into the 
sound negative leader. 

Such strips are placed in the leader of each reel of negative used for printing 
release. 

On each of these strips certain steps are indicated by suitable marking which 
allows them to be easily identified on the print. These steps are chosen of differ- 
ent densities and cover approximately the full straight-line portion of the negative 
material. 

When a reel has been properly printed, the marked steps on the two strips will 
produce certain definite densities on the prints. These latter values are then used 
as a measurable control of release print quality. 

SENSITOMETRIC CHECK ON INSPECTION OF PRINTS 

Inasmuch as each reel of a release is inspected both for sound and picture, the 
sensitometric test is a supplementary method of control. Whenever inspection 
by projection indicates that a reel is defective, the marked steps on the print are 
measured on a densitometer. These points are sufficiently displaced, so far as 
negative density is concerned, so that a plot of these points with respect to the 
negative densities from which they were printed will give the gamma to which 
the print has been developed. 

It is thus possible to determine whether the print has been underprinted or 
underdeveloped. 

This method, with modifications, may be regarded as applicable to obtaining a 
duplication of quality of the release in several laboratories as well as uniformity 
of quality of the release in any one organization. 

A somewhat similar technic was adopted by the Sub-Committee for making the 
test, the results of which are now under consideration. A typical picture nega- 
tive sensitometric strip and comparable sound negative strip were obtained from 
one of the local studio laboratories. These strips were spliced into individual 
loops with undeveloped raw stock. 

These two loops, serving as test negatives, were then turned over to one of the 
local release print laboratories (hereafter designated as Laboratory A) with a re- 
quest that : 

(1) Prints be made of both in the appropriate printer aperture at each even- 
numbered light-change, 



April, 1936] 



REPORTS OF RESEARCH COUNCIL 



(2) Control strips be exposed on the end of the print with the positive exposure 
condition on the Eastman type 115 sensitometer, and 

(3) The whole then be developed in the regular positive processing machine to 
a control gamma of 2.10. 

When Laboratory A had completed this test, the negatives were in turn sent 
to one of the other West Coast release print laboratories (hereafter designated as 
Laboratory C), then to one of the eastern laboratories (Laboratory D}, back to 
Laboratory C, and finally to another of the Hollywood release print laboratories 
(Laboratory B). 

The instructions issued in each case coincided with those given to the superin- 
tendent of the original testing Laboratory A . 

The control gamma obtained on the prints by Laboratory A was 2.11, which 



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1.8 

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1.2 

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0.3 




















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2 4 6 8 IO 12 14 16 18 2O 22 

PRINTEB LIGHT 
FIG. 1. Picture printing tests: West Coast Laboratory A . 



fulfilled the specifications almost exactly. The first set of prints from Laboratory 
C were developed to a control gamma of 1.74, apparently due to some misunder- 
standing of the requested conditions. The test from the eastern Laboratory D 
showed a control gamma of 2.26 which was regarded by the Sub-Committee as be- 
ing beyond the normal tolerance. 

The negatives were then returned to Laboratory C and another set of prints 
made, showing a gamma value of 1.96. 

Inasmuch as this result was considerably below the specified gamma of 2.10, an 
investigation was made of the conditions under which the prints were made, 
jvhich showed that the densitometer in use in that Laboratory gave a gamma value 
on these same particular control strips of 2.11. 

This, of course, introduced a new factor into the specifications i. e., the fact 
that all densitometers might not agree in reading and the fact that this variation 
had not been taken into consideration originally. As a result of this discrepancy, 



444 



REPORTS OF RESEARCH COUNCIL 



[J. S. M. P. E. 



test readings were made on various types of densitometers in the local laboratories, 
the results of which will be discussed later in this report. 

Further investigation elicited the information that the local Laboratory B was 
processing prints to a control gamma of approximately 2.10. The negative test 
strips were turned over to the superintendent of this laboratory and prints were 
made in accordance with the original instructions which later gave a control 
gamma reading of 2.06. This was regarded by the Sub-Committee as being 
within the tolerance for this particular test. 

Having now obtained two sets of prints which had been developed to approxi- 
mately the same gamma, the print densities were read and the data plotted ac- 



0.3 



NE 



TEP 



3ATT 



DEf 



5IT\ 



6 



16 18 20 22 



8 10 12 14 
PRINTER LIGHT 
FIG. 2. Picture printing tests: West Coast Laboratory B. 

cording to a method previously worked out by the Sub-Committee. This in- 
formation is shown in Figs. 1 to 4, inclusive. 

In Fig. 1 are plotted the results of the prints of the picture negative strip at 
Laboratory A. Four strips on the negative were chosen, these four having den- 
sities of 0.52, 0.78, 1.12, and 1.44. The densities of the prints of each strip were 
measured on the print at each of the light-changes, and these print densities have 
been plotted as a function of the light-change. Similar data from the prints of the 
picture negative strip for the development at Laboratory B are shown in Fig. 2 
(these two charts being directly comparable to each other). 

Figs. 3 and 4 contain similarly plotted data on the prints of the sound negative 
strip from Laboratories A and B, respectively. 

Superposition of the data on the picture printing test indicates a difference 
approximately 10 light-changes between the printers at Laboratory A and Labora- 
tory B, the former laboratory requiring the lower light-change numbers for a gr 
print density. The fact that the individual curves do not superimpose is due to 
slight difference in slope which indicates that the difference of 10 light-changes is 
not uniform throughout the scale. It is possible by laterally displacing the curve 



April, 1936] 



REPORTS OF RESEARCH COUNCIL 



445 



with respect to each other to determine the correlation over the range in common 
between the two laboratories. 

Such a procedure gives equivalent light-changes for picture printing as shown 
in Table I. 

TABLE I 



Laboratory A 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 



Laboratory B 
11 
12 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
20 
21 
22 



From Table I it would be possible to use Laboratory A printing cards for a 
print at Laboratory B under the condition that the gamma value on the control is 



N 
57TP 



0.4O 
Q52 
0.62 




O 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 

PRINTER LIGHT 
FIG. 3. Sound printing tests : West Coast Laboratory A . 

2.10 and for as long as this control gamma was maintained constant, it being neces- 
sary merely to use the table to convert to the correct light-change for use of the 
cards of one laboratory at the other. 

Similar examination of the results from the prints of the sound strip gives con- 
versions between the sound aperture light-changes in the two laboratories as 
shown in Table II. 

It appears from these results that it is perfectly feasible for a second laboratory 
not only practically to duplicate the prints turned out by the original laboratory, 



446 



REPORTS OF RESEARCH COUNCIL 



[J. S. M. p. E. 



TABLE II 



Laboratory A 
2 

3 
4 
5 

6V 2 

8 

9 
12 
13 
15 
16 
17 
19 

20V, 
22 



Laboratory B 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 



but, further, that it would be possible to convert the light-change cards so that it 
would not be necessary to re-time the negative. 

This latter condition is based upon a calibration which it would be necessary to 
establish between the two laboratories. 

One difficulty which appears at the present time is the difference existing 



1.2 



STEP 



10 



NEG/a riVE 



DENSITY 



0.40 



0.62 
Q7I 



O 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Id 20 22, 

PRINTER UGHT 
FIG. 4. Sound printing tests: West Coast Laboratory B. 



between the readings obtained on different densitometers. As was mentioned 
earlier in this report, one of the local laboratories obtained a gamma reading of 
2.11 on a given set of control strips which when read by the Sub-Committee on all 
other densitometers gave a value of only 1.96. 



April, 1936] REPORTS OF RESEARCH COUNCIL 447 

All the data given in this report are based upon density readings made on an 
Eastman densitometer. This particular instrument, which is of the secondary 
type, has been carefully calibrated against a primary instrument, and is believed 
to read true diffuse density. 

In order to assemble some definite data on the possible variation to be expected 
between different laboratories, a single sensitometric strip (one of the positive 
control strips from the tests developed at Laboratory A ) was read on the instru- 
ments listed in Table III. 

TABLE III 

Densitometer Location 

Eastman Eastman Kodak Laboratory 

Schmidt & Haensch, ERPI Laboratory E 

B & L, ERPI Laboratory C 

B & L, ERPI Laboratory A 

Schmidt & Haensch Eastman Kodak Laboratory 

B & L, ERPI Studio Y 

Eastman Laboratory B 

The first instrument mentioned in Table III is the one which was used for 
reading all the tests given in this report. The second is one of the early type 
Electrical Research Products densitometers using the polarization head manu- 
factured by the Schmidt & Haensch organization. - The Schmidt & Haensch 
instrument at the Eastman Kodak Laboratory is the same head as that on the 
densitometer at Laboratory E, but is mounted quite differently. 

The densitometer in this plant has been calibrated against the same primary 
standard as the Eastman densitometers, and therefore agrees with them. 

The Schmidt & Haensch as mounted and used at the Eastman Laboratory is 
calibrated strictly against the Cot 2 of the angle of rotation of the Nicol prism, 
and it is known that this instrument reads high (in density) above a value of 1.40 
because of scattered light. 

In Table IV are given the comparative density readings from the several densi- 
tometers enumerated in Table III, together with the gamma values obtained 
from plotting these readings. 

It will be seen that the results fall into two groups, both the Eastman densitom- 
eters, the B & L instruments at Laboratory A and Studio Y, and the Schmidt & 
Haensch at Laboratory E agreeing with each other, while the Bausch & Lomb at 
Laboratory C and the Schmidt & Haensch at the Eastman Kodak Laboratory 
read increasingly higher density at the upper end of the scale, with a resulting 
higher gamma value. 

This survey, which covers only a few of the Hollywood laboratories, shows that 
some differences exist between densitometers, and it can only be supposed that 
similar differences exist between instruments in use in other laboratories in the 
East and in the foreign field. 

Until this condition is rectified, any efforts to standardize release printing con- 
ditions are subject to differences in one of the essential yardsticks used for the 
measurement of print characteristics and consequently will not result in appreci- 
able progress. 

Recognizing this fact, the Sub-Committee plans to establish a set of standard 



448 REPORTS OF RESEARCH COUNCIL [J. s. M. p. E. 

densities to which densitometers in use in the individual laboratories may be com- 
pared and correlated. An account of this phase of the Sub-Committee activity is 
contained in a later portion of this report. 

At the present time the sensitometers used for the exposure of sensitometric 
control strips are quite uniform, the Eastman type 115 sensitometer, which was 
designed specifically for motion picture laboratory use, being widely used in the 
industry not only in Hollywood and New York, but abroad as well. 

TABLE IV 

Comparative Density Readings and Plotted Gamma Values 



Step 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
7 

STANDARD DENSITIES 

As brought out previously in this report, results of tests conducted by the Sub- 
Committee indicated a wide variance in the calibration of densitometers used in 
the various release printing laboratories, and there seemed to be a definite need for 
some standard to which densitometer readings in each of the laboratories might be 
correlated and compared. 

After a considerable investigation of the various materials which might retain 
their properties over a sufficiently long period of time to be suitable for use in a 
set of standard densities, a sensitometric strip of platinum sputtered on glass ap- 
peared to be the most feasible from a mechanical as well as a photographic 
standpoint. 

An experimental set of "possible-standard" densities is now being made in the 
astronomical laboratories at the California Institute of Technology and the 
Mount Wilson Observatory at Pasadena, Calif. 

If present indications prove correct, it will be possible to establish a set of long- 
life standard densities to which all densitometers may be correlated, and which 
will enable any laboratory to compare directly readings made on one densitometer 
with readings made on any other densitometer in any other laboratory. 

This experimental set of densities will be completed and tested in the near 
future, and it is hoped that definite recommendations for the establishment of the 
standard densities may be ready for submission to the producing companies and 
commercial laboratories with whatever recommendations for the establishment 



Eastman; 
Eastman 
Kodak 
Co. 


Schmidt 
& B & L 
Haensch, ERPI; 
ERPI ; Labora- 
Laboratory tory 
E A 


B& L 
ERPI; Eastman; 
Studio Laboratory 
Y B 


B & L 
ERPI 


Schmidt 
& 
Haensch, 
Eastman 
Kodak 
Co. 


2.47 


. . 


2.48 


2.42 


2.49 


2.62 




2.18 


2.15 


2.20 


2.10 


2.17 


2.25 


2.25 


1.82 


1.82 


1.86 


1.78 


1.85 


1.87 


1.91 


1.50 


1.51 


1.53 


1.42 


1.52 


1.52 


1.55 


1.16 


1.17 


1.20 


1.12 


1.18 


1.18 


1.21 


0.85 


' 0.83 


0.89 


0.84 


0.88 


0.85 


0.83 


0.57 


0.55 


0.58 


0.54 


0.59 


0.56 


0.55 


0.34 


0.33 


0.37 


0.33 


0.35 


0.34 


0.33 


0.19 


0.17 


0.21 


0.18 


0.20 


0.20 


0.17 


0.10 


0.09 


0.14 


0.10 


0.10 




0.08 


2.17 


2.22 


2.18 


2.14 


2.18 


2.32 


2.40 



April, 1936] REPORTS OF RESEARCH COUNCIL 449 

of a standard method of sensitometric control may be made upon the completion 
of the tests described previously in this report. 

Standard Sensitometric Control Group of the Research Council Sub-Committee on Improvement 

in Release Print Quality 

L. E. CLARK, Chairman 

G. M. BEST F. EICH K. F. MORGAN 

G. A. CHAMBERS H. ENSIGN H. W. MOYSE 

J. G. FRAYNE 

G. S. MITCHELL 

Manager, Academy Research Council 



COMPILATION OF ANSWERS TO QUESTIONNAIRE ON RELEASE PRINT 
LABORATORY PRACTICE* 

As a first step, the Standard Sensitometric Control Group prepared and cir- 
culated a general questionnaire to all laboratories making release prints, designed 
to obtain a comparison of the controls utilized in each laboratory. A very good 
response was obtained, twelve release print laboratories having returned fully 
completed questionnaires. 

A compilation of these questionnaires is presented below. For the purpose of 
this report, no designation by name of the particular laboratory is recorded, the 
laboratories merely being numbered from 1 to 12. The compilation is so arranged 
that all the answers received to any one question are grouped under that question. 
A picture of the complete practice at any one laboratory may obviously be ob- 
tained by inspecting the answers to each question listed under any one laboratory 
number. 

For purposes of the investigation, the questionnaire was divided into five 
general classifications, i. e., I Sensitometers, II Densitometers, III Sensito- 
metric Procedure on Release Prints, IV Release Inspection, and V Printers. 

I. SENSITOMETERS 

(1) What type of sensitometer do you use? 
Laboratory Answer 

1 Time-scale 

2 Time-scale Eastman type 115 

3 Time-scale Eastman type IIB 

4 Time-scale Eastman type IIB 

5 Time-scale Eastman type 115 

6 Time-scale 

7 Intensity-scale 

8 Time-scale 

9 Time-scale 

10 Time-scale 

11 Time-scale 

12 Time-scale (Eastman Kodak Co. supplies sensitometric strips) 

(2} What is the color temperature of the light-source? 
Laboratory Answer 

1 3000K. 

2 5400 K. (negative); 3000 K. (positive) 

3 5400K. (negative); 3000K. (positive) 

* Report of Sub-Committee on Improvement in Release Print Quality, of the 
Research Council of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts & Sciences, Hollywood, 
Calif. (Reprinted from the Technical Bulletin of the Academy Research Council, 
July 27, 1935.) 
450 



REPORTS OF RESEARCH COUNCIL 451 



4 


3000K. 


5 


3000K. 


6 


3000K. 


7 


2650 K. 


8 


Approx. 3000 K. 


9 


5400K. (negative); 3000K. (positive) 


10 


5400K. (negative); 3000K. (positive) 


11 


.... 


12 





(3) What is 


the illumination at the exposure plane in meter-candles? 


Laboratory 


Answer 


1 


27.0 


2 


0.75 (negative); 27.0 (positive) 


3 


.... 


4 


27.0 


5 


27.0 


6 


27.0 


7 


340 


8 


27.0 (positive) 


9 


. 75 (negative) ; 27 . (positive) 


10 


0.75 (negative); 27.0 (positive) 


11 


112.3 


12 


0.75 (negative); 27.0 (positive) 


(4d) If Time-scale, what is the step ratio? 


Laboratory 


Answer 


1 


V2 


2 


V2 


3 




4 


V* 


5 


V2 


6 


V2 


7 


(Intensity-scale, see Question 46) 


8 


V2 


9 


V2 


10 


V2 


11 




12 


V2 



(4b} If Intensity-scale, what is the color coefficient of the tablet? 
Laboratory Answer 

7 1 

(5a) If Time-scale, what is the time of maximum exposure? 
Laboratory Answer 

1 4. 99 seconds 

2 4. 99 seconds 

3 4. 99 seconds 



452 REPORTS OF RESEARCH COUNCIL [j. s. M. p. E. 

4 4. 99 seconds 

5 4. 99 seconds 

6 4. 99 seconds 

7 (Intensity-scale, see Question 56) 

8 4. 99 seconds 

9 4 . 99 seconds 
10 

11 2. 05 seconds 

12 4. 99 seconds 

(5b] If Intensity-scale, what is the time of exposure? 

Laboratory Answer 

7 0.25 second 

(6) How often is your sensitometer calibrated? 
Laboratory Answer 

1 Semi-monthly 

2 Every two weeks 

3 Every 200 hours of use 

4 Every 10 days 

5 Every 10 days 

6 Semi-monthly 

7 Monthly 

8 Weekly 

9 Every six weeks 

10 Semi-monthly 

11 Every week 

12 Semi-monthly 

(7) What standard is used? 
Laboratory Answ er 

1 Checked by Eastman 

2 Eastman standard 

3 Eastman standard 

4 Calibrated against Eastman standard 

5 Eastman standard 

6 Eastman standard 

7 Calibrated lamp 

8 Eastman standard 

9 Eastman standard 

10 Eastman standard 

11 Eastman standard 

12 Eastman standard 

II. DENSITOMETERS 

(<?) What type of densitometer do you use? 
Laboratory Answer 

1 Eastman visual diffuse 

2 Bausch & Lomb K.S. 6466 visual diffuse 



April, 1936] REPORTS OF RESEARCH COUNCIL 453 

3 Eastman visual diffuse 

4 Bausch & Lomb visual diffuse 

5 ERPI polarization visual diffuse 

6 Schmidt & Haensch, Eastman visual diffuse 

7 Western Electric and Eastman visual diffuse (also photoelectric) 

8 Eastman visual diffuse ; Bausch & Lomb (visual specular and photo- 

electric for experimenting) 

9 Eastman visual diffuse 

10 Eastman visual specular 

11 Bausch & Lomb 

12 Eastman visual diffuse 

(9) What type of diffusion ts used? 

Laboratory Answer 

1 Flashed opal glass 

2 Flashed opal glass 

3 Flashed opal glass 

4 Opal glass 

5 Pot opal glass 

6 Opal glass 

7 Opal glass 

8 Opal glass 

9 Opal glass 
10 Opal glass 
11 

12 Opal glass 

(10) How often is your densitometer checked? 

Laboratory Answer 

1 Every two weeks 

2 Checked only at factory before delivery 

3 Daily 

4 Daily 

5 Weekly 

6 Daily by standard calibrated wedge 

7 Monthly 

8 Monthly against Eastman standard 

9 Every six weeks 

10 Weekly 

11 Weekly 

12 Checked by Eastman monthly, our own standards weekly 

(11) What method is used? 

Laboratory Answer 

1 Calibration against standard by Eastman Kodak Co. 

2 

3 Checked to a strip of known density 

4 Checked before using, at zero reading ; our own density standards 

are also used 



454 REPORTS OF RESEARCH COUNCIL [J. S. M.'p. E. 

5 Checked against density standards which are checked with Eastman 

Kodak Co. standards 

6 By standard calibrated wedge 

7 Calibrated photographic density 

8 Standard densities 

9 Comparison with polarization type instruments 

10 Checked by Eastman standard density strip 

11 Neutral density strips and standard tablets are read 
12 

III. SENSITOMETRIC PROCEDURE ON RELEASE PRINTS 

(12} Do you attach a strip to each roll? If not, at what intervals? 
Laboratory Answer 

1 

2 Hourly 

3 Independent strips run through every two hours 

4 At end of each copy 

5 Strip is added every half -hour during processing 

6 Hourly 

7 Half-hour intervals 

8 Yes 

9 Separate strip every half -hour 

10 Half-hourly 

11 Each roll 
12 

(13) Are sensitometric control strips made from same emulsion as that on which 
the release is being printed? 

Laboratory Answer 
1 

2 Yes 

3 Yes 

4 Yes 

5 Yes 

6 Yes 

7 Yes 

8 Yes 

9 Yes 

10 Yes 

11 Yes 
12 

(14) Do you use a printed-through sensitometric strip, if such a strip is furnished on 
the negative? 

Laboratory Answer 
1 

2 NO 

3 No 



April, 1930] REPORTS OF RESEARCH COUNCIL l.V> 

4 No 

J Yes 

6 No 

7 If desired by customer 

8 No 

9 No 
10 No 
71 Yes 
12 

(15) If printed-through strips are used, do you depend entirely upon them for 
standardization, or do you use separate sensitometric checks as well? 
Laboratory Answer 

1 

2 

3 

4 Occasional checks are made with printed-through strips 

5 Printed-through strips are used as secondary check mainly for 

density 

6 Used for balancing printing machine 
7 

8 Separate sensitometric strips 

9 Separate sensitometric checks 

10 Separate sensitometric checks 

11 Both 

12 

(16) What is your desired gamma? 

Laboratory Answer 



1 




2 


Positive, 2.30 


3 


2.20 


4 


2.40 


5 


2.15 


6 


.... 


7 


2.10 


8 


2.00 


9 


2.15 


10 


2.10 


11 


2.00 


12 


2.00 



(17) How closely can you liold to your desired gamma? 
Laboratory Answer 

1 

2 0.05 

3 5 per cent 

4 0.05 

5 2. 10 to 2. 25 



456 REPORTS OF RESEARCH COUNCIL [j. s. M. P. E. 

6 2 per cent 

7 Stock variation 

8 5 per cent 

9 0.05 

10 2. 05 to 2. 15 

11 0.1 

12 2. 00 to 2. 20 

(18} How far would the gamma have to vary from your desired point before the print 
would be rejected? 
Laboratory Answer 

1 . ... 

2 0.08. 

3 No prints rejected on readings alone, but run for sound quality. 

4 0.10. 

5 5 per cent tolerable variation. 

6 5 per cent. 

7 Depends on subject. 

8 If below 1 . 90, or above 2. 10. 

9 Approximately 5 per cent plus or minus. 

10 . 05 above to . 05 below standard. 

11 Depends upon result. 

12 1.80 to 2. 20. 
12 1.80 to 2. 20. 

(19) What density measurements are made on release prints? 

Laboratory Answer 

1 

2 Biased transmission, 13 to 15 per cent. 

3 Every print measured for density (any print falling outside a given 

range is then played for sound quality). 

4 

5 Bias and head strip densities made on first release copies. No 

other density measurements on succeeding prints unless quality 
or volume warrants. 
6 

7 Unbiased, unmodulated control strip of every roll. 

8 Sound-track density, picture density, and gamma. 

9 Density readings of unmodulated control strips variable-density 

tracks when available. 

10 Each reel is measured by checking the unbiased cut-in check strip 

inserted at the beginning of each reel. To date our sound prod- 
uct is a complete re-recording process; therefore it is only neces- 
sary to check the unbiased portion at the beginning of each reel, 
the correct density of biased portion throughout the reel being 
determined by the amount of noise reduction used. 

11 Unmodulated and unbiased track density as well as printed-through. 

12 Approximately 28 per cent. 



April, 1936] REPORTS OF RESEARCH COUNCIL 457 

(20) What qualifications must your sensitometric control men fulfill? 
Laboratory Answer 

1 Head sensitometric man, twenty years in motion picture laboratory 

work; high-school education. Assistant, 2 years' experience; 
2 l /2 years university. 

2 Day man, 5 years' experience various studios; education, one 

year western university. Night man, radio broadcasting experi- 
ence, plus 4Vz years in the laboratory. 

.? Experienced laboratory men trained for this work, with high -school 

and college education. 

4 Research and laboratory experience, high-school and college ex- 

perience or equivalent. 

J Foreman, technical training and practical experience, plus college 

education. Assistant, practical experience, plus high-school 
education. 

6 Efficient laboratory men trained in this work in this organization. 

7 Degree from a recognized college and no experience in film business. 

Men are trained here to our own methods. 

8 Average about eight years' laboratory experience; one college 

graduate and three not graduated. 

9 Laboratory experience and sensitometric knowledge. 
10 

11 Prefer college men with engineering background. 

12 Experienced laboratory men with acquired sensitometric knowledge. 

IV. RELEASE INSPECTION 

(21 ) Do you inspect each and every print for both sound and picture? 
Laboratory Answer 

1 

2 Every print inspected for picture, sound inspected by measurement, 

twice daily, one reel of each printing machine inspected for sound 
by projection. 

3 All prints inspected by projection for density, picture quality, and 

cleanness. Sound density is read on every print. Synchronism 
is checked by corresponding marks printed from picture and 
sound negatives. Mislight on sound is checked by printer light 
going out at end of reel. 

4 Every print by theater projection at 90 feet per minute. 

5 Each print visually on small screen, each inspector equipped with 

hea,d-phones for sound inspection at 90 feet per minute. 

6 Each print given general visual inspection at 100 feet per minute. 
Each print inspected by projection in individual booths with loud 

speakers, and track projected on screen at 90 feet per minute. 

8 Each print by projection in sound room at 90 feet per minute. 

9 Each print inspected for picture and sound visually at 90 feet per 

minute and a percentage of the product is inspected audibly as 
well. 



458 REPORTS OF RESEARCH COUNCIL [J. s. M. p. E. 

10 Master composite checked in theater (sound and action projection), 

following copies inspected on cold-light projectors, visual projec- 
tion of sound-track on screen, at 90 feet per minute. 

11 Each print inspected at normal speed by projection. 

12 Each print inspected at normal speed by projection in regular pro- 

jection room. 

(22) From the laboratory standpoint, how much time would you consider ideal to 
turn out the first satisfactory print from a new release negative? 

Laboratory Answer 

1 24 hours. 

2 2 to 3 days for final correction in printing lights, requiring 2 to 3 

complete prints. 

3 4 days (including preparation of and numbering negatives, time- 

cards, timing negatives, and correction of sample print). 

4 24 hours. 

5 4 copies (time required to send through 4 copies and check each one 

for improvement in density balance would be 2 days). 

6 2 days. 

7 3 days. 

8 4 days. 

9 Average of 3 hours per reel. 

10 48 hours. 

11 8-16 hours. 

12 1 day (for a 2-reel picture). 

V. PRINTERS 

(23) What type of printer do you use for sound? For picture? 
Laboratory Answer 

1 Bell & Howell (sound and picture). 

2 Bell & Howell (sound). Adapter (picture). 

3 Special design (sound). Step printer (picture). 

4 Bell & Howell continuous (sound and picture). 

5 Bell & Howell model D (sound and picture). 

6 Bell & Howell model D (sound and picture). 

7 Modified Bell & Howell (sound and picture). 

8 Bell & Howell (sound and picture). 

9 Continuous (sound). Step printer (picture). 

10 Bell & Howell (sound and picture). 

11 Bell & Howell (sound and picture). 

12 Bell & Howell (sound and picture). 

(24) Do you print sound and picture simultaneously? 
Laboratory Answer 

1 No 

2 Yes 

3 Yes 

4 No 

5 No 



April, 1936] REPORTS OF RESEARCH COUNCIL 459 



6 


Yes 




7 


Yes 




8 


No 




9 


Yes 




10 


No 




11 


No 




12 


No 




(25} What 


is your printer film speed? 




Laboratory 


Answer 




1 


80 feet per minute. 




2 


75 




3 


37.5 




4 


48 




5 


62 




6 


60 




7 


90 




8 


80 




9 


75 




10 


80 




11 


60 




12 


58 




(26} Type 


of light-source? 




Laboratory 


Answer 




1 






2 


Incandescent ground glass globe. 




3 


60-w clear. 




4 


75-w G. E. Mazda (long filament). 




5 


Special Mazda, 100-w, 115-v. 




6 






7 


B type cage filament, 115-v. 




8 


60-w Mazda. 




9 


100-w, 110-v Mazda frosted. 




10 


75-w inside frosted, pear-shaped incandescent lamp, 115-v 


d-c. 


11 


Incandescent lamp. 




12 


Old style Mazda lamp, 75-w. 




(27} Do you check for printer contact and slippage? If so, how? 


Laboratory 


Answer 




7 


Checked by sound department. 




2 


Test-strips twice a day, also one complete reel from each 


machine 




twice a day. 




3 


Contact checked by means of 6000-cycle negative attached to ma- 




chine test, which is examined for sharpness; slippage 


check by 




evenness of exposure on piece of unmodulated negative 


attached 




to machine test. 




4 


Check gate for contact; check belt for slippage. 




5 


Routine check once each month for contact and slippage. However, 



460 REPORTS OF RESEARCH COUNCIL [J. S. M. p. E. 

if trouble is encountered, check is made more frequently test is 
usually made by printing from a negative with fine criss-cross 
lines. 

6 Visual observation of test print from standard negatives and elec- 

trical measurement of high-frequency losses. 

7 Yes (for contact). 

8 Contact and slippage daily by registration print. 

9 . Check frequency test-strips microscopically for slippage and per- 

centage of daily production in same manner. 

10 By printing a sound negative with recordings at 100, 1000, 7000 

cycles. The print is then run on a re-recording machine checked 
on standard VI meter for decibel fluctuation and tone quality 
projection. Variation in negative compensated by running 
negative also. 

11 Yes, by actual film test. 

12 Regulation check as per contact test made with two pieces of film. 

For slippage test we use a speedometer on each machine. 

(28) Do you check the printing machines within your plant with each other, step 
for step? How do you do it? 

(For example: If a given scene printed on light 15 on one printing machine, 
how closely to this do you try to keep the other printing machines within the 
plant?) 

Laboratory Answer 

1 Checked visually and by reading exposure on densitometer. 

2 We strive to keep printing machines within one-half point either 

way. 

3 100 per cent. 

4 We try to keep them all alike. 

5 Both sound and picture apertures on each machine are checked and 

balanced with an accepted standard. Each light matches ex- 
actly on all machines. 

6 One-half point. 

7 All machines are kept identically a known distance apart at one step 

in center of scale, and such scale variations as there are, are known 
to us and allowed for in timing. Checking is done by printing a 
loop on machines in question and on all machines frequently. 

8 Each individual step on each printer as well as testing machines 

is checked against a standard twice daily. Also the light value 
of the printer on each step is checked with a photronic cell in a 
bridge circuit with an L & N galvanometer. 

9 Printing lights are matched on all machines so that the same result is 

obtained on a given scene from corresponding lights. 

10 A scene printing on light 15 on one printer would print on the same 

light on all printers. A standard negative is used for sound 
and action density checks, and any difference in the printers com- 
pensated for by a slight voltage adjustment within a given range 



April, 1936] REPORTS OF RESEARCH COUNCIL 461 

whereby printer gamma is not affected. The above constitutes a 
visual and sensitometric check. 

11 Yes, by checking each machine with the same negative of picture and 

unbiased unmodulated track. 

12 We have only two printers and they are identically alike. 

(29) How frequently are printing machines checked (a) jor balance; (b) for 
contact and slippage? 
Laboratory Answer 

1 Daily. 

2 Twice daily. 

3 Daily. 

4 Twice daily (balance). Daily (contact and slippage). 

5 Three times daily (balance). Monthly (contact and slippage). 

6 Every 6 hours. 

7 Twice a week. 

8 Twice daily. 

9 Bi-weekly (balance). Daily (contact and slippage). 

10 Daily for density; weekly for printer gamma (balance). Weekly 

(contact and slippage). 

11 Daily. 

12 Daily. 



COMMITTEES 

of the 
SOCIETY OF MOTION PICTURE ENGINEERS 

(Correct to March 20, 1936; additional appointments may be made at any time 
during the year as necessity or expediency may require) 



L. W. DAVEE 
A. S. DICKINSON 



ADMISSIONS 

T. E. SHEA, Chairman 
M. W. PALMER 
H. RUBIN 



H. GRIFFIN 
D. E. HYNDMAN 



O. M. GLUNT 
A. C. HARDY 



BOARD OF EDITORS 

J. I. CRABTREE, Chairman 



L. A. JONES 

G. E. MATTHEWS 



W. H. CARSON 
O. O. CECCARINI 



COLOR 

J. A. BALL, Chairman 
C. H. DUNNING 
R. M. EVANS 

A. M. GUNDELFINGER 



H. W. MOYSE 
A. WARMISHAM 



H. GRIFFIN 



CONVENTION 
W. C. KUNZMANN, Chairman 

J. H. KURLANDER 



M. W. PALMER 



H. BUSCH 

A. S. DICKINSON 

G. C. EDWARDS 



EXCHANGE PRACTICE 

T. FAULKNER, Chairman 
A. HIATT 
J. S. MACLEOD 



N. F. OAKLEY 
H. RUBIN 
J. H. SPRAY 



T. ARMAT 

G. A. CHAMBERS 



A. N. GOLDSMITH 
A. C. HARDY - 



HISTORICAL 

E. THEISEN, Chairman 
W. CLARK 



HONORARY MEMBERSHIP 

J. G. FRAYNE, Chairman 



G. E. MATTHEWS 
T. RAMSAYE 



H. G. TASKER 
W. E. THEISEN 



462 



COMMITTEES OF THE SOCIETY 



463 



E. HUSB 

K. F. MORGAN 



JOURNAL AWARD 
A. C. HARDY, Chairman 



G. F. RACKETT 

E. A. WlLLlFORD 



J. CRABTREE 
R. M. EVANS 
E. HUSE 
T. M. INGMAN 



LABORATORY PRACTICE 

D. E. HYNDMAN, Chairman 
M. S. LESHING 
C. L. LOOTENS 
R. F. MITCHELL 



H. W. MOYSB 

J. M. NlCKOLAUS 

W. A. SCHMIDT 
J. H. SPRAY 



MEMBERSHIP AND SUBSCRIPTION 



Atlanta 

C. D. PORTER 



Boston 

T. C. BARROWS 
J. S. CIFRE 
J. R. CAMERON 



E. R. GEIB, Chairman 

E. HUSE 

F. E. JAMES 

G. A. MITCHELL 
P. MOLE 

K. F. MORGAN 
G. F. RACKETT 



Minneapolis 

Camden & Philadelphia C.L.GREENE 
H. BLUMBERG 
J. FRANK, JR. 



Chicago 
B. W. DEPUE 
J. H. GOLDBERG 
S. A. LUKES 
R. F. MITCHELL 

Cleveland 
R. E. FARNHAM 
J. T. FLANNAGAN 
V. A. WELMAN 



Hollywood 
J. O. AALBERG 
L. E. CLARK 
G. H. GIBSON 
C. W. HANDLEY 



New York 

G. C. EDWARDS 

J. J. FINN 

G. P. FOUTE 

H. GRIFFIN 

W. W. HENNESSEY 

R. C. HOLSLAG 

M. D. O'BRIEN 

F. H. RICHARDSON 
H. B. SANTEE 
T. E. SHEA 
J. L. SPENCE 
J. H. SPRAY 



Rochester 

E. K. CARVER 



Washington 
N. GLASSER 
F. J. STORTY 

A ustralia 
H. C. PARISH 

A ustria 

P. R. VON SCHROTT 

Canada 

F. C. BADGLEY 

C. A. DENTELBECK 

G. E. PATTON 

China 

R. E. O'BOLGER 

I. TORNOVSKY 

England 

W. F. GARLING 

R. G. LlNDERMAN 

D. McMASTER 

R. TERRANEAU 
S. S. A. WATKINS 

France 

L. J. DlDIEE 



464 



COMMITTEES OF THE SOCIETY 



[J. S. M. p. E. 



L. G. EGROT 

F. H. HOTCHKISS 

J. MARETTE 

Germany 

W. F. BlELICKE 
K. NORDEN 



Hawaii 

L. LACHAPELLE 



T. ARMAT 

H. T. COWLING 



O. B. DEPUE 



India 

H. S. MEHTA 
L. L. MISTRY 
M. B. PATEL 

Japan 

T. NAGASE 

Y. OSAWA 

New Zealand 
C. BANKS 

MUSEUM 
(Eastern) 

M. E. GILLETTE, Chairman 
G. E. MATTHEWS 

(Western) 

E. THEISEN, Chairman 
J. A. DUBRAY 



Russia 

A. F. CHORINE 

E. G. JACHONTOW 

Travelling 
E. AUGER 
K. BRENKERT 
W. C. KUNZMANN 

D. MCRAE 

O. F. NEU 
H. H. STRONG 



T. RAMSAYE 
E. I. SPONABLE 



A. REEVES 



D. P. BEAN 

E. W. BEGGS 

F. E. CARLSON 
W. B. COOK 



NON-THEATRICAL EQUIPMENT 
R. F. MITCHELL, Chairman 



H. A. DEVRY 
E. C. FRITTS 
H. GRIFFIN 



R. C. HOLSLAG 
E. Ross 
A. SHAPIRO 
A. F. VICTOR 



C. N. BATSEL 
L. N. BUSCH 
A. A. COOK 
L. J. J. DIDIEE 



PAPERS 
G. E. MATTHEWS, Chairman 

M. E. GILLETTE H. B. SANTEE 

R. F. MITCHELL T. E. SHEA 

W. A. MUELLER P. R. VON SCHROTT 

I. D. WRATTEN 



J. I. CRABTREE 
A. S. DICKINSON 



PRESERVATION OF FILM 
J. G. BRADLEY, Chairman 
R. EVANS 
C. L. GREGORY 
T. RAMSAYE 



V. B. SEASE 
W. A. SCHMIDT 



M. ABRIBAT 
L. N. BUSCH 
A. A. COOK 
R. M. CORBIN 
J. A. DUBRAY 



PROGRESS 

J. G. FRAYNE, Chairman 
R. E. FARNHAM 
E. R. GEIB 
G. E. MATTHEWS 
H. MEYER 
V. E. MILLER 



R. F. MITCHELL 
G. F. RACKETT 
P. R. VON SCHROTT 
S. S. A. WATKINS 
I. D. WRATTEN 



April, 1936] 



COMMITTEES OF THE SOCIETY 



465 



M. C. BATSEL 
J. I. CRABTREE 



J. O. BAKER 
T. C. BARROWS 

F. E. CAHILL 
J. R. CAMERON 

G. C. EDWARDS 
J. K. ELDERKIN 



PROGRESS AWARD 

A. N. GOLDSMITH, Chairman 

PROJECTION PRACTICE 

H. RUBIN, Chairman 
J. J. FINN 
E. R. GEIB 
A. N. GOLDSMITH 
H. GRIFFIN 
J. J. HOPKINS 
C. F. HORSTMAN 



C. DREHER 
J. G. FRAYNE 



P. A. McGuiRE 

R. MlEHLING 

E. R. MORIN 

M. D. O'BRIEN 

F. H. RICHARDSON 
J. S. WARD 



PROJECTION SCREEN BRIGHTNESS 



A. A. COOK 
A. C. DOWNES 
D. E. HYNDMAN 



C. TUTTLE, Chairman 
W. F. LITTLE 
O. E. MILLER 
G. F. RACKETT 



B. SCHLANGER 

A. T. WILLIAMS 
S. K. WOLF 



J. R. CAMERON 
J. J. FINN 



M. C. BATSEL 
L. E. CLARK 
F. J. GRIGNON 



PUBLICITY 

W. WHITMORE, Chairman 

G. E. MATTHEWS P. A. McGuiRE 

F. H. RICHARDSON 



SOUND 

P. H. EVANS, Chairman 
K. F. MORGAN 
O. SANDVIK 
E. I. SPONABLE 



R. O. STROCK 
H. G. TASKER 
S. K. WOLF 



F. C. BADGLEY 
M. C. BATSEL 
W. H. CARSON 
A. C. DOWNES 
J. A. DUBRAY 
P. H. EVANS 
C. L. FARRAND 
R. E. FARNHAM 



STANDARDS 

E. K. CARVER, Chairman 
H. GRIFFIN 
R. C. HUBBARD 
E. HUSE 
C. L. LOOTENS 
K. F. MORGAN 
N. F. OAKLEY 
G. F. RACKETT 



W. B. RAYTON 
C. N. REIFSTECK 
H. RUBIN 
O. SANDVIK 
H. B. SANTEE 
J. L. SPENCE 
H. M. STOLLER 
A. G. WISE 



W. C. KUNZMANN 
J. H, KURLANDER 



STUDIO LIGHTING 

R. E. FARNHAM, Chairman 
V. E. MILLER 
G. F. RACKETT 



E. C. RICHARDSON 

F. WALLER 



466 COMMITTEES OF THE SOCIETY 

SECTIONS OF THE SOCIETY 

(Atlantic Coast) 

L. W. DAVEE, Chairman 
H. G. TASKER, Past-Chairman M. C. BATSEL, Manager 

D. E. HYNDMAN, Sec.-Treas. H. GRIFFIN, Manager 

(Mid-West) 

C. H. STONE, Chairman 

R. F. MITCHELL, Past-Chairman O. B. DEPUE, Manager 

S. A. LUKES, Sec.-Treas. B. E. STECHBART, Manager 

(Pacific Coast) 

G. F. RACKETT, Chairman 

E. HUSE, Past-Chairman K. F. MORGAN, Manager 
H. W. MOYSE, Sec.-Treas. C. W. HANDLEY, Manager 



SPRING, 1936, CONVENTION 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

EDGE WATER BEACH HOTEL 

APRIL 27-30, INCLUSIVE 



Officers and Committees in Charge 

PROGRAM AND FACILITIES 

W. C. KUNZMANN, Convention Vice-President 
J. I. CRABTREE, Editorial Vice-President 
O. M. GLUNT, Financial Vice-President 
G. E. MATTHEWS, Chairman, Papers Committee 
E. R. GEIB, Chairman, Membership Committee 
W. WHITMORE, Chairman, Publicity Committee 
H. GRIFFIN, Chairman, Projection Committee 
O. F. NEU, Chairman, Apparatus Exhibit 

LOCAL ARRANGEMENTS AND RECEPTION COMMITTEE 

C. H. STONE, Chairman 

R. P. BEDORE F. P. HECK J. H. MCNABB 

O. B. DEPUE B. J. KLEERUP R. F. MITCHELL 

H. A. DEVRY S. A. LUKES C. G. OLLINGER 

J. GOLDBERG J. E. McAuLEY B. E. STECHBART 

CONVENTION PROJECTION COMMITTEE 

H. GRIFFIN, Chairman 

L. R. Cox J. GOLDBERG J. E. McAuLEY 

H. A. DEVRY S. A. LUKES H. RYAN 

Officers and Members of Chicago Local No. 110, I. A. T. S. E. 

APPARATUS EXHIBIT 

O. F. NEU, Chairman 
H. A. DEVRY S. HARRIS 

J. FRANK, JR. C. H. STONE 

LADIES' RECEPTION COMMITTEE 

MRS. C. H. STONE, Hostess 

assisted by 

MRS. B. W. DEPUE MRS. S. A. LUKES 

MRS. H. A. DEVRY MRS. R. F. MITCHELL 

MRS. F. B. HECK MRS. B. E. STECHBART 

467 



468 



O. B. DEPUE 
J. GOLDBERG 
H. GRIFFIN 



SPRING CONVENTION 
BANQUET COMMITTEE 

W. C. KUNZMANN, Chairman 

J. H. KURLANDER 

S. HARRIS 

HEADQUARTERS 



[J. S. M. P. E. 



S. A. LUKES 
R. F. MITCHELL 
C. H. STONE 



The Headquarters of the Convention will be the Edge water Beach Hotel, 
where excellent accommodations and Convention facilities are assured. A 
special suite will be provided for the ladies. Rates for SMPE delegates, 
European plan, will be as follows: 

One person, room and bath $3 . 00 

Two persons, double bed and bath 5. 00 

Two persons, twin beds and bath 5 . 00 

Parlor suite and bath, for two 10. 00 and 12. 00 

Room reservation cards were mailed to the membership of the Society recently, 
and every one who plans to attend the Convention should return his card to the 
Hotel promptly in order to be assured of satisfactory accommodations. 

A special rate of fifty cents a day has been arranged for SMPE delegates who 
motor to the Convention, in the Edgewater Beach Hotel fireproof garage. Pri- 
vate de luxe motor coaches operated by the Hotel will be available for service be- 
tween the Hotel and the Chicago Loop area. 

TECHNICAL SESSIONS 

An attractive program of technical papers and presentations is being arranged 
by the Papers Committee. All sessions and film programs will be held in the 
East Lounge of the Hotel. 

APPARATUS EXHIBIT 

An exhibit of newly developed motion picture apparatus will be held in the 
West Lounge of the Hotel, to which all manufacturers of equipment are invited to 
contribute. The apparatus to be exhibited must either be new or embody new 
features of interest from a technical point of view. No charge will be made 
for space. Information concerning the exhibit and reservations for space should 
be made by writing to the Chairman of the Exhibits Committee, Mr. O. F. Neu, 
addressed to the General Office of the Society. 

SEMI-ANNUAL BANQUET 

The Semi-Annual Banquet and Dance of the Society will be held in the Ball- 
room of the Edgewater Beach Hotel on Wednesday, April 29th, at 7:30 P.M. 
Addresses will be delivered by eminent members of the motion picture industry, 
followed by dancing and entertainment. 

INSPECTION TRIPS 

Arrangements may be made, upon request at the registration desk, to visit 
and inspect, in small groups, various laboratories, studios, and equipment manu- 



April, 1936] SPRING CONVENTION 469 

factories in the Chicago area. Firms that have extended invitations to such 
groups are: 

Burton Holmes Films, Inc. J. E. McAuley Manufacturing 
Bell & Howell Company Company 

Chicago Film Laboratories, Inc. Jam Handy Pictures Corp. 

Da-Lite Screen Company, Inc. Jenkins & Adair, Inc. 

Enterprise Optical Manufacturing National Screen Service, Inc. 

Company Western Electric Company 

Herman H. DeVry, Inc. Wilding Picture Productions, Inc. 

Holmes Projector Company Society of Visual Education 

POINTS OF INTEREST 

To list all the points of interest in and about Chicago would require too much 
space, but among them may be mentioned the following: 

Field Museum of Natural History Oriental Institute 

Adler Planetarium and Astronomical John G. Shedd Aquarium 

Museum Lincoln Park Aquarium 

Art Institute Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens 

Museum of Science and Industry Chicago Zoological Gardens 

Chicago Historical Society Grant Park 

Academy of Science University of Chicago 

Lincoln Park Loyola University 

National Underwriters' Laboratories Northwestern University 

Complete information concerning and directions for visiting these places will 
be available at the Hotel. 

RECREATION 

A miniature nine-hole golf course, putting greens, and regulation tennis courts, 
maintained by the Hotel, will be available to SMPE delegates registered at the 
Hotel. Details will be available at the registration desk. Special diversions 
will be provided for the ladies, and passes to local theaters will be available to all 
delegates registering. 



TENTATIVE PROGRAM 
MONDAY, APRIL 27th 

9: 00 a.m. Registration. 

10:00 a. m. to 12:00 p. m. East Lounge; Business and Technical Session. 
Address of Welcome; H. G. Tasker, President. 
Report of the Convention Committee; W. C. 

Kunzmann, Convention V ice-President. (5 min.) 
Report of the Membership Committee; E. R. Geib. 

Chairman. (5 min.) 



470 SPRING CONVENTION [J. S. M. p. E. 

Report of the Progress Committee; J. G. Frayne, 
Chairman. (20 min.) 

"Organization and Work of the Film Library;" 
John E. Abbott, Director, The Museum of Modern 
Art Film Library, New York, N. Y. (Demonstra- 
tion.) (25 min.) 

"The Application of Sound Motion Pictures to 
Criminal Identification;" Col. H. N. Schwarzkopf, 
Superintendent, New Jersey State Police, Trenton, 
N. J. (Demonstration.) (25 min.) 



12:30 p. m. South Room; Informal Get-Together Luncheon. 

For members and guests. 



2:00 p. m. to 5:00 p. m. East Lounge; Sound Session. 

Report of the Sound Committee; P. H. Evans, 
Chairman. 

"Photoelectric Cells and Their Method of Opera- 
tion;" M. F. Jameson and T. E. Shea, Bell Tele- 
phone Laboratories, Inc., New York, N. Y. 
(Demonstration.) (1 hour) 

"Harmonic Distortion in Variable- Density Record- 
ing;" B. F. Miller, Warner Bros. Pictures Corp., 
Hollywood, Calif. (15 min.) 

"Critically Damped Filters;" J. Livadary, Colum- 
bia Pictures Corp., Hollywood, Calif. (15 min.) 

"Increased Resolution in Sound Recording and 
Printing through the Use of Ultraviolet Light;" 
G. L. Dimmick, RCA Manufacturing Co., Inc., 
Camden, N. J. (Demonstration.) (25 min.) 

8 :00 p. m. East Lounge; Film Program. 

Exhibition of recent outstanding feature and indus- 
trial motion pictures. 

TUESDAY, APRIL 28th 

10:00 a. m. to 12:00 p. m. East Lounge; General Technical Session. 

"The Acoustic Design of Music Scoring Stages;" 
C. M. Mugler, Acoustical Engineering Co., Los 
Angeles, Calif. (Demonstration.) (20 min.) 
"Acoustic Considerations in the Construction and 
Use of Sound Stages;" P. D. Loye, Electrical Re- 
search Products, Inc., Los Angeles, Calif. (Dem- 
onstration.) (20 min.) 






April, 1936] SPRING CONVENTION 471 

"A High-Quality Reproducing System for Small 
Theaters;" H. P. Pfannenstiehl, E. O. Scriven, 
and J. F. Hoge, Bell Telephone Laboratories, 
Inc., New York, N. Y. (25 min.) 

"The RCA Recording System;" B. Kreuzer, RCA 
Manufacturing Co., Inc., Camden, N. J. (20 
min.) 

Report of the Standards Committee; E. K. Carver, 
Chairman. (10 min.) 

2 :00 p. m. to 5 :00 p. m. East Lounge; Lighting Symposium. 

Report of the Projection Screen Brightness Com- 
mittee; C. Tuttle, Chairman. (15 min.) 

Report of the Projection Practice Committee; H. 
Rubin, Chairman. (15 min.) 

"The Motion Picture Screen as a Lighting Prob- 
lem;" M. Luckiesh and F. K. Moss, General 
Electric Co., Cleveland, Ohio. (25 min.) 

"Source Construction and Color of Light from Some 
Incandescent Lamps;" R. E. Farnham and R. E. 
Worstell, General Electric Co., Cleveland, Ohio. 
(20 min.) 

"Present Trends in the Application of the Carbon 
Arc to the Motion Picture Industry;" W. C. 
Kalb, National Carbon Co., Inc., Cleveland, Ohio. 
(20 min.) 

"Theory and Use of Photoelectric Exposure Me- 
ters;" A. T. Williams, Weston Electrical Instru- 
ment Corp., Newark, N. J. (20 min.) 

"A 13.6-Mm. Super-High-Intensity Carbon;" D. B. 
Joy, National Carbon Co., Inc., Fostoria, Ohio. 



WEDNESDAY, APRIL 29th 

10:00 a. m. to 12:00 p. m. East Lounge; Laboratory and Projection Session. 

Report of the Committee on Film Preservation; 

Capt. John G. Bradley, Chairman. (15 min.) 
"A Film Emulsion for Making Direct Duplicates in a 

Single Step ;" W. Earth and F. Schoeck, Agfa Ansco 

Corp., Binghamton, N. Y. (20 min.) 
"Projection and Projectors;" A. J. Holman, East 

Orange, N. J. (20 min.) 
"Some Properties of Motion Picture Film;" A. H. 

Nuckolls, Underwriters' Laboratories, Chicago, 

111. (20 min.) 



472 SPRING CONVENTION [J. s. M. p. E. 

"Action Is Needed;" F. H. Richardson, Motion 
Picture Herald, New York, N. Y. (10 min.) 

2:00 p. m. to 5:00 p. m. Visits to the National Underwriters' Laboratories 

and other points of industrial interest. 

7:30 p. m. Ball Room; Semi-Annual Banquet. 

Addresses by eminent members of the industry, 
names to be announced later. Dancing and 
entertainment. 



THURSDAY, APRIL 30th 

10:00 a. m. to 12:00 p. m. East Lounge; Slide-Film Symposium. 

"The Development of Slide-Film Stereopticons;" 
Miss Marie Witham, Society for Visual In- 
struction, Chicago, 111. (15 min.) 

"Slide-Films for Use in the Extension Division of the 
U. S. Department of Agriculture;" C. H. Hanson, 
Extension Service, U. S. Department of Agricul- 
ture, Washington, D. C. (Demonstration.) (20 
min.) 

"Visual Education and Slide-Films;" J. B. Mac- 
Harg, Lawrence College, Appleton, Wis. (Dem- 
onstration.) (20 min.) 

"A Sound Slide-Film Projector;" F. Freimann, 
Electro-Acoustic Products Co., Fort Wayne, Ind. 
(Demonstration.) (15 min.) 

"The Business Screen Some Demands Made upon 
It;" W. F. Kruse, Bell & Howell Co., Chicago, 111. 
(15 min.) 

Report of the Committee on Non-Theatrical Equip- 
ment; R. T. Mitchell, Chairman. (15 min.) 

2:00 p. m. to 5:00 p.m. East Lounge; Apparatus and Equipment Session. 

"Photographic Race-Timing Equipment;" F. Tuttle 
and C. H. Green, Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, 
N. Y. (15 min.) 

"Use of Motion Pictures in an Accurate System for 
Timing and Judging Horse Races;" E. M. Honan, 
Electrical Research Products, Inc., Hollywood, 
Calif. (Demonstration.) (15 min.) 

"Analysis of Sound Waves;" H. H. Hall, Cruft 
Laboratory, Harvard University, Cambridge, 
Mass. (15 min.) 






SPRING CONVENTION 473 

"Copper Oxide Rectifier for Motion Picture Arc 
Supply;" I. R. Smith, Westinghouse Electrical & 
Manufacturing Co., East Pittsburgh, Pa., and 
C. E. Hamann, General Electric Co., West Lynn, 
Mass. (20 min.) 

"A New Monitoring Telephone Receiver;" H. F. 
Olson, RCA Manufacturing Co., Inc., Camden, 
N. J. (15 min.) 

"A New Rotary Stabilizer Sound Head;" F. J. 
Loomis and E. W. Reynolds, RCA Manufacturing 
Co., Inc., Camden, N. J. (15 min.) 

"The Magazine Cine-Kodak;" O. Wittel, Eastman 
Kodak Co., Rochester, N. Y. (10 min.) 

"Demonstration of 16-Mm. 1000-W. Filmosound 
Projector;" R. F. Mitchell and W. L. Herd, Bell 
& Howell Co., Chicago, 111. (15 min.) 



ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS FOR THE CHICAGO CONVENTION 
APRIL 27-30, 1936 

The Papers Committee submits the following abstracts of papers for the con- 
sideration of the membership. It is hoped that the publication of these abstracts 
will encourage attendance at the meeting and facilitate better discussion of the 
papers. 

G. E. MATTHEWS, Chairman 

C. N. BATSEL M. E. GILLETTE H. B. SANTEE 

L. N. BUSCH R. F. MITCHELL T. E. SHEA 

A. A. COOK W. A. MUELLER P. R. VON SCHROTT 

L. J. DIDIEE I. D. WRATTEN 

Report of the Progress Committee; J. G. Frayne, Chairman. 

The Progress Report for 1935 shows decided advances in both professional and 
amateur cinematography, in sound recording technic and equipment, as well as in 
sound reproducing systems, for general theatrical usage. 

Outstanding in the field of cinematography, although restricted at present to 
the amateur field, is the new Kodachrome color-film . The year 1935 was also note- 
able for the extension of the three-color Technicolor system to feature production. 

Several advances are reported in new silent cameras for professional work. 
A very interesting development has been the polarizing filter introduced by the 
Eastman Kodak Company, which should prove to be a great aid both in profes 
sional and amateur cinematography. 

In the field of lighting, interesting developments are reported in connection 
with the new gaseous conductors, which threaten to revolutionize the field of light- 
ing as well as to provide new light-sources for projection. New lens spots utiliz- 
ing the Fresnel type of lens were introduced successfully in studio work this year. 

Development of the push-pull method of recording received impetus following 
the demonstrations at the S.M.P.E. Convention at Hollywood. Considerable 
interest has been aroused by the announcement of RCA of the use of ultraviolet 
light in recording. New theater systems involving new methods of pulling film, 
as well as a new type of multi-cellular horn, commonly known as the Fletcher 
horn, have been offered to the public during the past year. 

"The Museum of Modem Art Film Library;" John E. Abbott, Director, The 
Museum of Modern Art Film Library, New York, N. Y. 

Until last year, no organization existed for preserving films of outstanding merit 
or for arranging for distribution and study by those interested in film as a living 
art and in its history and development. A grant from the Rockefeller Founda- 
tion, and private gifts, permitted The Museum of Modern Art to establish such a 
Film Library under the Presidency of John Hay Whitney, with Will H. Hays, 
Chairman of the Advisory Committee. 

The functions of the Film Library are to trace, obtain, and preserve important 
films, American and foreign; to edit and assemble such films into programs for 
educational and non-commercial exhibition; to arrange notes and critical ap- 
praisals of such films; to assemble a library of books and data on the films; and, 

474 



SPRING CONVENTION 475 

otherwise, to make available information concerning the artistic, dramatic, and 
technical phases to all who may be interested. The series for 1936 consists of (1) 
the development of narrative (1894-1911); (2) the rise of the American film 
(1912-15); (5) D. W. Griffith (Intolerance); (4) the German influence; (5) the 
talkies. 

"The Application of Sound Motion Pictures to the Identification of Criminals;" 
Col. H. N. Schwarzkopf, Superintendent, New Jersey State Police, Trenton, N. J. 

In June, 1934, in developing the principle of extending the applications of 
science to the solution of crime, the idea was conceived of reproducing the police 
"line-up" in sound motion pictures. Such a process would make a permanent 
record of what now is a passing incident; which record would be available not 
only to police departments but also for display to the public when necessity de- 
mands. After a period of research and study, experimentation with 16-mm. 
commercial sound motion picture apparatus was begun, with sufficiently satis- 
factory results to justify continuation and expansion. 

In October, 1935, the entire matter was laid before engineers and technicians, 
with special recommendations for the development of 16-mm. and 35-mm. ap- 
paratus. As a result of this conference complete sets of equipment for 35-mm. 
and 16-mm. recording have been developed to the point that policemen, unskilled 
in recording technic, can accomplish uniform results satisfactory for criminal 
identification purposes. 

This is a triumph for both the motion picture industry and the organized police ; 
and as its use is extended it will result not only in speedier apprehension of habitual 
criminals, but will, likewise, unquestionably exercise a far-reaching preventive 
effect. 

Report of the Sound Committee; P. H. Evans, Chairman. 

Progress being made on the projects assigned to the Committee is discussed. 
These include the study of frequency response characteristics of release prints 
made by the use of the Sound Committee's frequency reference standard. The 
report will not include any conclusions or data relative to these projects. 

"Photoelectric Cells and Their Method of Operation;" M. F. Jameson and 
T. E. Shea, Bell Telephone Laboratories, New York, N. Y. 

This is an explanatory paper covering in a simple manner the laws governing 
the release of electrons from photoelectric surfaces, their collection at anodes, and 
the creation of ions in photoelectric cell gases by the "ionization" process. The 
paper deals with the spectral selectivity of various photoelectric surfaces, the 
influence of spectral characteristics of illumination, and the dynamic characteris- 
tics of vacuum and gas-filled cells. The paper will be accompanied by a demon- 
stration of the various operating features of photoelectric cells. 
' "Harmonic Distortion in Variable-Density Records;" B. F. Miller, Warner 
Bros. First National Studio, Burbank, Calif. 

This paper consists of two portions, the first being concerned with a derivation 
of the equations expressing the exposure wave-form on variable-density records 
Obtained by means of the light-valve under conditions of sinusoidal ribbon modu- 
lation and known over-all photographic sound-track gamma. Curves indicating 
the theoretical percentage of second and third harmonic print distortion are 
3lotted against frequency, several values of over-all gamma being assumed. 
it is shown that the distortion at low frequencies is almost exclusively due to 



476 SPRING CONVENTION [J. S. M. p. E. 

departures of the over-all gamma from unity, while the distortions at high fre- 
quencies are mainly dependent upon the velocity of the light-valve ribbons. 

The second portion of the paper is devoted to the presentation of experimental 
distortion data obtained from variable-density frequency data obtained from 
variable-density frequency films, and the comparison of these data against those 
obtained from theoretical analysis. 

"Improved Resolution in Sound Recording and Printing by the Use of Ultra- 
violet Light;" G. L. Dimmick, RCA Manufacturing Co., Inc., Camden, N. J. 

The resolution of sound-film records has been increased by the use of ultra- 
violet light in recording and printing. Because of the absorption characteristics 
of the emulsion, exposures made by ultraviolet light are restricted to the surface. 
This reduces the spreading of the image. The fogging of the track that usually 
results from halation and reflection from objects in the path of the light is almost 
entirely eliminated. Since the light energy is restricted by means of a filter to a 
very narrow band, the chromatic aberration of the lenses is reduced. 

The definition of the very fine recording light-beam is limited by diffraction. 
This limitation is materially decreased as a result of the decrease in wavelength 
of the radiant energy. 

"The Acoustic Design of Music-Scoring Stages;" C. M. Mugler, Acoustical 
Engineering Co., Los Angeles, Calif. 

The design of the scoring stage built at Columbia Pictures Studio, at Holly- 
wood, are described and discussed. The stage embodies an innovation in archi- 
tectural and acoustic design based upon the "controlled reflections and diffusions 
of sound waves," discarding the "live and dead end" theory of acoustic design 
which has been greatly followed in the past. 

"A High-Quality Reproducing System for Small Theaters;" H. Pfannenstiehl, 
E. O. Scriven, and J. F. D. Hoge, Bell Telephone Laboratories, New York, N. Y. 

This sound reproducing system is intended particularly for use in small-sized 
theaters having seating capacities up to 600 persons. The sound pick-up part of 
the system consists of a sound head attachable to the various models of Simplex 
projectors. The film, after leaving the intermittent mechanism in the projec- 
tor, passes through a chute in the sound head; then over a flywheel-controlled 
smooth roller, where the sound-track is scanned by an optical system ; back to the 
hold-back sprocket in the projector, and thence to the take-up magazine. The 
sound -head contains no drive-sprocket mechanism. 

The arrangement permits a very simple and easily operated film-drive control. 
A motor, belt-connected to the projector drive-gear and mounted upon a bracket 
that maintains the belt tension constant, drives the projector. The photoelectric 
cell in the sound head is transformer-coupled to an amplifier arranged for wall 
mounting. This amplifier is contained in a cabinet that includes also a rectifier 
for supplying current to the exciter lamp, to the exciting coils of the stage speak- 
ers, and to a monitoring loud speaker. A control cabinet arranged to be mounted 
upon the wall in front of the projector contains a gain control and apparatus for 
switching from one machine to the other. The control cabinet is operable from 
either projector position. 

"The RCA Recording System;" B. Kreuzer, RCA Manufacturing Co., Inc., 
Camden, N. J. 

This paper deals with the newly designed RCA recording system. Photo- 



April, 1936 J SPRING CONVENTION 477 

graphs are included showing the constituent parts and complete assemblies, to- 
gether with diagrams of the various types of installations. The performance of 
the equipment is discussed and a typical re-recording layout is shown. Design 
improvements resulting in higher quality and greater ease of operation are ex- 
plained. 

Report of the Projection Screen Brightness Committee; C. Tuttle, Chairman. 

This report of the Committee will discuss the data that have been gathered 
concerning screen brightness, and which will be presented in a symposium to be 
published in the May issue of the JOURNAL. Points to be covered are the follow- 
ing: (/) What should be the brightness level? (2} What brightness can be 
achieved? and (.?) Is standardization at this time desirable? 

"The Motion-Picture Screen as a Lighting Problem;" M. Luckiesh and F. K. 
Moss, Lighting Research Laboratory, General Electric Co., Cleveland, Ohio. 

The motion picture on the screen is discussed as a visual task, and its lighting 
and that of its environs is approached in the manner recommended by the authors 
for all lighting problems. After choosing the proper quality of light, and after 
making the screen brightness as great as is practicable, the problem becomes 
chiefly one of quality of lighting or distribution of brightness in the visual fields. 
Various aspects of visibility and psychophysiological effects of seeing are dis- 
cussed. The problem is divided into two parts : (1) The attainment of maximal 
visibility within the central field (the motion picture on the screen) without re- 
gard to the surroundings; and (2) the illumination of the surroundings in such a 
manner as to produce maximal comfort and minimal loss of v